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Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
1975
Reliability:
4 (not assignable)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
abstract
Qualifier:
no guideline available
Version / remarks:
In 1975 no guideline was available
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Principle of test: In a static test with 10 concentrations the effect of the test item on the mobility of daphnia magna was tested.
GLP compliance:
no
Remarks:
Study was conducted in 1975
Specific details on test material used for the study:
TFM (39.45 % active ingredient) was used.
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
The test item was measured gravimetrically and diluted with deionized water to prepare stock solutions.
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
The test organisms were collected in ponds and streams and retained for a minimum of 7 days in water identical with test conditions. Only vigorous individuals of uniform sizes were used in the tests.
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Hardness:
appr. 20 mg/L
Test temperature:
17 °C
pH:
6.8 - 7.0
Nominal and measured concentrations:
At least 10 concentrations and 1 water control
Details on test conditions:
Test system: The test were conducted in small jars containing 3 liters of test water. The jars were immersed in a water bath to the level of the test fluids; the water bath was equipped with a commercial chilling device.
Effect parameters: Mortality determinations were made on a appropriate basis, and dead organisms were removed after each examination. Mortalities are based on immobility or lack of response of test organisms to various mechanical stimuli.
Test medium: Spring water to which lime was added to bring the total hardness to 20 mg/L.
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
29 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: 95% confidence interval: 21.0 - 41.1 mg/L
Reported statistics and error estimates:
The statistical procedures of Litchfield and Wilcoxon (1949) were used to calculate the concentration of toxicant necessary to produce 50% mortality (LC5O's) and to obtain 95% confidence intervals.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
In a static test with Daphnia magna the LC50 value after 96 hours was determined to be 29 mg/L.
Executive summary:

In a static test with 10 concentrations the effect of the test item on the mobility of Daphnia magna was tested. Test medium was spring water with added lime. The LC50 value was determined to be 29 mg/L after 96 hours with a 95 % confidence interval of 21.0 - 41.1 mg/L.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
1975
Reliability:
4 (not assignable)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
abstract
Qualifier:
no guideline available
Version / remarks:
In 1975 no guideline available
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Principle of test: In a static test the effect of the test item on the mobility of Chironomus tentans was tested.
GLP compliance:
no
Remarks:
Study was conducted in 1975
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
yes
Details on test solutions:
The test item was dissolved in 50 % acetone, total amount of acetone added to each vessel and control was 0.5 mL.
Test organisms (species):
other aquatic arthropod: Chironomus tentans
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Source: Stock culture was propagated in the laboratory
- Feeding during test: yes
- Type: The food and substrate mixture consisted of ground Trainers Dog Rewards® (Horlick's Corp., Racine,Wisconsin) and macerated paper hand towels (Crown Zellerback Corp., San Francisco, California).
- Frequency: periodically

- Acclimatisation: yes, for 48 hours

Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Hardness:
40 - 48 mg/l as CaCO3
Test temperature:
22 ± 1 °C
pH:
7.2 - 7.6
Nominal and measured concentrations:
not availabe
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: beaker
- Aeration: no
- No. of organisms per vessel: 10 - 20 organisms per beaker
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): at least 3
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): at least 3
- Biomass loading rate: 10 - 20 onrganisms per beaker

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Preparation of dilution water: The test water was prepared as characterized by Marking (1970).

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED:
Immobility was noted after 8 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours.
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
0.534 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: 95 % confidence interval: 0.415 - 0.668
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Using the Litchfield and Wilcoxon (1949) method, the EC5O's were calculated from the combined data of at least three independent tests. (The EC50 is defined as the concentration of toxicant, based on total formulation weight, that immobilized 50% of the test organisms within the prescribed period of exposure.) Results of tests in which more than 20% of the control organisms died were discarded. From 114 to 590 animals were used to determine the EC5O's for each chemical or combination of chemicals.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
In a static test with Chironomus tentans the LC50 value after 96 hours was determined to be 0.534 mg/L.
Executive summary:

In a static test the effect of the test item on the mobility of Chironomus tentans was tested. The LC50 value was determined to be 0.534 mg/L after 96 hours with a 95 % confidence interval of 0.415 - 0.688 mg/L.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
1975
Reliability:
4 (not assignable)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
abstract
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to guideline
Guideline:
other: standard toxicity test (Sanders 1970)
GLP compliance:
no
Remarks:
Test was conducted in 1975
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
not specified
Test organisms (species):
Gammarus sp.
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Gammarus pseudolimnaeus Bousfield
- Source: collected rom sreams and ponds near the Fish-Pesticide Research Laboratory, Columbia, Missouri
- Feeding during test: no

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: at least 7 days
- Acclimation conditions: same as test conditions
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Hardness:
270 mg/L as CaCO3
Test temperature:
21 °C
pH:
7.2 - 7.4
Nominal and measured concentrations:
not available
Details on test conditions:
TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source of dilution water: water from a deep well


Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
22 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: 95 % confidence interval: 16 - 31 mg/L
Details on results:
not available
Reported statistics and error estimates:
The LC50 values were calculated on the basis of the total formulation. Toxic effects were measured in terms of the median lethal concentration (LC50), the toxicant concentration in water which is lethal to 50% of the test animals under the test conditions. Toxicity estimates (LC50 values) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals were determined by the Litchfield Wilcoxon method (1949).
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
In a static test with Gammarus pseudolimnaeus the LC50 value after 96 hours was determined to be 22 mg/L.
Executive summary:

In a static test the effect of the test item on the mortality of Gammarus pseudolimnaeus was tested. The LC50 value was determined to be 22 mg/L after 96 hours with a 95 % confidence interval of 16 - 31 mg/L.

Description of key information

Daphnia magna: LC50 (96 hours): 29 mg/L

Chironomus tentans: LC50 (96 hours): 0.534 mg/L

Gammarus pseudolimnaeus: LC50 (96 hours): 22 mg/L

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Fresh water invertebrates

Fresh water invertebrates
Effect concentration:
0.534 mg/L

Additional information

As the test item is registered since 1964 for limited use in tributaries of the Great Lakes in the US for control of the parasitic sea lamprey, numerous studies on aquatic invertebrates are available. Only the most important studies are presented here: The test with the lowest LC50 (Chironomus tentans) and two standard species for the endpoint (Daphnia magna and Gammarus pseudolimnaeus). No guidelines were available in 1975 and in the publications the description of the methods are insufficient. But as all results are in the same range (LC50: 0.5 – 29 mg/L) they are considered valid. Additionally they match with the data given in the RED document of the test item of EPA (Reregistration Eligibility Decision, United States Environmental Protection Agency, November 1999, 7508C) where a LC50 of 3.8 - 22.3 mg/L is given.