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Environmental fate & pathways

Biodegradation in water: screening tests

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Endpoint:
biodegradation in water: inherent biodegradability
Type of information:
read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
key study
Justification for type of information:
REPORTING FORMAT FOR THE ANALOGUE APPROACH
1. HYPOTHESIS FOR THE ANALOGUE APPROACH
This read-across is based on the hypothesis that the source and the target substance have very similar physicochemical and (eco)toxicological properties because their chemical structures are nearly identical. An analogue approach has thus been employed. The target substance is the meta-isomer of the dye Reactive Yellow 095, where the sulphonate group is bound at the meta-position of the amino benzene moiety. The source chemical is the reaction mass of both the meta-isomer and the para-isomer of Reactive Yellow 095.
The presence of sulphonate groups make both dyes highly water soluble and therefore less critical for human health and environmental issues. Based on their chemical similarity, similar properties are expected in both humans and the environment.
2. SOURCE AND TARGET CHEMICAL(S)
Source: Reactive Yellow 095 meta/para (CAS# --- / EC# 944-218-2)
Target: Reactive Yellow 095 meta (CAS# 84045-63-6 / EC# 281-865-3)
3. ANALOGUE APPROACH JUSTIFICATION
see attachment under 4.12 Auto flammability
Reason / purpose:
read-across source
Reason / purpose:
read-across source
Reason / purpose:
read-across source
Parameter:
% degradation (DOC removal)
Value:
0
Sampling time:
28 d
Parameter:
BOD5
Value:
3 mg O2/g test mat.
Parameter:
COD
Value:
402 mg O2/g test mat.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Interpretation of results:
under test conditions no biodegradation observed
Conclusions:
Biodegradation of the test substance after 28 days was 0%.
Executive summary:

A key study was performed to determine the percent biodegradation of the source substance. Inherent biodegradability was determined in a 28 days test according to OECD TG 302B. The test substance was tested in a concentration of 150 mg/l. The reference substance was diethylene glycol. Based on the results of the study, biodegradation of the test substance after 28 days was 0 %.

In a second key study, the biochemical oxygen demand of the source substance is determined by measuring the dissolved oxygen concentration before and after 5 days incubation at 20°C in different test concentrations diluted in water saturated with dissolved oxygen and containing a seed of microorganisms. The test substance was tested in concentrations from about 6 to 800 mg/l. The reference substance D(+)-Glucose / L-Glutamic acid was tested in a concentration of 20 mg/l. The BOD5 of the source substance: 3 mg 02/g. The BOD5 of the reference substance is : 195,180, 200 mg O2/I.

In a third key study, the source substance dissolved in water is oxidized by potassium dichromate in a strong sulphuric acid medium with silver sulphate as a catalyst under reflux for 2 hours. The residual dichromate is determined by titration with standardized ferrous ammonium sulphate (according to DEV H 41-1, DEV1980). The test substance concentration was tested in 5.0 mg/l. The reference substance Potassium hydrogen phthalate solution was tested in a concentration of 20 ml/I. The COD of the source substance is : 402 mg 02/g The COD of the reference substance is: 193 mg O2/I.

In four supporting studies, the BOD5 of the source substance was determined to be 0 mg O2/g. The COD of the source substance was determined to be 157 mg O2/g, 417 mg O2/g, 581 mg O2/g and 771 mg O2/g, respectively.

Based on these results the corresponding BOD5/COD quotient is equivalent or close to zero, so no biodegradation is expected for the source substance and for the structurally related target substance as well.

Endpoint:
biodegradation in water: ready biodegradability
Remarks:
BOD value
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
1975
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
test procedure in accordance with national standard methods with acceptable restrictions
Justification for type of information:
None
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: CIBA Method A-15
Principles of method if other than guideline:
None
GLP compliance:
no
Specific details on test material used for the study:
None
Oxygen conditions:
aerobic
Inoculum or test system:
not specified
Details on inoculum:
None
Duration of test (contact time):
5 d
Details on study design:
None
Preliminary study:
None
Test performance:
None
Details on results:
None
Key result
Parameter:
BOD5
Value:
0 mg O2/g test mat.
Results with reference substance:
None

None

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Interpretation of results:
under test conditions no biodegradation observed
Conclusions:
The BOD of FAT 40000 is: 0 mg O2/g test mat.
Executive summary:

The biochemical oxygen demand of FAT 40000 is determined by measuring the dissolved oxygen concentration before and after 5 days incubation at 20 °C in different test concentrations diluted in water saturated with dissolved oxygen. Based on the results, the BOD of FAT 40000 : 0 mg 02/g.

Endpoint:
biodegradation in water: ready biodegradability
Remarks:
COD value
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
1975
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
test procedure in accordance with national standard methods with acceptable restrictions
Justification for type of information:
None
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: CIBA Method A-16
Principles of method if other than guideline:
None
GLP compliance:
no
Specific details on test material used for the study:
None
Oxygen conditions:
aerobic
Inoculum or test system:
not specified
Details on inoculum:
None
Details on study design:
None
Preliminary study:
None
Test performance:
None
Details on results:
None
Key result
Parameter:
COD
Value:
581 mg O2/g test mat.
Results with reference substance:
None

None

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Interpretation of results:
under test conditions no biodegradation observed
Conclusions:
The COD of FAT 40000 is: 581 mg O2/g test mat.
Executive summary:

The chemical oxygen demand of FAT 40000 is determined by measuring the dissolved oxygen concentration before and after 5 days incubation at 20 °C in different test concentrations diluted in water saturated with dissolved oxygen. Based on the results, the COD of FAT 40000 : 581 mg 02/g.

Endpoint:
biodegradation in water: ready biodegradability
Remarks:
BOD value
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
1977
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
test procedure in accordance with national standard methods with acceptable restrictions
Justification for type of information:
None
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: CIBA Method A-15
Principles of method if other than guideline:
None
GLP compliance:
no
Specific details on test material used for the study:
None
Oxygen conditions:
aerobic
Inoculum or test system:
not specified
Details on inoculum:
None
Duration of test (contact time):
5 d
Details on study design:
None
Preliminary study:
None
Test performance:
None
Details on results:
None
Key result
Parameter:
BOD5
Value:
0 mg O2/g test mat.
Results with reference substance:
None

None

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Interpretation of results:
under test conditions no biodegradation observed
Conclusions:
The BOD of FAT 40000/A is: 0 mg O2/g test mat.
Executive summary:

The biochemical oxygen demand of FAT 40000/A is determined by measuring the dissolved oxygen concentration before and after 5 days incubation at 20 °C in different test concentrations diluted in water saturated with dissolved oxygen. Based on the results, the BOD of FAT 40000/A: 0 mg 02/g.

Endpoint:
biodegradation in water: ready biodegradability
Remarks:
COD value
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
1977
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
test procedure in accordance with national standard methods with acceptable restrictions
Justification for type of information:
None
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: CIBA Method A-22
Principles of method if other than guideline:
None
GLP compliance:
no
Specific details on test material used for the study:
None
Oxygen conditions:
aerobic
Inoculum or test system:
not specified
Details on inoculum:
None
Details on study design:
None
Preliminary study:
None
Test performance:
None
Details on results:
None
Key result
Parameter:
COD
Value:
417 mg O2/g test mat.
Results with reference substance:
None

None

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Interpretation of results:
under test conditions no biodegradation observed
Conclusions:
The COD of FAT 40000/A is: 417 mg O2/g test mat.
Executive summary:

The chemical oxygen demand of FAT 40000/A is determined by measuring the dissolved oxygen concentration before and after 5 days incubation at 20 °C in different test concentrations diluted in water saturated with dissolved oxygen. Based on the results, the COD of FAT 40000/A : 417 mg 02/g.

Endpoint:
biodegradation in water: ready biodegradability
Remarks:
BOD value
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
1983
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
test procedure in accordance with national standard methods with acceptable restrictions
Justification for type of information:
None
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: CIBA Method A-15
Principles of method if other than guideline:
None
GLP compliance:
no
Specific details on test material used for the study:
None
Oxygen conditions:
aerobic
Inoculum or test system:
not specified
Details on inoculum:
None
Duration of test (contact time):
5 d
Details on study design:
None
Preliminary study:
None
Test performance:
None
Details on results:
None
Key result
Parameter:
BOD5
Value:
0 mg O2/g test mat.
Results with reference substance:
None

None

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Interpretation of results:
under test conditions no biodegradation observed
Conclusions:
The BOD of FAT 40000/D is: 0 mg O2/g test mat.
Executive summary:

The biochemical oxygen demand of FAT 40000/D is determined by measuring the dissolved oxygen concentration before and after 5 days incubation at 20 °C in different test concentrations diluted in water saturated with dissolved oxygen. Based on the results, the BOD of FAT 40000/D: 0 mg 02/g.

Endpoint:
biodegradation in water: ready biodegradability
Remarks:
COD value
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
1983
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
test procedure in accordance with national standard methods with acceptable restrictions
Justification for type of information:
None
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: CIBA Method A-22
Principles of method if other than guideline:
None
GLP compliance:
no
Specific details on test material used for the study:
None
Oxygen conditions:
aerobic
Inoculum or test system:
not specified
Details on inoculum:
None
Details on study design:
None
Preliminary study:
None
Test performance:
None
Details on results:
None
Key result
Parameter:
COD
Value:
157 mg O2/g test mat.
Results with reference substance:
None

None

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Interpretation of results:
under test conditions no biodegradation observed
Conclusions:
The COD of FAT 40000/D is: 157 mg O2/g test mat.
Executive summary:

The chemical oxygen demand of FAT 40000/D is determined by measuring the dissolved oxygen concentration before and after 5 days incubation at 20 °C in different test concentrations diluted in water saturated with dissolved oxygen. Based on the results, the COD of FAT 40000/D: 157 mg 02/g.

Endpoint:
biodegradation in water: ready biodegradability
Remarks:
BOD value
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
1984
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
test procedure in accordance with national standard methods with acceptable restrictions
Justification for type of information:
None
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: CIBA Method A-15
Principles of method if other than guideline:
None
GLP compliance:
no
Specific details on test material used for the study:
None
Oxygen conditions:
aerobic
Inoculum or test system:
not specified
Details on inoculum:
None
Duration of test (contact time):
5 d
Details on study design:
None
Preliminary study:
None
Test performance:
None
Details on results:
None
Key result
Parameter:
BOD5
Value:
0 mg O2/g test mat.
Results with reference substance:
None

None

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Interpretation of results:
under test conditions no biodegradation observed
Conclusions:
The BOD of FAT 40000/E is: 0 mg O2/g test mat.
Executive summary:

The biochemical oxygen demand of FAT 40000/E is determined by measuring the dissolved oxygen concentration before and after 5 days incubation at 20 °C in different test concentrations diluted in water saturated with dissolved oxygen. Based on the results, the BOD of FAT 40000/E : 0 mg 02/g.

Endpoint:
biodegradation in water: ready biodegradability
Remarks:
COD value
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
1984
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
test procedure in accordance with national standard methods with acceptable restrictions
Justification for type of information:
None
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: CIBA Method A-22
Principles of method if other than guideline:
None
GLP compliance:
no
Specific details on test material used for the study:
None
Oxygen conditions:
aerobic
Inoculum or test system:
not specified
Details on inoculum:
None
Details on study design:
None
Preliminary study:
None
Test performance:
None
Details on results:
None
Key result
Parameter:
COD
Value:
771 mg O2/g test mat.
Results with reference substance:
None

None

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Interpretation of results:
under test conditions no biodegradation observed
Conclusions:
The COD of FAT 40000/E is: 771.0 mg O2/g test mat.
Executive summary:

The chemical oxygen demand of FAT 40000/E is determined by measuring the dissolved oxygen concentration before and after 5 days incubation at 20 °C in different test concentrations diluted in water saturated with dissolved oxygen. Based on the results, the COD of FAT 40000/E : 771.0 mg 02/g.

Endpoint:
biodegradation in water: ready biodegradability
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
1992
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Justification for type of information:
None
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
ISO 5815 (Water quality - Determination of Biochemical Oxygen Demand after 5 Days (BOD5) - Dilution and Seeding Method)
Principles of method if other than guideline:
None
GLP compliance:
yes
Oxygen conditions:
aerobic
Inoculum or test system:
other: Seeding water of an urban waste water
Details on inoculum:
Seeding water of an urban waste water
Duration of test (contact time):
5 d
Initial conc.:
>= 6.6 - <= 844.6 mg/L
Based on:
test mat.
Details on study design:
Validity
Blank: BOD5 : should preferably not exceed 0,5 mg O2/I
Reference substance: BOD5 : between 180 - 230 mg O2/I
Test substance: 02-concentration after 5 days : between one-third and two-thirds of the initial 02-concentration
Reference substance:
other: D(+) - Glucose/L-Glutamic acid
Remarks on result:
not measured/tested
Key result
Parameter:
BOD5
Value:
3 mg O2/g test mat.
Results with reference substance:
The BOD5 of the reference substance is : 195,180, 200 mg O2/I.

None

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Interpretation of results:
under test conditions no biodegradation observed
Conclusions:
The BOD of FAT 40000 is: 3.0 mg O2/g test mat.
Executive summary:

The biochemical oxygen demand of FAT 40000/G is determined by measuring the dissolved oxygen concentration before and after 5 days incubation at 20°C in different test concentrations diluted in water saturated with dissolved oxygen and containing a seed of microorganisms. The test substance was tested in concentrations from about 6 to 800 mg/l. The reference substance D(+)-Glucose / L-Glutamic acid was tested in a concentration of 20 mg/l. The BOD5 of FAT 40000/G: 3 mg 02/g The BOD5 of the reference substance is : 195,180, 200 mg O2/I

Endpoint:
biodegradation in water: ready biodegradability
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
1992
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Justification for type of information:
None
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: EEC Directive 84/449 (1984), Part. C.9 according to DEV H 41-1, Deutsches Einheits-Verfahren, 1980
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
Mean of 2 determinations instead of 3
Principles of method if other than guideline:
None
GLP compliance:
yes
Specific details on test material used for the study:
None
Oxygen conditions:
aerobic
Inoculum or test system:
not specified
Details on inoculum:
None
Duration of test (contact time):
2 h
Initial conc.:
5 mg/L
Based on:
COD
Details on study design:
None
Reference substance:
other: Potassium hydrogen phthalate solution
Remarks on result:
not measured/tested
Key result
Parameter:
COD
Value:
402 mg O2/g test mat.
Results with reference substance:
The COD of the reference substance is : 193 mg O2/I

None

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Interpretation of results:
under test conditions no biodegradation observed
Conclusions:
The COD of the test substance FAT 40000 is: 402 mg 02/g.
Executive summary:

A predeterminated amount of the test substance FAT 40000/G dissolved in water is oxidized by potassium dichromate in a strong sulphuric acid medium with silver sulphate as a catalyst under reflux for 2 hours. The residual dichromate is determined by titration with standardized ferrous ammonium sulphate (according to DEV H 41-1, DEV1980). The test substance concentration was tested in 5.0 mg/l. The reference substance Potassium hydrogen phthalate solution was tested in a concentration of 20 ml/I. The COD of FAT 40000/G is : 402 mg 02/g The COD of the reference substance is: 193 mg O2/I

Endpoint:
biodegradation in water: inherent biodegradability
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
1993
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Justification for type of information:
None
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 302 B (Inherent biodegradability: Zahn-Wellens/EMPA Test)
Principles of method if other than guideline:
None
GLP compliance:
yes
Oxygen conditions:
aerobic
Inoculum or test system:
other: Sludge of a biological sewage treatment plant
Details on inoculum:
Sludge of a biological sewage treatment plant (ARA-Basel Industries) collected on 16.02.93
Duration of test (contact time):
28 d
Initial conc.:
150 mg/L
Based on:
DOC
Details on study design:
None
Reference substance:
diethylene glycol
Preliminary study:
None
Test performance:
None
Key result
Parameter:
% degradation (DOC removal)
Value:
0
Sampling time:
28 d
Remarks on result:
other: Standard deviation not available
Details on results:
None
Results with reference substance:
The bioelimination of the reference substance after 16 days is : 95.2 %.

None

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Interpretation of results:
under test conditions no biodegradation observed
Conclusions:
Biodegradation of the test substance after 28 days was 0 %.
Executive summary:

A key study was performed to determine the percent biodegradation of FAT 40000. An inherent biodegradability of FAT 40000 was determined in a 28 days Test according to the OECD Guideline for Testing of Chemicals, No. 302B. The test substance was tested in a concentration of 150 mg/l. The reference substance was diethylene glycol. Based on the results of the study, biodegradation of the test substance after 28 days was 0 %.

Description of key information

The substance is a reactive dye and as such the substance should not be considered to be biodegradable at all. This is confirmed by the studies performed on the source substance.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Biodegradation in water:
under test conditions no biodegradation observed
Type of water:
freshwater

Additional information

A key study was performed to determine the percent biodegradation of the source substance. Inherent biodegradability was determined in a 28 days test according to OECD TG 302B. The test substance was tested in a concentration of 150 mg/l. The reference substance was diethylene glycol. Based on the results of the study, biodegradation of the test substance after 28 days was 0 %.

In a second key study, the biochemical oxygen demand of the source substance is determined by measuring the dissolved oxygen concentration before and after 5 days incubation at 20°C in different test concentrations diluted in water saturated with dissolved oxygen and containing a seed of microorganisms. The test substance was tested in concentrations from about 6 to 800 mg/l. The reference substance D(+)-Glucose / L-Glutamic acid was tested in a concentration of 20 mg/l. The BOD5 of the source substance: 3 mg 02/g. The BOD5 of the reference substance is : 195,180, 200 mg O2/I.

In a third key study, the source substance dissolved in water is oxidized by potassium dichromate in a strong sulphuric acid medium with silver sulphate as a catalyst under reflux for 2 hours. The residual dichromate is determined by titration with standardized ferrous ammonium sulphate (according to DEV H 41-1, DEV1980). The test substance concentration was tested in 5.0 mg/l. The reference substance Potassium hydrogen phthalate solution was tested in a concentration of 20 ml/I. The COD of the source substance is : 402 mg 02/g The COD of the reference substance is: 193 mg O2/I.

In four supporting studies, the BOD5 of the source substance was determined to be 0 mg O2/g. The COD of the source substance was determined to be 157 mg O2/g, 417 mg O2/g, 581 mg O2/g and 771 mg O2/g, respectively.

Based on these results the corresponding BOD5/COD quotient is equivalent or close to zero, so no biodegradation is expected for the source substance and for the structurally related target substance as well.