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Toxicological information

Skin sensitisation

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
skin sensitisation: in chemico
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
2017-11-29 to 2018-01-20
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
study report
Title:
Unnamed
Year:
2018
Report Date:
2018

Materials and methods

Test guidelineopen allclose all
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 442C (In Chemico Skin Sensitisation: Direct Peptide Reactivity Assay (DPRA))
Version / remarks:
February 04, 2015
Deviations:
no
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: Direct Peptide Reactivity Assay (DPRA) for Skin Sensitization Testing, DB-ALM Protocol n°154, January 12, 2013
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. certificate)
Remarks:
Bayerisches Landesamt für Gesundheit und Lebensmittelsicherheit, München, Germany
Type of study:
direct peptide binding assay

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent

In chemico test system

Details on study design:
Skin sensitisation (In chemico test system):
The DPRA is an in chemico method which quantifies the remaining concentration of cysteine- or lysine-containing peptide following 24 ± 2 hours incubation with the test item at 25 ± 2.5°C.

Preparation of the cysteine or lysine-containing peptides:
18.87 mg cysteine peptide with an amino acid sequence of Ac-RFAACAA were pre-weighed in a vial and dissolved in a defined volume (36.69 mL) of a phosphate buffer with pH 7.5 to reach a concentration of 0.667 mM.
20.56 mg lysine peptide with an amino acid sequence of Ac-RFAAKAA were pre-weighed in a vial and dissolved in a defined volume of ammonium acetate buffer with pH 10.2 (39.09 mL) to reach a concentration of 0.667 mM.
All peptides used for this study were stored at -80 °C and protected from light. Peptides were thawed only immediately prior to use.

Preparation of the test item:
The test item was freshly prepared immediately prior to use. The test item was pre-weighed into a glass vial and was dissolved in an appropriate solvent previously determined in a pre-experiment. A stock solution with a concentration of 100 mM was prepared.

Positive control, reference controls and co-elution control
Cinnamic aldehyde ((2E)-3-phenylprop-2-enal) was solved in acetonitrile and was used as positive control. A stock concentration of 100 mM was prepared and was included in every assay run for both peptides.
Co-elution controls were set up in parallel to sample preparation but without the respective peptide solution. The controls were used to verify whether a test chemical absorbs at 220 nm and co-elutes with the cysteine or lysine peptide. The co-elution controls were prepared for every test item preparation and the positive control and were included in every assay run for both peptides.
Reference controls, co-elution controls and a positive control (PC) were set up in parallel to the test item in order to confirm the validity of the test.
Reference control A was prepared using acetonitrile in order to verify the accuracy of the calibration curve for peptide quantification. Its replicates were injected in the beginning of each HPLC run.
Reference control B was prepared using acetonitrile in order to verify the stability of the respective peptide over the analysis time. Its replicates were injected in the beginning and in the end of each HPLC run.
Reference control C was set up for the test item and the positive control. RC C for the positive control was prepared using acetonitrile. RC C for the test item was prepared using the respective solvent used to solubilise the test item. The RC C was used to verify that the solvent does not impact the percent peptide depletion (PPD). Additionally reference control C was used to calculate PPD. The RC C was included in every assay run for both peptides and was injected together with the samples.

Incubation of the test item with the cysteine and lysine peptide:
The test item solutions were incubated with the cysteine and lysine peptide solutions in glass vials using defined ratios of peptide to test item (1:10 cysteine peptide, 1:50 lysine peptide). The reaction solutions were left in the dark at 25 ± 2.5 °C for 24 ± 2 h before running the HPLC analysis. Reference controls, co-elution controls as well as the positive control were set up in parallel.

Preparation of the HPLC standard calibration curve:
A standard calibration curve was generated for both, the cysteine and the lysine peptide. Peptide standards were prepared in a solution of 20% acetonitrile : 80% buffer (v/v) using phosphate buffer (pH 7.5) for the cysteine peptide and ammonium acetate buffer (pH 10.2) for the lysine peptide (dilution buffer (DB)). A serial dilution of the peptide stock solution (0.667 mM) using the respective DB was performed.

HPLC Preparation and Analysis:
Peptide depletion was monitored by HPLC coupled with an UV detector at λ = 220 nm using a reversed-phase HPLC column (Zorbax SB-C-18 2.1 mm x 100 mm x 3.5 micron) as preferred column. The entire system was equilibrated at 30 °C with 50% phase A and 50% phase B for at least 2 hours before running the analysis sequence. The HPLC analysis was performed using a flow rate of 0.35 mL/min and a linear gradient from 10% to 25% acetonitrile over 10 minutes, followed by a rapid increase to 90% acetonitrile. The column was re-equilibrated under initial conditions for 7 minutes between injections. Equal volumes of each standard, sample and control were injected. HPLC analysis for the cysteine and lysine peptide was performed concurrently (if two HPLC systems were available) or on separate days. If analysis was conducted on separate days all test chemical solutions were freshly prepared for both assays on each day. The analysis was timed to assure that the injection of the first sample started 22 to 26 hours after the test chemical was mixed with the peptide solution. The HPLC run sequence was set up in order to keep the HPLC analysis time less than 30 hours.

Data evaluation:
The concentration of the cysteine and lysine peptide was determined in each sample from absorbance at λ = 220 nm, measuring the area of the appropriated peaks (peak area (PA)) and calculating the concentration of peptide using the linear calibration curves derived from the standard solutions.
By using the prediction model 1 (cysteine 1:10 / lysine 1:50 prediction model) the threshold of 6.38% average peptide depletion was used to support the discrimination between skin sensitisers and non-sensitisers. Application of the prediction model for assigning a test item to a reactivity class (i.e. low, moderate or high reactivity) may perhaps prove useful to inform potency assessment within the framework of an IATA. In the framework of an IATA the test substance may be considered as non-sensitiser to skin in accordance with UN GHS “No Category”, if the mean depletion of both peptides is below 6.38%.

Acceptance Criteria:
The run meets the acceptance criteria if:
- the standard calibration curve has a r² > 0.99,
- the mean percent peptide depletion (PPD) value of the three replicates for the positive control is between 60.8% and 100% for the cysteine peptide and the maximum standard deviation (SD) for the positive control replicates is < 14.9%,
- the mean percent peptide depletion (PPD) value of the three replicates for the positive control is between 40.2% and 69.0% for the lysine peptide and the maximum SD for the positive control replicates is < 11.6%,
- the mean peptide concentration of the three reference controls A replicates is 0.50 ± 0.05 mM,
- the coefficient of variation (CV) of peptide peak areas for the six reference control B replicates and three reference control C replicates in acetonitrile is < 15.0%.
The results of the test item meet the acceptance criteria if:
- the maximum standard deviation (SD) for the test chemical replicates is < 14.9% for the cysteine percent depletion (PPD),
- the maximum standard deviation (SD) for the test chemical replicates is < 11.6% for the lysine percent depletion (PPD),
- the mean peptide concentration of the three reference controls C replicates in the appropriate solvent is 0.50 ± 0.05 mM.

Results and discussion

Positive control results:
The 100 mM stock solution of the positive control (cinnamic aldehyde) showed high reactivity towards the synthetic peptides. The mean depletion of both peptides was 65.38%.

In vitro / in chemico

Results
Key result
Parameter:
other: mean peptide depletion [%]
Run / experiment:
cysteine run
Value:
98.62
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Negative controls validity:
valid
Positive controls validity:
valid
Remarks on result:
positive indication of skin sensitisation
Other effects / acceptance of results:
OTHER EFFECTS:
For the 100 mM stock solution of the test item no turbidity or precipitation was observed when diluted with the cysteine peptide solution. After the 24 h ± 2 h incubation period but prior to the HPLC analysis samples were inspected for precipitation, turbidity or phase separation. Precipitation was observed for the samples of the test item. Samples were not centrifuged prior to the HPLC analysis.
For the 100 mM stock solution of the test item precipitation was observed when diluted with the lysine peptide solution. After the 24 h ± 2 h incubation period but prior to the HPLC analysis samples were inspected for precipitation, turbidity or phase separation. Precipitation was observed for the samples of the test item (including the respective co-elution control). Samples were centrifuged prior to the HPLC analysis. Phase separation was observed for the co-elution control of the positive control sample. Since the acceptance criteria for the depletion range of the positive control were fulfilled, the observed phase separation was regarded as insignificant.

ACCEPTANCE OF RESULTS:
- Acceptance criteria met for negative control: yes
- Acceptance criteria met for positive control: yes
- Acceptance criteria met for variability between replicate measurements: yes

Any other information on results incl. tables

Cysteine and Lysine Values of the Calibration Curve

Sample

Cysteine Peptide

Lysine Peptide

Peak Area
at 220 nm

Peptide Concentration [mM]

Peak Area
at 220 nm

Peptide Concentration [mM]

STD1

17.8700

0.5340

4254.6284

0.5340

STD2

9.0120

0.2670

2161.7087

0.2670

STD3

4.5180

0.1335

1051.8925

0.1335

STD4

2.2520

0.0667

525.2503

0.0667

STD5

1.1010

0.0334

260.5259

0.0334

STD6

0.5300

0.0167

130.8325

0.0167

STD7

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

Depletion of the Cysteine Peptide

Cysteine Peptide

Sample

Peak Area
at 220 nm

Peptide Conc. [mM]

Peptide Depletion [%]

Mean Peptide Depletion [%]

SD of Peptide Depletion [%]

CV of Peptide Depletion [%]

Positive Control

4.4470

0.1325

74.33

74.15

0.18

0.25

4.4770

0.1334

74.15

4.5100

0.1344

73.96

Test Item

0.3270

0.0096

98.07

98.62

1.20

1.22

0.3740

0.0110

97.80

0.0000

-0.0002

100.00

Depletion of the Lysine Peptide

Lysine Peptide

Sample

Peak Area
at 220 nm

Peptide Conc. [mM]

Peptide Depletion [%]

Mean Peptide Depletion [%]

SD of Peptide Depletion [%]

CV of Peptide Depletion [%]

Positive Control

1675.9452

0.2100

57.93

56.62

1.13

2.00

1753.5808

0.2197

55.98

1754.5223

0.2198

55.95

Test Item

4064.3474

0.5088

0.00

0.00

0.00

--

4043.3840

0.5062

0.00

4041.7593

0.5060

0.00

A minor/major peak in the co-elution control of the test item was observed at the retention time of the lysine peptide (peak area = 78.755). Therefore, co-elution of test item and peptide occurred and the given peak areas do not properly reflect the amount of lysine peptide present in the test item samples. The values can only be considered as an estimation of the peptide depletion and will not be used for evaluation. Since co-elution with the lysine peptide was observed, prediction model 2 should be considered.

Prediction Model 2

Cysteine 1:10 Prediction Model

Cysteine PPD

Reactivity Class

DPRA Prediction

0.00% PPD 13.89%

No or minimal Reactivity

Negative

13.89% < PPD 23.09%

Low Reactivity

Positive

23.09% < PPD 98.24%

Moderate Reactivity

98.24% < PPD 100%

High Reactivity

Categorization of the Test Item

Prediction Model

Prediction Model 1
(Cysteine Peptide and Lysine Peptide / Ratio: 1:10 and 1:50)

Prediction Model 2
(Cysteine Peptide / Test Item Ratio: 1:10)

Test Substance

Mean Peptide Depletion [%]

Reactivity Category

Prediction

Mean Peptide Depletion [%]

Reactivity Category

Prediction

Test Item

-

-

-

98.62

High Reactivity

positive

Positive Control

65.38

High Reactivity

positive

74.15

Moderate Reactivity

positive

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Interpretation of results:
other: peptide depletion positive
Remarks:
The data generated with this test should be considered in the context of integrated approached such as IATA, combining the result with other complementary information, e.g. derived from in vitro assays addressing other key events of the skin sensitisation AOP.
Conclusions:
In this study under the given conditions the test item showed high reactivity towards the cysteine peptide. Even though a precipitate was observed a positive result was obtained.
Executive summary:

The in chemico direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA) enables detection of the sensitising potential of a test item by quantifying the reactivity of test chemicals towards synthetic peptides containing either lysine or cysteine.

For the 100 mM stock solution of the test item, no turbidity or precipitation was observed when diluted with the cysteine peptide solution. After the 24 h ± 2 h incubation period but prior to the HPLC analysis samples were inspected for precipitation, turbidity or phase separation. Precipitation was observed for the samples of the test item. Samples were not centrifuged prior to the HPLC analysis.

For the 100 mM stock solution of the test item, precipitation was observed when diluted with the lysine peptide solution. After the 24 h ± 2 h incubation period but prior to the HPLC analysis samples were inspected for precipitation, turbidity or phase separation. Precipitation was observed for the samples of the test item (including the respective co-elution control). Samples were centrifuged prior to the HPLC analysis. Phase separation was observed for the co-elution control of the positive control sample.

Since the acceptance criteria for the depletion range of the positive control were fulfilled, the observed phase separation was regarded as insignificant.

Co-elution of the test item with the lysine peptide was observed. The peak area determined in the co-elution controls corresponds to

0.0102 mM of lysine peptide. Therefore, the given peak areas and corresponding lysine peptide values can only be considered as an estimation of the peptide depletion and cannot be used for evaluation.

Sensitising potential of the test item was predicted from the mean peptide depletion of the cysteine peptide by comparing the peptide concentration of the test item treated samples to the corresponding reference control C.

The 100 mM stock solution of the test item showed high reactivity towards the synthetic peptides. The mean depletion of the cysteine peptide was > 13.89% (98.62%). Even though a precipitate was observed a positive result can still be used. Based on the prediction model 2 the test item can be considered as sensitiser.

The 100 mM stock solution of the positive control (cinnamic aldehyde) showed high reactivity towards the synthetic peptides. The mean depletion of both peptides was 65.38%.