Registration Dossier

Administrative data

Workers - Hazard via inhalation route

Systemic effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)
Value:
9.87 mg/m³
Most sensitive endpoint:
repeated dose toxicity
Route of original study:
Oral
DNEL related information
DNEL derivation method:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Overall assessment factor (AF):
75
Dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
Value:
300 mg/kg bw/day
Modified dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEC
Value:
740.5 mg/m³
Explanation for the modification of the dose descriptor starting point:

NOAECcorr = NOAELoral*(1/0.38 m³/kg bw/day)*(ABSoral-rat/ABSinh-human)*(6.7 m³ (8h)/10 m³ (8h))*(7 days exposure rat/5 days exposure worker) = 300 mg/kg bw/day*(1/0.38 m³/kg bw/day)*(1/1)*0.67*1.4 = 740.5 mg/m³.

In contrast to the recommendations of the ECHA Guidance, a factor of 1 (equal absorption of 100% assumed for the oral and the inhalative route for animals and humans) was included for the extrapolation from oral to inhalation absorption, as there is no valid data suggesting that inhalation leads to higher absorption than oral ingestion (recommendation of the VCI Working group “Toxicology”, 2008). Molecules with a molecular weight <500 and a log Kow between 0 and 4 can be assumed to be well absorbed equivalently by the oral and inhalation route. Oral absorption may be reduced for acids and bases depending on their pKa value and their electric charge in the GI tract. More lipophilic substances may be better absorbed in the GI tract due to solubilisation with bile acids, and thus oral absorption may be higher than inhalation absorption (VCI Working group “Toxicology”, 2008). Unless valid data suggest that inhalation leads to higher absorption than oral ingestion, equal absorption will be assumed when extrapolating from oral to inhalation route.

ABSoral-rat=oral absorption rate in rats, ABSinh-human=inhalation absorption rate in humans .

AF for dose response relationship:
1
Justification:
The dose descriptor starting point is based on a NOAEL
AF for differences in duration of exposure:
6
Justification:
The DNEL is based on a subacute study (OECD 422).
AF for interspecies differences (allometric scaling):
1
Justification:
AF not used for inhalation route
AF for other interspecies differences:
2.5
Justification:
Deault AF
AF for intraspecies differences:
5
Justification:
Default AF for workers
AF for the quality of the whole database:
1
Justification:
DNEL is based on a high quality study
AF for remaining uncertainties:
1
Justification:
No remaining uncertainties
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
DNEL related information

Local effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
DNEL related information

Workers - Hazard via dermal route

Systemic effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)
Value:
1.4 mg/kg bw/day
Most sensitive endpoint:
repeated dose toxicity
Route of original study:
Oral
DNEL related information
DNEL derivation method:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Overall assessment factor (AF):
300
Dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
Value:
300 mg/kg bw/day
Modified dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
Value:
420 mg/kg bw/day
Explanation for the modification of the dose descriptor starting point:

NOAELcorr = NOAELoral*(ABSoral-rat/ABSdermal-human) = (300 mg/kg bw/day)*(1/1)*(7 days exposure rat/5 days exposure worker)

= 420 mg/kg bw/day. It is assumed that the dermal absorption rate is 100% of that of the oral absorption according to ECHA CSA Guidance Chapter R.7c Figure R.7.12-5.

ABSoral-rat=oral absorption rate in rats, ABSdermal-human=dermal absorption rate in humans.

AF for dose response relationship:
1
Justification:
The dose descriptor starting point is based on a NOAEL.
AF for differences in duration of exposure:
6
Justification:
The DNEL is based on a subacute study.
AF for interspecies differences (allometric scaling):
4
Justification:
Default AF for rats
AF for other interspecies differences:
2.5
Justification:
Default AF
AF for intraspecies differences:
5
Justification:
Default AF for workers
AF for the quality of the whole database:
1
Justification:
The DNEL is absed on a high quality study.
AF for remaining uncertainties:
1
Justification:
No remaining uncertainties.
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
DNEL related information

Local effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified

Workers - Hazard for the eyes

Local effects

Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified

Additional information - workers

General Population - Hazard via inhalation route

Systemic effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)
Value:
1.74 mg/m³
Most sensitive endpoint:
repeated dose toxicity
Route of original study:
Oral
DNEL related information
DNEL derivation method:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Overall assessment factor (AF):
150
Dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
Value:
300 mg/kg bw/day
Modified dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEC
Value:
260.87 mg/m³
Explanation for the modification of the dose descriptor starting point:

NOAECcorr = NOAELoral*(1/1.15 m³/kg bw/day)*(ABSoral-rat/ABSinh-human)* = 300 mg/kg bw/day*(1/1.15 m³/kg bw/day)*(1/1) = 260.87 mg/m³.

In contrast to the recommendations of the ECHA Guidance, a factor of 1 (equal absorption of 100%

assumed for the oral and the inhalative route for animals and humans) was included for the extrapolation

from oral to inhalation absorption, as there is no valid data suggesting that inhalation leads to

higher absorption than oral ingestion (recommendation of the VCI Working group “Toxicology”, 2008).

Molecules with a molecular weight <500 and a log Kow between 0 and 4 can be assumed to be well

absorbed equivalently by the oral and inhalation route. Oral absorption may be reduced for acids and

bases depending on their pKa value and their electric charge in the GI tract. More lipophilic substances

may be better absorbed in the GI tract due to solubilisation with bile acids, and thus oral absorption may

be higher than inhalation absorption (VCI Working group “Toxicology”, 2008). Unless valid data suggest

that inhalation leads to higher absorption than oral ingestion, equal absorption will be assumed when

extrapolating from oral to inhalation route.

ABSoral-rat=oral absorption rate in rats, ABSinh-human=inhalation absorption rate in humans .

AF for dose response relationship:
1
Justification:
The dose descriptor starting point is based on a NOAEL.
AF for differences in duration of exposure:
6
Justification:
The DNEL is based on a subacute study (OECD 422).
AF for interspecies differences (allometric scaling):
1
Justification:
AF not used for inhalation route.
AF for other interspecies differences:
2.5
Justification:
Deault AF
AF for intraspecies differences:
10
Justification:
Default AF for general population
AF for the quality of the whole database:
1
Justification:
DNEL is based on a high quality study
AF for remaining uncertainties:
1
Justification:
No remaining uncertainties
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
DNEL related information

Local effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
DNEL related information

General Population - Hazard via dermal route

Systemic effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)
Value:
0.5 mg/kg bw/day
Most sensitive endpoint:
repeated dose toxicity
Route of original study:
Oral
DNEL related information
DNEL derivation method:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Overall assessment factor (AF):
600
Dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
Value:
300 mg/kg bw/day
Modified dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
Value:
300 mg/kg bw/day
Explanation for the modification of the dose descriptor starting point:

NOAELcorr = NOAELoral*(ABSoral-rat/ABSdermal-human) = (300 mg/kg bw/day)*(1/1) = 300 mg/kg bw/day. It is assumed that the dermal absorption rate is 100% of that of the oral absorption according to ECHA CSA Guidance Chapter R.7c Figure R.7.12-5.

ABSoral-rat=oral absorption rate in rats, ABSdermal-human=dermal absorption rate in humans.

AF for dose response relationship:
1
Justification:
The dose descriptor starting point is based on a NOAEL.
AF for differences in duration of exposure:
6
Justification:
The DNEL is based on a subacute study.
AF for interspecies differences (allometric scaling):
4
Justification:
Default AF for rats
AF for other interspecies differences:
2.5
Justification:
Default AF
AF for intraspecies differences:
10
Justification:
Default AF for general population
AF for the quality of the whole database:
1
Justification:
The DNEL is absed on a high quality study.
AF for remaining uncertainties:
1
Justification:
No remaining uncertainties.
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
DNEL related information

Local effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified

General Population - Hazard via oral route

Systemic effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)
Value:
0.5 mg/kg bw/day
Most sensitive endpoint:
repeated dose toxicity
Route of original study:
Oral
DNEL related information
DNEL derivation method:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Overall assessment factor (AF):
600
Dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
Value:
300 mg/kg bw/day
AF for dose response relationship:
1
Justification:
The dose descriptor starting point is based on a NOAEL.
AF for differences in duration of exposure:
6
Justification:
The DNEL is based on a subacute study.
AF for interspecies differences (allometric scaling):
4
Justification:
Default AF for rats
AF for other interspecies differences:
2.5
Justification:
Default AF
AF for intraspecies differences:
10
Justification:
Default AF for general population
AF for the quality of the whole database:
1
Justification:
The DNEL is absed on a high quality study.
AF for remaining uncertainties:
1
Justification:
No remaining uncertainties.
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
DNEL related information

General Population - Hazard for the eyes

Local effects

Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified

Additional information - General Population