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Long-term toxicity to fish

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Endpoint:
long-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
(Q)SAR
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Well documented publication
Justification for type of information:
QSAR prediction
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Alcohol ethoxylte specific QSAR, with the log Kow as the predictor variable. The structure activity relationship was evaluated based on data of standardized early life stage tests, with Pimephales promelas.
GLP compliance:
no
Test organisms (species):
Pimephales promelas
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
30 d
Duration:
30 d
Dose descriptor:
other: EC20
Effect conc.:
0.355 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
estimated
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Endpoint:
fish, juvenile growth test
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Comparable to guideline study with acceptable restrictions
Justification for type of information:
Please refer to the Category Approach Justification provided in Section 13
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
The effect of the test substance on survival and growth of juvenile fish were investigated in the laboratory and in outdoor stream mesocosms. In the laboratory fish were exposed for 10 d and in the outdoor stream mesocosms for 30 d. 10 fish were exposed per test concentration in both experiment.
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Vehicle:
no
Test organisms (species):
Lepomis macrochirus
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: bluegill sunfish
- Source: laboratory bioassay: culture pond of the Biological Field Station, University of Mississippi, USA; outdoor stream mesocosm: local hatchery
- Weight at study initiation (mean and range, SD): laboratory bioassay: mean dry weight: 0.27 g, SD = 0.11, n = 10; outdoor stream mesocosm: mean weight: 1.19 g, SD = 0.32, n = 10.


FEEDING DURING TEST - no data
Test type:
flow-through
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
10 d
Remarks on exposure duration:
laboratory bioassay and 30 d outdoor stream mesocosm
Hardness:
Laboratory bioassay: 4 mg/L as CaCO3
Outdoor stream mesocosm: Experiment 1: range: 10 - 20 mg CaCO3/L, mean: 14.6 CaCO3/L; Experiment 2: range: 7 - 26 mg CaCO3/L, mean: 11.1 mg CaCO3/L
Test temperature:
Laboratory bioassay: mean 13.3 °C (SD = 1.77, n = 22)
Outdoor stream mesocosm: Experiment 1: range: 15.6 - 22.5 °C, mean: 23.99 °C; Experiment 2: 22.5 - 27.8 °C, mean: 23.35 °C
pH:
Laboratory bioassay: 6.71
Outdoor stream mesocosm: Experiment 1: range: 5.88 - 6.29, mean: 6.04; Experiment 2: range: 5.75 - 6.44, mean: 5.95
Dissolved oxygen:
Laboratory bioassay: 9.7 mg/L
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Laboratory bioassay:
nominal: 0, 50, 150, 500, 1000 and 2000 µg/L
measured: <10, 35, 160, 460, 960 and 2190 µg/L

Outdoor stream mesocosm:
Experiment 1: nominal: 0, 100, 200 and 400 µg/L; measured: 30, 30, 60 and 70 µg/L
Experiment 2: nominal: 0, 100, 300 and 600 µg/L; measured: 0, 40, 50 and 70 µg/L
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
10 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
0.16 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
10 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
0.33 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: swimming performance
Duration:
30 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
> 0.33 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
30 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
> 0.33 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth rate
Details on results:
- Fish weights (individual and mean values) on day 0, 14 (if measured) and 28: fish weights and length (mean values) see Table [1]
- Type of and number with behavioural abnormalities: following exposure to a surfactant concentration of 0.460 mg/L for 10 d in the laboratory, the swimming performance was influenced significantly (critical swimming speed significantly less than of control fish).

Table 1: Mean lengths and weights of juvenile bluegills after 30 d exposure in stream mesocosms

Test parameter

Surfactant concentration [mg/L]

0

0.080

0.160

0.330

Total length (cm)

6.64 (0.39)

6.64 (0.37)

6.52 (0.44)

6.53 (0.51)

Wet weight (g)

4.87 (0.85)

4.66 (0.99)

4.59 (1.05)

4.77 (1.10)

Dry weight (g)

1.18 (0.12)

1.12 (0.21)

1.12 (0.25)

1.18 (0.28)

Values in parentheses: SD

Endpoint:
adult fish: sub(lethal) effects
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Comparable to guideline study with acceptable restrictions
Justification for type of information:
Please refer to the Category Approach Justification provided in Section 13
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
The effect of the test substance on survival and reproduction of juvenile fish were investigated in the laboratory and in outdoor stream mesocosms. In the laboratory fish were exposed for 10 d and in the outdoor stream mesocosms for 30 d. 10 fish were exposed per test concentration in both experiment.
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Vehicle:
no
Test organisms (species):
Pimephales promelas
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: fathead minnow
- Source: culture facilities at the University of Mississippi, USA
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): stream outdoor mesocosm: approx. 4 month old
- Weight at study initiation (mean and range, SD): laboratory bioassay: mean wet weight: 0.57 g, SD = 0.27, n = 7
- Method of breeding: stream outdoor mesocosm: fish were introduced into four spawning chambers in each of the eight stream mesocosms 12 d prior to initiation of treatment in experiment 1 and 5 d prior to initiation of treatment in experiment 2. Spawning chambers, each consisting of an 8 L plastic container with a 0.6 cm mesh bottom, were suspended in the pool sections of the stream mesocosms. A halved section of 10 cm diameter PVC pipe was placed in each spawning chamber to serve as a spawning substrate. Spawning substrates were monitored daily. If spawning occurred, eggs were counted and then they were placed in an aerated incubation chamber suspended in the mixing chamber of the stream mesocosm. Eggs were monitored daily and diseased eggs were removed.
- Feeding during test
- Food type: frozen brine shrimp (Artemia salina) and conditioning food (TetraMin)
- Amount: no data
- Frequency: daily

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: Experiment 1: 12 d, experiment 2: 5 d
- Acclimation conditions (same as test or not): yes
- Type and amount of food: see above
- Feeding frequency: see above
Test type:
flow-through
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
10 d
Remarks on exposure duration:
laboratory bioassay and 30 d outdoor stream mesocosm
Hardness:
Laboratory bioassay: 4 mg/L as CaCO3
Outdoor stream mesocosm: Experiment 1: range: 10 - 20 mg CaCO3/L, mean: 14.6 CaCO3/L; Experiment 2: range: 7 - 26 mg CaCO3/L, mean: 11.1 mg CaCO3/L
Test temperature:
Laboratory bioassay: mean 13.3 °C (SD = 1.77, n = 22)
Outdoor stream mesocosm: Experiment 1: range: 15.6 - 22.5 °C, mean: 23.99 °C; Experiment 2: 22.5 - 27.8 °C, mean: 23.35 °C
pH:
Laboratory bioassay: 6.71
Outdoor stream mesocosm: Experiment 1: range: 5.88 - 6.29, mean: 6.04; Experiment 2: range: 5.75 - 6.44, mean: 5.95
Dissolved oxygen:
Laboratory bioassay: 9.7 mg/L
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Laboratory bioassay:
nominal: 0, 50, 150, 500, 1000 and 2000 µg/L
measured: <10, 35, 160, 460, 960 and 2190 µg/L

Outdoor stream mesocosm:
Experiment 1: nominal: 0, 100, 200 and 400 µg/L; measured: 30, 30, 60 and 70 µg/L
Experiment 2: nominal: 0, 100, 300 and 600 µg/L; measured: 0, 40, 50 and 70 µg/L
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
10 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
0.16 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
30 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
0.28 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
30 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
0.11 - 0.28 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
reproduction
Details on results:
- Observed effects at each concentration for each observation time: see Table [1]
- Mortality in the controls: no mortality
- Behavioural observation of the fish: no data

Table 1: Mortality and reproduction of fathead minnows in 30 d mesocosms

Test parameter

Measured concentration of surfactant [mg/L]

0

0.080

0.160

0.280

0.330

0.550

Experiment 1

No. of dead adults

0/24

0/24

0/24

-

6/24

-

No. of clutches

2

4

1

-

1

-

No. of eggs laid

340

-

209

8

-

1

Day of last clutch

8

6

3

-

2

-

Experiment 2

No. of dead adults

0/24

0/24

-

0/24

-

0/24

No. of clutches

7

3

-

3

-

0

No. of eggs laid

742

-

447

-

240

0

Day of last clutch

20

10

-

7

-

0

No. of surv. larvae

123

76

-

51

-

0

Endpoint:
fish, juvenile growth test
Type of information:
read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Justification for type of information:
Please refer to the Category Approach Justification provided in Section 13
Reason / purpose:
read-across source
Reason / purpose:
read-across source
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
10 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
0.16 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
10 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
0.33 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: swimming performance
Duration:
30 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
> 0.33 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
30 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
> 0.33 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth rate
Duration:
30 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
0.28 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
30 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
0.11 - 0.28 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
reproduction

Description of key information

EC20 (30d) = 0.386 mg/L Pimephales promelas (QSAR estimation)

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information

As there are no data available for alcohol ethoxylate C16, <2.5EO (CAS 9004-95-9), a category read-across is prepared to a chronic fish study conducted with an similar alcohol ethoxylate (C14 -15, 7 EO). In that study conducted with two different fish species (bluegill sunfish and fathead minnow) the effects of alcohol ethoxylate (C14-15, 7 EO) were determined (Shell, 1995). In two experiments fish were exposed for 10 d in a laboratory assay and for 30 d in an outdoor stream mesocosm. Effect parameters determined were survival and growth of juvenile bluegills and survival and reproduction of fathead minnows. In the laboratory experiment the NOEC for survival and swimming performance of bluegills and for survival of fathead minnows was 0.16 mg/L. In the stream mesocosm the NOEC for bluegill survival and growth was >0.33 mg/L and for fathead minnow survival 0.28 mg/L. There was an indication of decreased egg laying by fathead minnow in the streams at concentrations of 0.33 mg/L or greater.

Nevertheless, data do not allow to derive a precise long-term effect value for the described mixture alcohol ethoxylate C16, <2.5EO (CAS 9004-95-9). Alcohol ethoxylate specific QSARs were developed to describe the toxicity of varying mixtures (Wind & Belanger, 2006; Boeije et al., 2006; Belanger et al, 2006). The QSARs considered all three trophic levels (algae, invertebrates and fish). The effects are described as EC20 values, since the QSARs are more robust for the EC20 values than for NOEC or EC10 values (Boeije et al., 2006). For the described alcohol ethoxylate C16, <2.5EO (CAS 9004-95-9) the QSAR for long-term toxicity on fish (Pimephales promelas) (Boeije et al., 2006) results in an EC20 (30d) value of 0.355 mg/L. This result is used for classification and labeling.