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Testing for terrestrial toxicity does not appear scientifically necessary.

Due to high lipophilicity of the substance, sediments and soils are the target compartments for the test material when released into environment, however due to rapid biodegradation this risk may be mitigated significantly.

In an acute toxicity test with a sediment-dwelling amphibod Corophium volutator, the LC50 of the test material was 1200 mg/kg (d.w.), which equals 3000 mg/l (calculated with density of the solids obtained from the Table R.16 -16). The NOEC was 373 mg/kg (d.w.), equivalent to 933 mg/l. Furthermore, the test material was found readily biodegradable in an OECD 301B CO2 evolution test. Numerous studies have also shown that alkanes are readily biodegradable in soils and sediments (Hoeppel RE et al 1991, Hawle-Ambrosch et al 2007, Miethe D et al 1994, Salanitro J 2001, Sugiura et al 1996). Since biodegradability of compounds is assumed more rapid in soils compared to anaerobic and low temperature sediments (half-lives were estimated 1000 times higher in sediments than in soils using EUSES), the exposure time and thus the risk posed by the test material to the organisms is likely to be lower in soils than in sediments.


Hawle-Ambrosch E, Ripe W, Dornmayr-Pfaffenhuemer M, Radax C, Holzinger A and Stan-Lotter H, 2007, Biodegradation of fuel oil hydrocarbons by a mixed bacterial consortium in sandy and loamy soils, Biotechnology Journal 2(12), 1564-1568.

Hoeppel RE, Hichee RE and Arthur MF, 1991, Bioventing soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. J. Indust. Microbiol. 8, 141-146.

Miethe D, Riis V and Babel W, 1994, The relationship between the microbial activity of the autochthonous microorganisms of pristine and contaminated soils and their potential for the degradation of mineral oil hydrocarbons. Acta Biotechnol. 14,131-140

Salanitro J, 2001, Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil, Advances in agronomy 72, 53-105.

Sugiura K, Ishihara M, Shimauchi T and Harayama S, 1997, Physicochemical properties and biodegradability of crude oil Environmental Science and Technology 31(1), 45-51.