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Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Justification for type of information:
Read across justification is attached in section 13.
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across source
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test)
GLP compliance:
yes
Specific details on test material used for the study:
- SYLVATAL 25/30 (distilled tall oil)
- Stability under test conditions: Test article is a low soluble, at the test temperature, non volatile liquid.
Analytical monitoring:
not specified
Details on sampling:
- Concentrations: Control, 625 mg/L, 1250 mg/L, 2500 mg/L, 5000 mg/L, 10000 mg/L
- Sampling method: The test was carried out with aqueous extracts (WAF = Water Accommodated Fraction) at various loading ratios in daphnia-medium. The extract was formed by stirring 5 various amounts of the test article in daphnia medium for 23 h with a magnetic stirrer. The extraction was carried out in glass beakers which were equipped with a glass tube, which allowed the separation of the water phase by siphoning. The endpoint of the test was therefore the LL50 (lethal loading). The mixing was done slow enough not to cause dispersion or emulsification of the undissolved test article. Therefore the developed vortex (by stirring) at the surface was not deeper than 10% of the water height. After stirring for 23 hours the solutions were allowed to stand for 1 hour before use in order to allow phase separation. The test was carried out in a static way and the pH was not adjusted. The extractions were clear.
Vehicle:
no
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Water flea
- Strain/clone: Clone 5
- Source: German Environmental Ministry

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation conditions (same as test or not): Pre-treatment: The holding of the animals was carried out in a non-climated room (22C +/- 5C, light/dark = 14h/10h, illumination = GroLux Aqua star) in 1 L glass beakers.
- Type and amount of food: Pre-treatment: The animals were fed with algae (scenedesmus subspicatus) and with filter material of a fish aquarium.
- Feeding frequency: Pre-treatment: 2-3 times a day
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Hardness:
2.5 mmol/L
Test temperature:
19.1°C - 20.5°C
pH:
pH values in the WAF: 5.94 - 7.17
Dissolved oxygen:
DO in the WAF: 7.9 - 8.6 mg/L
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Control, 625 mg/L, 1250 mg/L, 2500 mg/L, 5000 mg/L, 10000 mg/L
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: 50 mL Glass beakers
- Aeration: None
- No. of organisms per vessel: 5
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 4
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 4

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Culture medium different from test medium: Culturing Medium: Stock solutions in demineralised water:
Synthetic sea salt (Wimex hwMeersaltz): 0.333 g/L
CaCl2 x 2H2O (117.6g/L): 2.3 mL/L
NaHCO3 (25.2g/L): 2.2 mL/L
SeO2 (1.4g/L): 0.1 mL/L
This water was aerated with oil free compressed air until saturation. The synthetic sea salt contained 7 macro nutrients, 60 trace elements, 8 vitamins and 3 amino acids. By addition of CaCl2 and NaHCO3, the total hardness (2.5 mmol/L, the Ca/Mg-relation (4:1) and the alkalinity (0.8 mmol/L) were adapted to the medium described in the OECD Guideline 202.
- Intervals of water quality measurement: pH, dissolved oxygen and temperature were measured at the start and end of the test.

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: None
- Photoperiod: 14h light/10h dark (Gro-Lux)

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable): Observations were made 1-3 times per day, at least 0h, 24h and 48h.

VEHICLE CONTROL PERFORMED: no
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
EL50
Effect conc.:
> 10 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EL50
Effect conc.:
> 5 000 - < 10 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility

Table 1: Dissolved oxygen in the WAF (9 mg/L)

 Time (h)

 Control

 625 mg/L

 1250 mg/L

 2500 mg/L

5000 mg/L 

 10000 mg/L

 0

 8.5

 7.9

 8.2

 8.3

 8.2

 8.2

 24

 8.5

 8.5

8.5 

 8.6

 8.5

 8.6

 48

 7.9

 7.9

7.9 

 8.1  8.0  8.0

The values at time 0 h and 24 h were measured in a separate vessel without daphnia.

Table 2: pH values in the WAF

 Time (h)  Control  625 mg/L  1250 mg/L  2500 mg/L  5000 mg/L  10000 mg/L
 0 7.09  7.17  6.81  6.69  6.73  6.12 
 24 7.10   7.16 6.86   6.98 6.93   5.77
 48  7.07 7.10   6.96  6.98  6.96  5.94

The values at time 0h and 24h were measured in a separate vessel without daphnia.

Table 3: Immobilisation rate (%), skinnings (%) and the number of animals which are trapped at the surface

   Control  625 mg/L  1250 mg/L  2500 mg/L  5000 mg/L  10000 mg/L
 Immobilisation (%), 24h  0  0  0
 Immobilisation (%), 48h 0  0  0  5  85
Skinnings (%), 48h  100 100  100  95  100  95 
 Animals trapped at the surface (%), 48h

Table 4: TOC values (mg/L) at time 0 h and time 24 h

 Time (h)

10000 mg/L

 0

 31.3

 24

 36.2

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
The test article SYLVATAL 25/30 shows toxic effects (EL50 96h) at nominal concentrations above 5000 mg/L.

The TOC values of the 1000 mg/L WAF show that only a small amount of fthe test article was dissolved (approximately 30 mgTOC/L).

The pH value indicates that the amount of test article used to prepare the WAF determines the acidity of the solution.

Referring the toxicity to the soluble parts of the test article (measured as TOC) an EC50 (48 h) of approximately 30 mg/L is obtained which means that WAFs gained with more than 5000 mg/L (loading) are acute toxic to daphnia while WAFs gained with ≤5000 mg/L don't show any negative effects.
Executive summary:

In a study according to OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test) the test article SYLVATAL 25/30 shows toxic effects (EL50 96 h) at nominal concentrations above 5000 mg/L (Water Accomodated Fractions).

NOTE: Any of data in this dataset are disseminated by the European Union on a right-to-know basis and this is not a publication in the same sense as a book or an article in a journal. The right of ownership in any part of this information is reserved by the data owner(s). The use of this information for any other, e.g. commercial purpose is strictly reserved to the data owners and those persons or legal entities having paid the respective access fee for the intended purpose.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
1999
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
test procedure in accordance with national standard methods with acceptable restrictions
Remarks:
Protocol referenced as: Warne, M. St. J., and Julli, M. Protocol for acute and chronic toxicity tests using the cladocerans Ceriodaphnia cf. dubia Richard and Daphnia carinata King. New South Wales Environment Protection Authority, in press. Guidance is a national australian guideline and is considered appliable to standard guidance.
Justification for type of information:
Read across justification is attached in section 13.
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: Protocol referenced as: Warne, M. St. J., and Julli, M. Protocol for acute and chronic toxicity tests using the cladocerans Ceriodaphnia cf. dubia Richard and Daphnia carinata King. New South Wales Environment Protection Authority, in press
Version / remarks:
Guidance is a national Australian guideline and is considered appliable to standard guidance.
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other:
Version / remarks:
ASTM (1988). Standard Guide for Conducting Acute Toxicity Tests on Aqueous E/uents with Fishes, Macroinvertebrates, and Amphibians. American Society for Testing and Materials. Designation E1192.
Principles of method if other than guideline:
The method was developed by the NSW Environment Protection Authority. Each bioassay had 6 test concentrations in geometric series plus a control. Five cladocera were allocated to each test beaker and each treatment was triplicated. The test duration was 48 hours and the temperature was kept constant with 16:8 hour light to dark regime. The test was considered invalid if more than 10% of control neonates were immobilized.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Specific details on test material used for the study:
-Test substance name: Triethanolamine
- Source and lot/batch No.of test material: Not stated
- Purity: No data
- Storage: All components were stored in the dark at 22±2°C.
- Expiration date of the lot/batch: Not stated


Analytical monitoring:
not specified
Details on test solutions:
Stock solutions of each component (except the enzymes), were made by dissolving the appropriate amount in 1 or 2 L of the water described previously and then gently stirred for 12 h in the dark at 23±1°C using Teflon magnetic stirrers. Stock solutions of the enzymes were made immediately prior to commencing the bioassays and were stirred for a maximum of 15 min. Stirring was conducted so that no bubbles were formed when the surfactants were dissolved, as the formation of bubbles leads to depletion of surfactants in the solution (Aboul-Kassim and Simoneit, 1993). Light was excluded during the stirring to minimize photodegradation of the chemicals. Stock solutions were diluted to the appropriate concentrations immediately prior to the commencement of a test.

Ref: Aboul-Kassim, T. A., and Simoneit, B. R. T. (1993). Detergents: A review of the nature, chemistry and behavior in the aquatic environment: Part 1. Chemical composition and analytical techniques. Crit. Rev. Environ. Sci. & Technol. 24, 325-346.
Test organisms (species):
Ceriodaphnia dubia
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Strain/clone: The cladoceran used in this study was identified as C. dubia Richard (Julli et al., 1990). However, while the cladoceran conforms (cf.) to the description of C. dubia it was not identical and to denote that it may be a different species it has been called C. cf. dubia.
- Source: C. cf. dubia were cultured and tested at 23±1°C in dechlorinated Sydney mains water which was filtered (1 µm), aged (1 month), and adjusted to 500µS/cm with seawater.
- Cultures of C. cf. dubia were maintained in 2 L glass beakers and transferred to fresh water three times weekly.
- Food was provided after water renewal at a concentration of 25,000 cells/mL of each of the unicellular algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata Printz (formerly named Selenastrum capricornutum) and Ankistrodesmus sp.
- All neonates used in the toxicity tests were less than 24 h old.
- Animals were not fed during the tests.
Ref: Julli, M., Chapman, J., and Thomson, G. T. (1990). Use of Australian cladocerans to generate life-cycle toxicity data. Environ. Monitor Assess. 14, 353-362.
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Remarks on exposure duration:
Tests were terminated after 48 h and the numbers of immobile cladocera counted. Immobilization was defined as the absence of visible movement by the cladocera within 15 s of gentle agitation of the test solution (ASTM, 1988).
Hardness:
Not specified.
Test temperature:
Beakers were randomly positioned in constant temperature cabinets and maintained at 23±1°C
pH:
Measured immediately prior to the addition of the cladocera and on completion of each bioassay. Values not specified.
Dissolved oxygen:
Measured immediately prior to the addition of the cladocera and on completion of each bioassay. Values not specified.
Conductivity:
Measured immediately prior to the addition of the cladocera and on completion of each bioassay. Values not specified.
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Each bioassay consisted of five concentrations of a detergent component arranged in a geometric series, plus a control.
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: The test vessels were 250 mL glass beakers which held 200 mL of the test solution or control solution
- No. of organisms per vessel: 5
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 3
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 5
- No. of vessels per vehicle control (replicates): 3
- Biomass loading rate: 1 animal / 40 mL

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: 16:8 h light to dark cycle
- Light intensity: Below 1000 Lux at the surface of the solutions

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable): 48 h EC50 (number of immobile cladocera counted at the end of test). Temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and conductivity of the test solutions were measured immediately prior to the addition of the cladocera and on completion of each bioassay.

RANGE-FINDING STUDY
- Triethanolamine was tested in a range-finder and definitive test over the period of the study.
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
609.88 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
not specified
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CL: 565.2 - 658.3
Reported statistics and error estimates:
The 48-h EC50 (immobilization) values and 95% confidence intervals were based on nominal concentrations and were determined by the trimmed Spearman-Karber method (Hamilton et al., 1977). The toxicity of the components was expressed in three different units: EC50 mg/L, EC50 mmol/L, and toxic units (mean % detergent toxicity range).

Ref: Hamilton, M. A., Russo, R. C., and Thurston, R. V. (1977). Trimmed Spearman}Karber method for estimating median lethal concentrations in toxicity bioassays. Environ. Sci. Technol. 11, 714-719. Correction (1978). 12, 417.

Component Name and Number, CAS Number, Molecular Weight, Toxicity Values (EC50) Expressed in mg/L and mmol/L and

the Percentage of Toxicity the Component Contributes to the Toxicity of the Detergent

 

Component number and name

CAS No.

MWb

EC50 mg/L
(95% CL))

EC50 (mmol/L) (95% CL)

Mean % detergent

toxicity (range)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Triethanolamine

102-71-6

149.19

609.98
(565.2 - 658.3)

4.0886
(3.79 - 4.41)

0.02

 

 

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
The 48-h EC50 (immobilisation) value from a static acute toxicity test with was calculated as 609.88 mg/L based on nominal concentrations.
Executive summary:

The 48 -h EC50 (immobilisation) value from the static acute toxicity test with Ceriodaphnia dubia was calculated as 609.88 mg/L based on nominal concentrations. The test procedure is in accordance with national standard methods with acceptable restrictions.

NOTE: Any of data in this dataset are disseminated by the European Union on a right-to-know basis and this is not a publication in the same sense as a book or an article in a journal. The right of ownership in any part of this information is reserved by the data owner(s). The use of this information for any other, e.g. commercial purpose is strictly reserved to the data owners and those persons or legal entities having paid the respective access fee for the intended purpose.

Description of key information

The acute toxicity of the target substance, Tall oil, compound with triethanolamine, to aquatic invertebrates, was assessed by read-across from its components, distilled tall oil & triethanolamine. Based on read-across data, the target substance is not expected to be hazardous to daphnia, with the lowest measured 48-h EC50 (nominal) of 609.88 mg/L. The read-across justification document covering this and other endpoints is attached to Section 13.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Fresh water invertebrates

Fresh water invertebrates
Effect concentration:
609.88 mg/L

Additional information