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Environmental fate & pathways

Biodegradation in water: screening tests

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Reference
Endpoint:
biodegradation in water: ready biodegradability
Type of information:
experimental study
Remarks:
test performed accoring OECD 301D guidelines
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
19-02-2019 - 18-07-2019
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 301 D (Ready Biodegradability: Closed Bottle Test)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
only minor devation
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Minor deviations from the guidelines of the Closed Bottle test (OECD TG 301D) were introduced; a) ammonium chloride was omitted from the medium to prevent oxygen consumption due to nitrification (omission does not result in nitrogen limitation as shown by the biodegradation of the reference compound), and b) river water instead of an effluent/extract/mixture was used as inoculum.
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. certificate)
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Chemical name Sodium oleylamphopolycarboxyglycinate
Substance Name: 1,3-Propanediamine, N1-(3-aminopropyl)-N3-[3-(C18, C18 unsat) alkylamino]propyl]-, N-(carboxymethyl) derivs., sodium salts
Old CAS no 97659-53-5
New CAS no 2060541-49-1
Composition 30.1 % active active is corrected for sodium chloride solids (see CoA annex 2)
Batch/lot No.: 1604972
Solubility in wate: Soluble in water
Appearance: yellow liquid
Storage: at ambient temperature in the dark
Expiry date: 23-08-2019
Oxygen conditions:
aerobic
Inoculum or test system:
natural water: freshwater
Details on inoculum:
River water was sampled from the Rhine near Heveadorp, The Netherlands (14-02-2019). The nearest plant (Arnhem-Zuid) treating domestic wastewater biologically was 3 km upstream. The river water was aerated for 7 days before use to reduce the endogenous respiration (van Ginkel and Stroo, 1992). River water without particles was used as inoculum. The particles were removed by sedimentation after 1 day while moderately aerating.
Duration of test (contact time):
28 d
Initial conc.:
1.5 mg/L
Based on:
act. ingr.
Initial conc.:
5 mg/L
Based on:
test mat.
Parameter followed for biodegradation estimation:
O2 consumption
Details on study design:
Test procedures
The Closed Bottle test (OECD TG 301D) was performed according to the study plan. The study plan was developed from ISO Test Guidelines (1994). Use was made of 10 bottles containing only river water, 6 bottles containing river water and sodium acetate, 10 bottles containing river water with test substance. The concentrations of the test substance, and sodium acetate in the bottles were 5 mg/L (1.5 mg/L active) and 6.7 mg/L, respectively. Each of the prepared solutions was dispensed into the respective group of BOD bottles so that all bottles were com¬pletely filled without air bubbles. The zero time bottles were immediately analyzed for dissolved oxygen using an oxygen electrode. The remaining bottles were closed and incubated in the dark. Two duplicate bottles of all series were withdrawn for analyses of the dissolved oxygen concentration at day 7, 14, 21, and 28.
Reference substance:
acetic acid, sodium salt
Remarks:
SIGMA ALDRICH Batch no. BCBP8197V
Key result
Parameter:
% degradation (O2 consumption)
Value:
11
Sampling time:
28 d
Remarks on result:
other: should not be classified as readily biodegradable
Parameter:
% degradation (O2 consumption)
Value:
19
Sampling time:
60 d
Remarks on result:
other: Biodegradation levels off at 19% biodegradation suggesting partial degradation of the test substance
Details on results:
Sodium oleylamphopolycarboxyglycinate was biodegraded by 11% at day 28 in the Closed Bottle test (Table II, Figure). This test substance should therefore not be classified as readily biodegradable. In the prolonged Closed Bottle test sodium oleylamphopolycarboxyglycinate was biodegraded 19% at day 60 (Figure and Tables I-II). The biodegradation curve levels off below 60% biodegradation (Figure) suggesting partial degradation of the test substance. The lack of complete biodegradation in the Closed Bottle test does not mean that part of the test substance is recalcitrant in nature because the stringency of the test procedures could account for the recalcitrance in the Closed Bottle test.
Results with reference substance:
The biodegradation percentage of the reference compound, sodium acetate, at day 14 was 90

Toxicity

Inhibition of the degradation of a well-degradable compound, e.g. sodium acetate by the test substance in the Closed Bottle test was not determined because possible toxicity of the test substances to microorganisms degrading acetate is not relevant. Inhibition of the endogenous respiration of the inoculum by the test substance at day 7 was not detected (Table I). Therefore, no inhibition of the biodegradation due to the "high" initial test substance concentration is expected.

Test conditions

The pH of the media was 8.8 (control and reference compound) and 9.0 (test) at the start of the test. The pH of the medium at day 28 was 8.9 (control) and 9.0 (test). At day 60 the pH of the control and test was 8.8 and 9.0, respectively. The temperature ranged from 22.5 to 22.8°C which is within the prescribed temperature range of 22 to 24°C.

Validity of the test

The validity of the test is demonstrated by an endogenous respiration of 1.2 mg/L at day 28 (Table I). Furthermore, the differences of the replicate values at day 28 were less than 20%. The biodegradation percentage of the reference compound, sodium acetate, at day 14 was 90 (Table II and Figure). Finally, the validity of the test is shown by oxygen concentrations >0.5 mg/L in all bottles during the test period.

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Remarks:
The test is valid because of an endogenous respiration of 1.2 mg/L at day 28. Less than 20% difference of replicates day 28. The biodegradation% the reference compound at day 14 was 90. Final oxygen concentrations were >0.5 mg/L.
Interpretation of results:
inherently biodegradable
Conclusions:
Test performed according guidelines meeting specific criteria. Test performed under GLP and results well documented.
Executive summary:

To assess the biotic degradation of sodium oleylamphopolycarboxyglycinate, a ready biodegradability test was performed which allows the biodegradability to be measured in an aerobic aqueous medium. The ready biodegradability was determined in the Closed Bottle test performed according to slightly modified OECD, EU and ISO Test Guidelines, and in compliance with the OECD principles of Good Laboratory Practice.

The test substance did not cause a reduction in the endogenous respiration at day 7. The test substance is therefore considered to be non-inhibitory to the inoculum. The test substance was biodegraded by 11% at day 28 in the OECD 301D Closed Bottle test and should therefore not be classified as readily biodegradable. In the prolonged Closed Bottle test sodium oleylamphopolycarboxyglycinate was biodegraded 19% at day 60. The biodegradation curve levels off below 60% biodegradation suggesting partial degradation of the test substance. The lack of complete biodegradation in the Closed Bottle test does not mean that part of the test substance is recalcitrant in nature because the stringency of the test procedures could account for the recalcitrance in the Closed Bottle test.

The test is valid as shown by an endogenous respiration of 1.2 mg/L and by the total mineralization of the reference compound, sodium acetate. Sodium acetate was degraded by 90% of its theoretical oxygen demand after 14 days. Finally, the most important criterion was met by oxygen concentrations >0.5 mg/L in all bottles during the test period.

Description of key information

Sodium oleylamphopolycarboxy glycinate was biodegraded by 11% at day 28 in the OECD 301D Closed Bottle test and should therefore not be classified as readily biodegradable. In the prolonged Closed Bottle test sodium oleylamphopolycarboxyglycinate was biodegraded 19% at day 60. The biodegradation curve levels off below 60% biodegradation suggesting partial degradation of the test substance. The lack of complete biodegradation in the Closed Bottle test does not mean that part of the test substance is recalcitrant in nature because the stringency of the test procedures could account for the recalcitrance in the Closed Bottle test.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Biodegradation in water:
inherently biodegradable
Type of water:
freshwater

Additional information

Sodium oleylamphopolycarboxy glycinate was biodegraded by 11% at day 28 in the OECD 301D Closed Bottle test and should therefore not be classified as readily biodegradable. In the prolonged Closed Bottle test sodium oleylamphopolycarboxyglycinate was biodegraded 19% at day 60. The biodegradation curve levels off below 60% biodegradation suggesting partial degradation of the test substance. The lack of complete biodegradation in the Closed Bottle test does not mean that part of the test substance is recalcitrant in nature because the stringency of the test procedures could account for the recalcitrance in the Closed Bottle test.