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Short-term toxicity to fish

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Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
other: evidence from degradation product
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: see 'Remark'
Remarks:
study not according to standard protocol but good quality and considered useful for setting the reference value for acute aquatic ecotoxicity. Study used for that purpose in the EU risk assessment process on zinc (ECB 2008). Culture medium, test water conditions well described and relevant the purpose of classification.
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
lab-designed dose-response test at varying pH and at relatively high hardness conditions.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
no data
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
tests done in very hard reconstituted water at varying pH
Test organisms (species):
Pimephales promelas
Details on test organisms:
test organisms were cultured at the US environmental protection agency laboratory in Duluth, Minnesota. ages of organisms was at time of testing
=<24 hrs. organisms were unfed.
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Hardness:
280-300 mg CaCO3/l
Test temperature:
25°C
pH:
6-6.5
7-7.5
8-8.5
Dissolved oxygen:
dissolved oxygen was never below 5mg/l (60% saturation)
Nominal and measured concentrations:
nominal concentrations and measured concentrations never deviating >10 % from each other
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
780 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: at pH 6-6.5
Duration:
95 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
330 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: at pH 7-7.5
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
500 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: at pH 8-8.5
Reported statistics and error estimates:
median LC50s and corresponding 95%CI were calculated using the trimmed Spearman-karber method.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Tests of good quality and considered useful for setting the reference value for acute aquatic ecotoxicity.
Executive summary:

Study on the effects of pH on the zinc toxicity to different aquatic organisms. Tests not done according to standard protocol, but of good quality and considered useful for setting the reference value for acute aquatic ecotoxicity. Study used for that purpose in the EU risk assessment process on zinc (ECB 2008). Culture medium, test water conditions well described and relevant the purpose of classification. LC50 values: see “results” section.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
other: evidence from degradation product
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: study not according to standard protocol but good quality and considered useful for setting the reference value for acute aquatic ecotoxicity. Culture medium, test water conditions well described and relevant the purpose of classification.
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
lab-designed dose-response test
GLP compliance:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
as mentioned in Woodling et al 2002: water samples were taken daily for the first 7 days from one randomly selected replicate chamber for each nominal exposure concentration.
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
dilution water: dechlorinated Fort Collins municipal tap water and on-site well water mixed to create a nominal hardness of 150mg/l as CaCO3.
Test organisms (species):
other: Cottus bairdii
Details on test organisms:
recently emerged C. bairdi were collected from White river (Colorado USA), organisms were acclimated to hardness of 150 mg/l as CaCO3 for 18 days before starting the 30d test.
Test type:
flow-through
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Hardness:
150 mg CaCO3/l
Test temperature:
11.8+/-0.3°C
pH:
7.6
Dissolved oxygen:
8.8 mg O2/l
Nominal and measured concentrations:
800,400,200,100,50,0 µg ZnL added (nominal).
Details on test conditions:
7 fish were randomly chosen and placed in the exposure chamber; Fish were fed a concentrated suspension of brine shrimp nauplii mixed with starter trout chow.
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
439 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mortality
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Tests not done according to standard protocol, but good quality and considered useful for setting the reference value for acute aquatic ecotoxicity.
Executive summary:

Tests not done according to standard protocol, but of good quality and considered useful for setting the reference value for acute aquatic ecotoxicity. Culture medium, test water conditions well described and relevant the purpose of classification. LC50 value was 439µg Zn/l.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
other: evidence from degradation product
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: see 'Remark'
Remarks:
Tests done according to standard protocol. Good quality and considered useful for setting the reference value for acute aquatic ecotoxicity. Study used for that purpose in the EU risk assessment process on zinc (ECB 2008). Culture medium, test water conditions well described and relevant the purpose of classification.zinc concentrations in test however not measured.
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: American Society for testing matrials 1988: Standard practice for conducting acute toxicity tests with fishes, macroinvertebrates and amphibians, ASTM, E-729-88, Philadelphia
GLP compliance:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
no
Details on sampling:
no data
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
standard reconstituted soft water (EPA 1975)
Test organisms (species):
other: Thymallus arcticus
Details on test organisms:
organisms from different origin were tested: they were from a) Clear state hatchery, Clear, Alaska, US (= code AC), and from Flathead lake salmon state hatchery, Somers, montana, US (code MT)
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Hardness:
41 mg CaCO3/l
Test temperature:
12 +/-1°C
pH:
7.1-8.0
Nominal and measured concentrations:
no details given, nominal concentrations reported
Details on test conditions:
different life stages were tested
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
315 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: 95% C.I.: 234-424; test on "swim-up fry", origin AC
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
142 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: 95%C.I.114-178; test on 7-8w old juveniles, 0.2g, code AC
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
112 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: 95%C.I. 83-150; test on 7-8w old juveniles, 0.34g, code AC
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
1 580 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: 95%C.I. 900-2770; test on alevins; code MT
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
166 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: 95% C.I. 127-217; test on 5-6w old juveniles, 0,97 g, code MT
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
2 920 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: 95%C.I. 2510-3400; test on alevins; code MT
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
168 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: 95%C.I. 143-197; test on 7-11w old juveniles, 0.97g, code MT
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
168 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: 95% C.I. 96-295; test on 7-11w old juveniles, 1.85g, code MT
Reported statistics and error estimates:
The method of Litchfield and Wilcoxon was used to calculate the LC50 values and 95%C.I.
signnificant differences between LC50 values were determined by the standard error of the differences as described by Sprague and Fogels 1977.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Tests done according to standard protocol. Good quality and considered useful for setting the reference value for acute aquatic ecotoxicity.
Executive summary:

Tests done according to standard protocol. Good quality and considered useful for setting the reference value for acute aquatic ecotoxicity. Study used for that purpose in the EU risk assessment process on zinc (ECB 2008). Culture medium, test water conditions well described and relevant the purpose of classification. LC50 values: see “results” section.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
other: evidence from degradation product
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: see 'Remark'
Remarks:
Tests done according to standard protocol. Good quality and considered useful for setting the reference value for acute aquatic ecotoxicity. Study used for that purpose in the EU risk assessment process on zinc (ECB 2008). Culture medium, test water conditions well described and relevant the purpose of classification.zinc concentrations in test however not measured.
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: American Society for testing matrials 1988: Standard practice for conducting acute toxicity tests with fishes, macroinvertebrates and amphibians, ASTM, E-729-88, Philadelphia
GLP compliance:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
no
Details on sampling:
no data
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
standard reconstituted soft water (EPA 1975)
Test organisms (species):
Oncorhynchus kisutch
Details on test organisms:
organisms from different origin were tested: they were from a) Clear state hatchery, Clear, Alaska, US (= code AK), and from Puyallup Salmon hatchery, Orting, Washington, US (code WA)
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Hardness:
41 mg CaCO3/l
Test temperature:
12 +/-1°C
pH:
7.1-8.0
Nominal and measured concentrations:
no details given, nominal concentrations reported
Details on test conditions:
different life stages were tested
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
820 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: 95% C.I.: 610-1130; test on7-8w old juveniles, 0.47g, origin AK
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
1 810 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: 95% C.I.: 1340-2450; test on7-8w old juveniles, 0.63g, origin AK
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
1 650 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: 95% C.I.: 1050-2600; test on7-8w old juveniles,0.94g, origin AK
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
727 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: 95% C.I.: 507-1042; test on alevins, origin WA
Reported statistics and error estimates:
The method of Litchfield and Wilcoxon was used to calculate the LC50 values and 95%C.I.
signnificant differences between LC50 values were determined by the standard error of the differences as described by Sprague and Fogels 1977.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Tests done according to standard protocol. Good quality and considered useful for setting the reference value for acute aquatic ecotoxicity.
Executive summary:

Tests done according to standard protocol. Good quality and considered useful for setting the reference value for acute aquatic ecotoxicity. Study used for that purpose in the EU risk assessment process on zinc (ECB 2008). Culture medium, test water conditions well described and relevant the purpose of classification. LC50 values: see “results” section.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
other: evidence from degradation product
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: see 'Remark'
Remarks:
Tests done according to standard protocol. Good quality and considered useful for setting the reference value for acute aquatic ecotoxicity. Study used for that purpose in the EU risk assessment process on zinc (ECB 2008). Culture medium, test water conditions well described and relevant the purpose of classification.zinc concentrations in test however not measured.
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: American Society for testing materials 1988: Standard practice for conducting acute toxicity tests with fishes, macroinvertebrates and amphibians, ASTM, E-729-88, Philadelphia
GLP compliance:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
no
Details on sampling:
no data
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
standard reconstituted soft water (EPA 1975)
Test organisms (species):
Oncorhynchus mykiss (previous name: Salmo gairdneri)
Details on test organisms:
organisms from Ennis national fish hatchery Ennis, Montana (code: MT)
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Hardness:
41 mg CaCO3/l
Test temperature:
12 +/-1°C
pH:
7.1-8.0
Nominal and measured concentrations:
no details given, nominal concentrations reported
Details on test conditions:
different life stages were tested
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
2 170 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: 95% C.I.: 1850-2550; test on alevins, origin code MT
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
169 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: 95%C.I. 118-243; test on 7-10w old juveniles, 0.6g, code MT
Reported statistics and error estimates:
The method of Litchfield and Wilcoxon was used to calculate the LC50 values and 95%C.I.
signnificant differences between LC50 values were determined by the standard error of the differences as described by Sprague and Fogels 1977.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Tests done according to standard protocol. Good quality and considered useful for setting the reference value for acute aquatic ecotoxicity.
Executive summary:

Tests done according to standard protocol. Good quality and considered useful for setting the reference value for acute aquatic ecotoxicity. Study used for that purpose in the EU risk assessment process on zinc (ECB 2008). Culture medium, test water conditions well described and relevant the purpose of classification. LC50 values: see “results” section.

Description of key information

Key data (lowest LC50 values) are: 
-for Oncorrhynchus Mykiss: 0.169 mg Zn/l (single value) at neutral/high pH and low hardness
-for Pimephales promelas (single values) : 0.780 mg Zn/l at low pH (high hardness) and 0.330 mg Zn/l at neutral/high pH, high hardness
-for Pimephales promelas: LC50 0.780 mg Zn/l (at low pH); 0.33mg Zn/l at neutral/high pH

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information

The following robust study summary is based on the data presented in the environmental sections of this dossier and adresses solely zinc, zinc oxide and zinc chloride. The environmental hazards of zinc hexafluorosilicate originate exclusively from the zinc ion. Refer to read-across justification for details.

Good quality and relevant data for 5 species. Tests were done according to standard protocol or equivalent.

Data are grouped per species according to

-pH: low (6 -<7) - neutral/high (7 -8.5)

-and hardness: low/medium (<100mg CaCO3/l) and medium/high (>100 mg CaCO3/l).

Fish are generally less sensitive than invertebrates and algae.