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Description of key information

Based on the available weight of evidence from studies on main constituents, the test substance, ‘mono- and di- C16-18 PSE and C16-18 AE20 PSE’, can be considered to have a low acute oral toxicity potential with LD50 value >2000 mg/kg bw. This is further supported by the low bioavailability potential of the test substance (based on high MW and low water solubility).

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Acute toxicity: via oral route

Link to relevant study records

Referenceopen allclose all

Endpoint:
acute toxicity: oral
Type of information:
read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
From June 02, 1987 to June 17, 1987
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Remarks:
KL2 due to RA
Justification for type of information:
Refer to section 13 of IUCLID for details on the read-across justification. The study with the read across substance is considered sufficient to fulfil the information requirements as further explained in the provided endpoint summary.
Reason / purpose:
read-across source
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 401 (Acute Oral Toxicity)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes
Test type:
acute toxic class method
Limit test:
yes
Species:
rat
Strain:
other: Ibm: RORO (SPF), also known as Fü-albino SPF rat
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
Test animals
- Age at study initiation: about 6 weeks
- Weight at study initiation: female 114-117 g; male 116-124 g
- Fasting period before study: 18 h
- Housing:
- Diet: NAFAG standard rat maintenance diet, No. 850 (cubic), ad libitum
- Water: tap water, ad libitum
- Acclimatisation period: seven days under laboratory conditions

Environmental conditions
- Temperature: 20-24°C
- Humidity: 45-65 %
- Air changes: air-conditioned room
- Photoperiod: 12/12 h dark / light
Route of administration:
oral: gavage
Vehicle:
other: Standard Suspending Vehicle (SSV), please see below in " Details on oral exposure"
Details on oral exposure:
Vehicle
The test article was suspended in Standard Suspending Vehicle (SSV)
1000 mL SSV contain:
5 g sodium carboxy methyl cellulose of median viscosity,
4 mL Tween 80,
5 mL benzylalcohol pro analysis,
9 g sodium-chloride pro analysis,
aqua destillata ad 1000 mL.

- Amount of vehicle: 10 mL/kg bw
Doses:
5000 mg/kg bw
No. of animals per sex per dose:
5 animals per sex
Control animals:
no
Details on study design:
- Duration of observation period following administration: 15 d
- Frequency of observations and weighing: daily for clinical signs and weighing on Day 1, 4, 8, 11, 15
- Necropsy of survivors performed: yes
- Other examinations performed: clinical signs (respiratory distress, crust around nose, hunched posture, crust around eyes, exitability), body weight, histopathology
Key result
Sex:
male/female
Dose descriptor:
LD50
Effect level:
> 5 000 mg/kg bw
Based on:
test mat.
Remarks on result:
other: i.e., equivalent to >4000 mg a.i./kg bw
Mortality:
No compound-related deaths occurred.
One male was found dead early in the morning of Day 8. This case of death was considered to be a result of an application injury. This male rat showed a marked respiratory distress and a marked loss of weight. The histopathological examination of the lung of this animal revealed aspiration pneumonia.
Clinical signs:
The main symptom was respiratory distress seen in 3 males and 1 female. This symptom developed in consequence of aspiration of a little test suspension. The other findings were of no toxicological significance.
Body weight:
An initial disturbance of the body weight development was seen in 3 males and 2 females. This effect seems to be connected with the above mentioned aspiration and not to be compound-related because 4 of these 5 animals showed respiratory distress. The body weights of the surviving rats were again increased to normal, known for this species and age, at day 15 (termination of the observation period).
Gross pathology:
In the urinary bladder of male rat 2694, gritty contents were observed. This finding was of a spontaneous nature. No other macroscopic organ changes were seen.
Other findings:
Histopathology: Bronchopneumonia caused the respiratory distress and itself was caused by aspiration of test suspension (by the male rat that died at Day 8).
Interpretation of results:
other: not classified based on EU CLP Criteria
Conclusions:
Based on the results of the read across study, LD50 for the test substance, is considered to be >4000 mg/kg bw.
Executive summary:

A study was conducted to determine the acute oral toxicity of the read across substance, mono- and di- C16 PSE, K+ (purity: ca. 85%), according to the OECD Guideline 401, standard acute method, in compliance with GLP. Five male and 5 female Fü-albino SPF rats were randomly selected for an acute oral toxicity study. Fasted rats were given a single dose of the test substance suspended in SSV (Standard Suspended Vehicle) by gavage at a dose level of 5000 mg/kg bw. They were observed for 15 d for toxic signs, mortality and body weight changes. All rats were examined for gross lesions. No compound-related deaths occurred. No compound-related incompatibility reactions were observed. No compound-related effect on body weight development appeared. No compound-related gross or microscopic lesions were observed. The LD50 was determined at >5000 mg/kg bw (i.e., equivalent to >4000 mg a.i./kg bw) (Bremer, 1987). Based on the results of the read across study, a similar oral LD50 value can be considered for the test substance, 'mono- and di- C16-18 PSE and C16 -18 AE20 PSE'.

Endpoint:
acute toxicity: oral
Type of information:
read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
From August 30, 1985 to September 13, 1985
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
comparable to guideline study with acceptable restrictions
Justification for type of information:
Refer to section 13 of IUCLID for details on the read-across justification. The study with the read across substance is considered sufficient to fulfil the information requirements as further explained in the provided endpoint summary.
Reason / purpose:
read-across source
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: notification No. 118 of the Pharmaceuticals Affairs Bureau, 15 Feb 1984, Toxicity Test Guideline
Deviations:
no
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 401 (Acute Oral Toxicity)
GLP compliance:
not specified
Test type:
fixed dose procedure
Limit test:
yes
Species:
rat
Strain:
other: CFY (Sprague-Dawley origin)
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
Test animals
- Source: Interfauna UK Limited, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire, England
- Age at study initiation: 4 to 6 weeks
- Weight at study initiation: 109 to 150 g
- Fasting period before study: yes; overnight prior to and 4 h after dosing
- Housing: in groups by sex in metal cages with wire mesh floor
- Diet (e.g. ad libitum): standard laboratory rodent diet (Labsure LAD 1), ad libitum
- Water (e.g. ad libitum): ad libitum
- Acclimation period: minimum 8 d

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature (°C): 20 to 23°C
- Humidity (%): 62% mean
- Air changes (per hr): ca. 15/h
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): 12/12

Route of administration:
oral: gavage
Vehicle:
other: distilled water
Details on oral exposure:
Vehicle
- Concentration in vehicle: 80%
- Amount of vehicle (if gavage): 20 mL/kg bw
Doses:
0, 16.0 g/kg bw
No. of animals per sex per dose:
preliminary study: 2
main study: 10
Control animals:
yes
Details on study design:
- Duration of observation period following administration: preliminary study 5 d; main study 14 d
- Frequency of observations and weighing: (a) bodyweights: Day 1 (day of dosing), 4, 8, 15 (b) clinical signs: soon after dosing, then at frequent intervals for the remainder of Day 1. On subsequent days the animals were observed at least once in the morning and once at the end of the experimental day (on Saturdays and Sundays app. 11:30 a.m.)
- Necropsy of survivors performed: yes
Statistics:
none
Preliminary study:
0/4 animals died in the preliminary test.
Key result
Sex:
male/female
Dose descriptor:
LD50
Effect level:
> 16 000 mg/kg bw
Based on:
test mat.
Mortality:
0/20 animals died in the main study
Clinical signs:
- Piloerection in 20/20 animals in treated group; recovery on Day 3
- No clinical signs in control group
Body weight:
- No difference between treated animals and control group
Gross pathology:
- Terminal autopsy findings were normal
Other findings:
None
Interpretation of results:
other: Not classified based on EU CLP criteria
Conclusions:
Under the study conditions, the oral LD50 in rats for test substance was determined to be >16000 mg/kg bw.
Executive summary:

A study was conducted to determine the acute toxicity of the read across substance, di- C16 PSE (purity: 100%), according to the notification no. 118 of the Pharmaceuticals Affairs Bureau, 15 Feb 1984, Toxicity Test Guideline (similar to OECD guideline 401). Groups of fasted, 4 to 6 weeks old CFY (Sprague-Dawley origin) rats, 10/sex were given a single oral dose of test substance in distilled water at doses of 0 (control) and 16 g/kg bw and observed for 14 d. No mortality occurred. Piloerection was observed in all animals in the treated group, however, the animals had recovered on Day 3. No effects on body weight were observed. Terminal necropsy findings were found to be normal. Under the study conditions, the oral LD50 in rats for test substance was determined to be >16000 mg/kg bw (Kynoch, 1985). Based on the results of the read across study, a similar oral LD50 value can be considered for the test substance, 'mono- and di- C16-18 PSE and C16-18 AE20 PSE'.

Endpoint:
acute toxicity: oral
Type of information:
read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
1986
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study with acceptable restrictions
Remarks:
Non GLP study
Justification for type of information:
Refer to section 13 of IUCLID for details on the read-across justification. The study with the read across substance is considered sufficient to fulfil the information requirements as further explained in the provided endpoint summary.
Reason / purpose:
read-across source
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 401 (Acute Oral Toxicity)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
no
Test type:
standard acute method
Limit test:
yes
Species:
rat
Strain:
Wistar
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
As described in guideline.
Route of administration:
oral: gavage
Vehicle:
unchanged (no vehicle)
Doses:
10 g/kg bw
No. of animals per sex per dose:
5
Control animals:
no
Key result
Sex:
male/female
Dose descriptor:
LD50
Effect level:
> 10 000 mg/kg bw
Based on:
not specified
Mortality:
No deaths occurred.
Clinical signs:
The only clinical sign of toxicity was piloerection.
Body weight:
No effects.
Gross pathology:
No effects.
Interpretation of results:
other: not classified based on EU CLP criteria
Conclusions:
Based on the results of the read across study, the LD50 of the test substance, mono- and di- C16-18 PSE + mono- and di- C16-18 PSE, EO-10 is considered to be >10000 mg/kg bw.
Executive summary:

A study was conducted to determine the acute oral toxicity of the read across substance, 'C16-18 AE1-2.5' (purity: 100%), in Wistar rats, according to the OECD Guideline 401, standard acute method. The undiluted test substance was administered to groups of five fasted male and female albino rats at a limit dose of 10 gm/kg bw by oral gavage. Animals were observed for 14 d post-dosing. No deaths occurred at the end of the test. No effects were observed in gross pathology and no treatment related changes were observed on body weight. The only clinical sign of toxicity was piloerection. Under the study conditions, the LD50 of the read across substance was determined to be >10000 mg/kg bw (Mϋrmann, 1986). Based on the results of the read across study, a similar LD50 value is considered for the test substance, 'mono- and di C16-18 PSE and C16-18 AE20 PSE'.

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed
Dose descriptor:
LD50
Value:
2 000 mg/kg bw
Quality of whole database:
Good quality studies

Acute toxicity: via inhalation route

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available

Acute toxicity: via dermal route

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available

Additional information

In absence of acute oral toxicity study with the test substance, the endpoint can be assessed based on studies for substances representative of the main constituents, which can be categorised as phosphate esters (PSE) and ethoxylated phosphate ester (AE PSE). As, representative studies are not available for the constituent, AE PSE, the endpoint assessment has been based on representative studies available on PSE and AE only, under the assumption that AE PSE is likely to hydrolyse to AE and PSE. The results are presented below:

Constituent PSE - read across studies:

Study 1:A study was conducted to determine the acute oral toxicity of the read across substance, mono- and di- C16 PSE, K+ (purity: ca. 85%), according to the OECD Guideline 401, standard acute method, in compliance with GLP. Five male and 5 female Fü-albino SPF rats were randomly selected for an acute oral toxicity study. Fasted rats were given a single dose of the test substance suspended in SSV (Standard Suspended Vehicle) by gavage at a dose level of 5000 mg/kg bw. They were observed for 15 d for toxic signs, mortality and body weight changes. All rats were examined for gross lesions. No compound-related deaths occurred. No compound-related incompatibility reactions were observed. No compound-related effect on body weight development appeared. No compound-related gross or microscopic lesions were observed. The LD50 was determined at >5000 mg/kg bw (i.e., equivalent to 4250 mg a.i./kg bw) (Bremer, 1987).

Study 2:A study was conducted to determine the acute toxicity of the read across substance, di- C16 PSE (purity: 100%), according to the notification no. 118 of the Pharmaceuticals Affairs Bureau, 15 Feb 1984, Toxicity Test Guideline (similar to OECD guideline 401). Groups of fasted, 4 to 6 weeks old CFY (Sprague-Dawley origin) rats, 10/sex were given a single oral dose of test substance in distilled water at doses of 0 (control) and 16 g/kg bw and observed for 14 d. No mortality occurred. Piloerection was observed in all animals in the treated group, however, the animals had recovered on Day 3. No effects on body weight were observed. Terminal necropsy findings were found to be normal. Under the study conditions, the oral LD50 in rats for test substance was determined to be >16000 mg/kg bw (Kynoch, 1985).

Constituent AE - read across study:

Study 1: A study was conducted to determine the acute oral toxicity of the read across substance, C16 -18 AE (1- 2.5EO) (purity: 100%), in Wistar rats, according to the OECD Guideline 401, standard acute method. The undiluted test substance was administered to groups of five fasted male and female albino rats at a limit dose of 10 gm/kg bw by oral gavage. Animals were observed for 14 d post-dosing. No deaths occurred at the end of the test. No effects were observed in gross pathology and no treatment related changes were observed on body weight. The only clinical sign of toxicity was piloerection. Under the study conditions, the LD50 of the read across substance was determined to be >10000 mg/kg bw (Mϋrmann, 1986).

Further, a HERA 2009 review report on AEs indicated low to moderate order of acute oral toxicity in the rat with LD50 values ranging between 600 to more than 10000 mg/kg bw. The structure of the test compound influenced acute toxicity determined by the relative number of ethoxy units, whereas, carbon chain length was not correlated with the acute oral toxicity. The degree of ethoxylation of the AE appeared to be the only factor found to be of relevance in acute oral toxicity with the compounds with ethoxylate chains between 5 and 14 being more toxic by oral consumption than those with less than 4 or more than 21 ethoxy units. For example, LD50 values for C9-11 AE with 2.5EO ranged from 2.7 to 10 g/kg bw compared to 1.2 to 2.7 g/kg bw for C9-11 AE8. The same trend was observed for C12-14 and C13-15 AE LD50 values; C12-14AE3 (LD50 9.35 g/kg bw) was less acutely toxic than C12-14AE10 (LD50 2.82 g/kg bw), and C13-15AE4 (LD50 > 5g/kg bw) was less acutely toxic than C13-15AE11 (LD50 2.45 g/kg bw). Clinical findings observed in the test animals after treatment were indicative of gastrointestinal irritation such as ulcerations of the stomach, pilo-erection, diarrhoea and lethargy and may be linked with administration of a bolus dose, in particular in cases where the test substance was administered undiluted. The study which resulted in the lowest LD50 value of 600 mg/kg bw for males and 500 mg/kg bw for females were determined for C15-16AE10. It was noted that this study was not in conducted in compliance with OECD guidelines and GLP regulations. C15-16AE10 was administered to four rats of each sex as a 19% w/v solution in water. Diarrhea and lethargy were observed at the highest dose of 1.5 g/kg bw within 24 h. These signs had subsided in surviving animals within 48 h. On the 9th day, two females were underweight; these animals subsequently died on Days 12 and 15. Necropsies at study termination were not conducted.

Overall, based on available weight of evidence from studies on the main constituents, together with the low bioavailability potential of the test substance (based on high MW and low water solubility), the test substance, 'mono- and di- C16-18 and C16-18 AE20 PSE', can be considered to have a low acute oral toxicity potential with LD50 value exceeding 2000 mg/kg bw.

Justification for classification or non-classification

Overall based on the available weight of evidence, the test substance, 'mono- and di- C16-18 PSE and C16-18 AE20 PSE', does not warrant classification for acute oral toxicity, according to the EU CLP criteria (Regulation 1272/2008/EC).