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Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Description of key information

The 48-hour median effective concentration (EC50) to Daphnia magna is calculated to be 2.55 mg/l.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

EC50/LC50 for freshwater invertebrates:
2.55 mg/L

Additional information

There are four studies for acute daphnia toxicity that have been performed with the substance described as “formaldehyde, oligomeric reaction products with 1-chloro-2,3-epoxypropane and phenol (CAS# 9003-36-5), Depending of the conditions of the reaction, the formation products can results oligomers up to the polymer molecular weight range and structure. 

 

The products tested for acute daphnia toxicity are a range of these oligomers, EPIKOTE 862 on the low molecular weight end and the TK 12225/D, DEN 438 and EPIKOTE 155 on the higher end of molecular weights. GPC of these substances are virtually identical with only slight indications to molecular weight range. The EPIKOTE 862 study had a high loading rate and a long mixing time, which had the potential to selectively extract more soluble impurities that could be more toxic. The 24 and 48 hour EC50s were 3.2 and 1.6 mg/L respectively. The study with DEN 438 and TK 12225/D both used a solvent to create the test solutions, which created a cloudy suspension not necessarily representative of the toxic action of the substance. Some of the suspension at higher loading rate was observed to precipitate out. The 48 hour EC50for DEN 438 using Tween 80-acetone was 3.5 mg/L and the 24 hour EC50for TK 12225/D in DMF was 1.9 mg/L. The EPIKOTE 155 study used a high loading rate (1000 mg/L) generate test solutions. The actual concentrations were not measured as the amount soluble in water would be below the level of detection. Even at this high loading rate there was insufficient test material solved in the test solution to exhibit any toxicity. This study reports a 24 and 48 hour EC50of >1000 mg/L.  A QSAR method was performed using Daphnia, LC50(48h), Danish National Food Institute (MultiCASE platform) for the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol F and obtained an LC50 12.0 mg/L. As this is a lethal dose calculation is supports the lower values, between 1.6 and 3.5, of the EC50s for this substance.

 

To reconcile these studies and develop a dose descriptor for this endpoint, the two studies with the products EPIKOTE 862 and DEN 438 (the TK 12225/D study did not have an EC50for 48 hours) have been averaged in a weight of evidence approach to obtain the 48 hour EC50and the TK 12225/D and EPIKOTE 155 study and the QSAR estimation are used as supporting studies. An EC50of 2.55 mg/L is used for this endpoint.