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Explosiveness

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Endpoint:
explosive properties of explosives
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
10 June 2005 - 13 October 2005
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
EU Method A.14 (Explosive properties)
Version / remarks:
Cited as Directive 92/69/EEC, A.14
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
For the thermal sensitivity test, there is a minor modification to the tube packing procedure proposed in guideline A14. This modification has no effect on the conclusion.
GLP compliance:
yes
Parameter:
thermal sensitivity - Koenen test: diameter of the orifice plate
Remarks on result:
not thermal sensitive if heated under defined confinement
Parameter:
sensitiveness to impact: impact energy (J)
Remarks on result:
not sensitive to impact using an impact energy of 40 J
Parameter:
sensitiveness to friction: friction load (N)
Remarks on result:
not sensitive to friction using a friction load of 360 N

1) Shock test

Test n°

Weight

(kg)

Height

(m)

Results

1

2

3

4

5

6

10

10

10

10

10

10

0.4

0.4

0.4

0.4

0.4

0.4

No ignition, no explosion

"

"

"

"

"

 

CERIUM DIOXIDE has been determined not to have shock sensitivity to explosion.

 

 2) Friction test

Test n°

Weight

(N)

Results

1

2

3

4

5

6

360

360

360

360

360

360

No ignition, no explosion

,,

,,

,,

,,

,,

 

CERIUM DIOXIDE has been determined not to have friction sensitivity to explosion.

 

3) Thermal sensitivity test

Hole diameter

(mm)

Weight (g)

(V : 27.14 cm³)

T1(s)

T2 (s)

Results

6

6

6

36.161

36.167

36.176

-

-

-

-

-

-

No inflammation, Negative

"

"

2

2

2

36.161

36.152

36.165

-

-

-

-

-

-

No inflammation, Negative

"

"

 

T1 : time from application of the flame to a noticeable effect from the orifice.

T2 : time from application of the flame to the end of the combustion without recorded event (e.g. explosion) as in these tests or to an explosion.

 

The test item did not burn. 

 

CERIUM DIOXIDE has been determined not to have thermal sensitivity to explosion.

Interpretation of results:
study cannot be used for classification
Conclusions:
Cerium dioxide does not present a danger of explosion under the conditions of the test.
Executive summary:

The determination of explosive properties was conducted according to EU Method A14 using the following systems:

1) The BAM Fall Hammer (or shock) apparatus

2) The BAM friction apparatus

3) The Koenen steel tube apparatus to test the thermal sensitivity.

According to the results of these three tests, cerium dioxide has been determined not to have shock sensitivity, friction sensitivity, or thermal sensitivity to explosion.

Endpoint:
explosive properties of explosives
Data waiving:
study scientifically not necessary / other information available
Justification for data waiving:
the study does not need to be conducted because there are no chemical groups present in the molecule which are associated with explosive properties

Description of key information

No key information is available on the explosive properties of the reaction mass of cerium dioxide, praseodymium(III,IV) oxide and zirconium dioxide. Based on the structure of its constituents it can however be concluded that the reaction mass does not exhibit explosive properties.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Explosiveness:
non explosive

Additional information

The conclusion, based on the absence of structural alerts, that the reaction mass of cerium dioxide, praseodymium(III,IV) oxide and zirconium dioxide does not exhibit explosive properties, is supported by a guideline study (Cerutti, 2005; Klimisch 1) performed with cerium dioxide, in which all screening tests (sensitivity to shock, friction, and thermal sensitivity) were negative.

Justification for classification or non-classification

The reaction mass of cerium dioxide, praseodymium(III,IV) oxide and zirconium dioxide is not to be classified for explosivity, based on the absence of structural alerts.