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Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Reference
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
20 May - 07 July 2011
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Remarks:
Study was conducted in accordance with International guidelines and GLP. All guideline validity criteria were met.
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test)
Version / remarks:
13 April 2004
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes
Specific details on test material used for the study:
RADIOLABELLING INFORMATION (if applicable)
- Radiochemical purity: N/A
- Specific activity: N/A
- Locations of the label: N/A
- Expiration date of radiochemical substance: N/A

STABILITY AND STORAGE CONDITIONS OF TEST MATERIAL
- Storage condition of test material: Room temperature in the dark.
- Stability under test conditions: Stability confirmed in saturated solution over 48 h.
- Solubility and stability of the test substance in the solvent/vehicle: No solvent used. Test solution prepared from a saturated solution.
- Reactivity of the test substance with the test medium: Stability confirmed in saturated solution over 48 h.

TREATMENT OF TEST MATERIAL PRIOR TO TESTING
- Treatment of test material prior to testing: test sample and dilution water were mixed to prepare the nominal concentration of 110 mg/L. After stirring for 48 h, the middle layer was collected and filtered with a glass fiber filter by neutral filtration to prepare the test solution.
- Preliminary purification step (if any): N/A
- Final dilution of a dissolved solid, stock liquid or gel: N/A
- Final preparation of a solid: N/A

FORM AS APPLIED IN THE TEST (if different from that of starting material): Treatment solution prepared from a WAF.

TYPE OF BIOCIDE/PESTICIDE FORMULATION (if applicable): N/A

OTHER SPECIFICS: No
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
- Concentrations: 1.8 mg/L (from 110 mg/L WAF)
- Sampling method: Samples taken at start and end of the exposure period. Study samples extracted with ethyl acetate. Solvent phase concentrated and resulting residue reconstituted in ethyl acetate (2 mL) prior to GC analysis.
- Sample storage conditions before analysis: Not reported
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION (especially for difficult test substances)
- Method: Test sample and dilution water were mixed to prepare the nominal concentration of 100 mg/L. After stirring for 48 h, the middle layer was collected and filtered with a glass fibre filter by neutral filtration to prepare the test solution.
- Eluate: Dechlorinated tap water
- Controls: Dilution water
- Chemical name of vehicle (organic solvent, emulsifier or dispersant): N/A
- Concentration of vehicle in test medium (stock solution and final test solution(s) or suspension(s) including control(s)): N/A
- Evidence of undissolved material (e.g. precipitate, surface film, etc.): No
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Daphnia magna
- Strain/clone: Clone A
- Justification for species other than prescribed by test guideline: N/A
- Source: The University of Sheffield, S10 2UQ, UK
- Age of parental stock (mean and range, SD): Neonates for testing were produced from the parents which were cultured in dechlorinated water at 20 ± 1 ºC (as per test conditions). Parents were acclimatised for 14 days (total age = 24 days) with a 100 % survival rate.
- Feeding during test: No
- Food type: N/A
- Amount: N/A
- Frequency: N/A

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: Parental daphnids were acclimatised for 14 days prior to testing
- Acclimation conditions (same as test or not): Yes
- Type and amount of food: Chlorella vulgaris of 0.1-0.2 mg C (organic carbon content)/ day/ daphnid was fed once per day.
- Feeding frequency: Daily
- Health during acclimation (any mortality observed): 100 % survival over 24 days

QUARANTINE (wild caught)
- Duration: N/A
- Health/mortality: N/A

METHOD FOR PREPARATION AND COLLECTION OF EARLY INSTARS OR OTHER LIFE STAGES: Neonates < 24 h old were used for the test and were randmily allocated to test vessels.
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
yes
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Hardness:
44 mg/L as CaCO3
Test temperature:
20.1 - 20.2 ºC
pH:
7.7 - 7.8
Dissolved oxygen:
8.9 - 9.1 mg/L
Salinity:
Not reported
Conductivity:
Not reported
Nominal and measured concentrations:
WAF prepared at 110 mg/L. The dissolved, filtered fraction was found to have a concentration of 1.8 mg/L.
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: Beaker
- Type (delete if not applicable): Closed
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: Glass, 100 mL capacity filled to volume with test solution
- Aeration: No
- Type of flow-through (e.g. peristaltic or proportional diluter): N/A
- Renewal rate of test solution (frequency/flow rate): N/A, static test
- No. of organisms per vessel: 5 per vessel
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 4 replicates per treatment group
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 4
- No. of vessels per vehicle control (replicates): N/A

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: Dechlorinated tap water
- Total organic carbon: 0.4 mg/L
- Particulate matter: < 1 mg/L
- Metals: Mercury <0.0005 mg/L; cadmium <0.001 mg/L; chromium <0.005 mg/L; lead <0.001 mg/L; iron <0.03 mg/L; copper <0.001 mg/L; cobalt < 0.001 mg/L; manganese <0.005 mg/L; zinc <0.1 mg/L; aluminium 0.02 mg/L; nickel < 0.001 mg/L; sodium 16 mg/L; magnesium 3.3 mg/L; silver <0.0001 mg/L
- Pesticides: 1,2-dichloropropane < 0.006 mg/L; chlorothalonil <0.005 mg/L; propyzamide <0.0008 mg/L; chloronitrofen <0.0001 mg/L; simazine <0.0003 mg/L; thiobencarb <0.002 mg/L; diazinon <0.0005 mg/L; isoxanthion < 0.0008 mg/L; fenitrothion <0.0003 mg/L; EPN <0.0006 mg/L; dichlorvos <0.001 mg/L; iprobenfos <0.0008 mg/L; PCB <0.0005 mg/L
- Chlorine: <0.02 mg/L
- Alkalinity: 35 mg/L
- Ca/mg ratio: Not reported
- Conductivity: 17 mS/m
- Salinity: Not reported
- Culture medium different from test medium: No
- Intervals of water quality measurement: At test start and end

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: No
- Photoperiod: 16:8 light: dark
- Light intensity: Not reported

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) : Immobility and sub-lethal effects were evaluated at 24 and 48 h

VEHICLE CONTROL PERFORMED: No

RANGE-FINDING STUDY
- Test concentrations: Limit test
- Results used to determine the conditions for the definitive study: N/A, limit test
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
Testing with potassium dichromate routinely undertaken at the Testing Facility (last test conducted 25 - 27 April 2011)
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EL50
Effect conc.:
> 1.8 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (geom. mean)
Conc. based on:
test mat. (dissolved fraction)
Basis for effect:
mobility
Details on results:
- Behavioural abnormalities: None observed
- Observations on body length and weight: Not measured
- Other biological observations: None observed
- Mortality of control: 0 %
- Other adverse effects control: No effects observed
- Abnormal responses: No
- Any observations (e.g. precipitation) that might cause a difference between measured and nominal values: No
- Effect concentrations exceeding solubility of substance in test medium: No
Results with reference substance (positive control):
- Results with reference substance valid: Yes
- Relevant effect levels: 48-h EC50 determined as 0.28 mg/L. The value was within the normal historical range.
Reported statistics and error estimates:
No effects observed therefore statistical analysis not conducted.

Table 1       Measured concentrations of Tetraesters of pentaerythritol with 2- methylpropanoic acid and 3,5,5-trimethyl-hexanoic acid

 

Nominal Concentration

(mg/L)

Measured concentration (mg/L)

(percentage of measured concentration vs that at the start %)

Test start

Test end

Geomean

Control

nd

nd

-

110

1.8

1.8

(96 %)

 

nd: < 0.29 mg/L

 

Table 2       Immobility

 

Measured concentration

(mg/L)

Immobility (%)

24 hours

48 hours

Replicate

Test Level

Replicate

Test Level

Control

A

0

0

0

0

B

0

0

C

0

0

D

0

0

1.8

A

0

0

0

0

B

0

0

C

0

0

D

0

0

 

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
The 48 h EL50, based on immobility, for Daphnia magna under the conditions of this test was >1.8 mg/L. No sub-lethal effects were noted in any of the tested concentrations.
Executive summary:

OECD 202 (2011) - The 48 h acute toxicity of Tetraesters of pentaerythritol with 2-methylpropanoic acid and 3,5,5-trimethyl-hexanoic acid to Daphnia magna was studied under static conditions.  Test species were exposed to control and test chemical at a measured concentration of 1.8 mg/L. The test solution was prepared from a water accommodated fraction which contained the test item suspended in dilution water at a nominal loading rate of 110 mg/L. The solution was stirred for 48 h. The solubilized fraction was decanted and filtered to prepare the treatment solution for this limit test. Mortality/ immobilisation and sublethal effects were observed daily.

 

The 48 h EL50 was >1.8 mg/L.  The 48 h NOEL based on mortality/immobilization/sublethal adverse effects was 1.8 mg/L.

  

This study is classified as acceptable and satisfies the guideline requirements for an acute toxicity study with freshwater invertebrates.

Description of key information

48 h EL50 >1.8 mg/L; OECD 202; Matsuura, T. (2011)

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information

OECD 202 (2011) - The 48 h acute toxicity of Tetraesters of pentaerythritol with 2-methylpropanoic acid and 3,5,5-trimethyl-hexanoic acid to Daphnia magna was studied under static conditions.  Test species were exposed to control and test chemical at a measured concentration of 1.8 mg/L. The test solution was prepared from a water accommodated fractionwhich contained the test item suspended in dilution water at a nominal loading rate of 110 mg/L. The solution was stirred for 48 h.The solubilized fraction was decanted and filtered to prepare the treatment solution for this limit test. Mortality/ immobilisation and sublethal effects were observed daily.

 

The 48 h EL50 was >1.8 mg/L.  The 48 h NOEL based on mortality/immobilization/sublethal adverse effects was 1.8 mg/L.

  

This study is classified as acceptable and satisfies the guideline requirements for an acute toxicity study with freshwater invertebrates.