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Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
06 Apr 1989 - 08 Apr 1989 (experimental)
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
EPA OTS 797.1300 (Aquatic Invertebrate Acute Toxicity Test, Freshwater Daphnids)
GLP compliance:
yes
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION
Final concentration of the stock solution: 12000 mg/L
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: water flea
- Source: in-house daphnid culture which has been maintained by ABC since 1977. The primary culture was obtained from the Columbia National Fisheries Research Laboratory (CNFRL), Columbia, Missouri, USA.
- Age at study initiatio: < 24 hours

HOLDING
- Holding conditions: Temperature 20 ± 2 °C,
- Photoperiod: 16 hours daylight with 30 min dawn and dusk transition periods
- Frequency: 50-70 footcandles
- Food type: suspension of algae (Selenastrum capricornutum) supplemented with Tetramin/cereal. leaves/yeast suspension



Test type:
flow-through
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Hardness:
174-178 mg/L as CaC02
Test temperature:
19 °C
pH:
6.7 - 7.7
Dissolved oxygen:
7.9 - 8.0 mg/L
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal test concentrations: control, 7.2, 14, 30, 60, 120 mg/L
Mean measured concentrations: < 0.1, 7.9, 13, 23, 50, 110 mg/L
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel:
- Material, total volume, fill volume: glass beakres with notched overflows, 1 L, 1 L
- Type of flow-through: proportional diluter
- Renewal rate of test solution: 4.2 ml/chamber/min; 1-liter test volume ca. 6.0 times in a 24-hour period
- No. of organisms per vessel: 10
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 4
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 4
- Biomass loading rate: 1 daphnid/100 ml

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: a blend of reverse osmosis water and ABC well water
- Total organic carbon: < 1.0 ppm
- Suspended Solids: 0.5 ppm
- Chlorine: < 0.05 ppm
- Alkalinity: 204-206 mg/L as CaCO3
- Conductivity: 320-340 µMHOS/cm
- Intervals of water quality measurement: Dissolved oxygen and pH were measured in each test concentration at 0 and 48 hours of testing

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: 16 hours daylight and 8 hours darkness with 30 min dawn and dusk transition periods
- Light intensity: 50-70 ft. c. intensity

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED: immobilization and other abnormal effects such as surfacing, erratic movement, daphnids laying on the bottom after 4, 24, 48 hours

TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Range finding study: 2 range finding study were performed
- First test: 48-hour static toxicity test
- Test concentrations: 0.01, 0.1, 1.0 and 10 mg/L
- Results used to determine the conditions for the definitive study: no mortality in any of the leveis, but abnormal behavioral effects of the daphnids in the top three levels
- Second test: 48-hour flow- through toxicity test
- Test concentrations: 6.0, 12, 25, 50 and 100 mg/L
- Results used to determine the conditions for the definitive study: no mortality after 48 hours, but showed abnormal behavioral effects at the 100 mg/L test level
Reference substance (positive control):
not specified
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
95 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CL 83 - 110 mg/L
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
23 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: mortality, abnormal effects
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Under the study conditions, the 48 h EC50 was established at 95 mg/L based on mean measured concentrations and the NOEC was 23 mg/L.
Executive summary:

A study was conducted to determine the acute toxicity of acrylic acid towards Daphnia magna. This study followed EPA OTS Guideline 797.1300 using a flow-through design. Nominal exposure concentrations ranged from 7.2 to 120 mg/L and mean measured concentrations ranged from 7.9 to 110 mg/L. Under the study conditions, the 48 h EC50 was established at 95 mg/L based on mean measured concentrations and the NOEC was 23 mg/L (BAMM, 1990).

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: see 'Remark'
Remarks:
study not according to standard protocol but good quality and data obtained in contyrol water considered useful for setting the reference value for acute aquatic ecotoxicity. Culture medium, control test water conditions well described and relevant the purpose of classification.
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
lab-designed dose response test along the lines of later standard cladoceran test protocols
GLP compliance:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
US EPA approved procedures were used for sampling (not further detailed)
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
tests were performed in
a) lake Superior water (control) and
b) different natural waters taken from Naugatuck river (US). only the results obtained in synthetic waters were used
Zinc background: (total concentration)
Test organisms (species):
Ceriodaphnia dubia
Details on test organisms:
laboratory stock C. dubia were used from the US EPA environmental research mlab, Duluth, Minnesota culture unit (maintained in lake superior water). organisms were <4hrs old
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Hardness:
(as CaCO3/l): reference water: 52
water 1: 36
water 5: 68
Test temperature:
22-28°C
pH:
ref water: 7.7
water 1: 7.5
water 5: 7.5
Nominal and measured concentrations:
not detailed
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
169 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: results obtained in control water
Details on results:
Only results obtained in water with non-increased ambient zinc background are reported. For the acute toxicity reference database, only the result in control water (Lake Superior) is used, according to the approach followed in the RA (ECB 2008). The data obtained in natural waters are not used. they are:
Duration Endpoint Effect conc. Nominal/Measured Conc. based on Basis for effect Remarks (e.g. 95% CL)

48 h LC50 165 µg/L meas. (not specified) dissolved mortality result on water 1, test 1
48 h LC50 145 µg/L meas. (not specified) dissolved mortality result on water 1, test 2
48 h LC50 194 µg/L meas. (not specified) dissolved mortality result on water 5
Reported statistics and error estimates:
the trimmed Spearman-Karber method was used for estimating median LC50.one way analysis of variance and Dunett's procedure was used for comparing all treatments with a control (p=0.95) to identify significant differences.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Under the study conditions, the 48 h LC50 was established at 169 µg/L (meas.).
Executive summary:

A study was conducted to determine toxicity of the test substance to Ceriodaphnia dubia. Tests were conducted according to a standard protocol. Good quality result obtained in Lake Superior water were considered useful for setting the reference value for acute aquatic ecotoxicity. Under the study conditions, the 48 h LC50 was established at 169 µg/L (meas.) (Carlson, 1986).

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
comparable to guideline study
Remarks:
Tests done according to standard protocol. Good quality and considered useful for setting the reference value for acute aquatic ecotoxicity. Culture medium, test water conditions well described and relevant the purpose of classification.
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
no details given
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
M-4 Elendt medium was used for testing
Test organisms (species):
Ceriodaphnia dubia
Details on test organisms:
The lab clone of Ceriodaphnia dubia was used that had been successfully cultured in the lab for 5 years. The paper describes the effect of acclimatisation to higher zinc concnetrations before testing; only the results of the non-acclimatised organisms are reported and used.
The organisms were fed daily a mixture of (3:1 ratio) the algae Raphidocelis subcapitata and Chlamydomonas Rheinhardtii at a concnetration of 2,5 x 10 to the 6th algal cells/ml.
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Hardness:
280 mgCaCO3/l
Test temperature:
24+/-1°C
pH:
7.8
Nominal and measured concentrations:
not mentioned, all results expressed as measured dissolved Zn-concentrations
Details on test conditions:
Elendt M-4 medium
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
670 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (initial)
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: Results are expressed as dissolved zinc ions, result from the non-acclimatised clone
Details on results:
only the result from the non-acclimatised control clone are reported and used.
Reported statistics and error estimates:
statements of significance were based on accepting p<0.05
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Under the study conditions, the 48 h EC50 was established at 670 µg/L.
Executive summary:

A study was conducted to determine the toxicity of the test substance towards Ceriodaphnia dubia according to a method equivalent to OECD Guideline 202. Under the study conditions, the 48 h EC50 was established at 670 µg/L (measured initial) (Muyssen and Jansseen, 2002).

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: see 'Remark'
Remarks:
study not according to standard protocol but good quality and considered useful for setting the reference value for acute aquatic ecotoxicity. Study used for that purpose in the EU risk assessment process on zinc (ECB 2008). Culture medium, test water conditions well described and relevant the purpose of classification.
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Dose response test with Daphnia magna in beakers, similar to the later developed standard D. magna chronic test. linear series of concentrations were used for delineating reproductive impairment levels.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
sampling at beginning
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
unfiltered lake Superior water strained through #20 bolting cloth
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
Daphnids were 12 +/- 12 hrs old. They originated from a laboratory clone from the university of Michigan.
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Hardness:
45.3 mg CaCO3/l
Test temperature:
not reported for acute test but chronic test performed at 18°C
pH:
7.7
Dissolved oxygen:
near saturation at all times
Nominal and measured concentrations:
nominal concentrations: 25, 50, 100, 125, 200 µg/l;
corresponding measured concentrations: 35,52,105, 125, 208 µg/l
Details on test conditions:
tests were run both with and without food additions. Both results were considered.
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
100 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: result obtained without food
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
280 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: result obtained with food
Details on results:
Two different results, obtained without and with food, respectively
Reported statistics and error estimates:
results were said to be statistically evaluated but no information was further reported
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Under the study conditions, the 48 h LC50 was established at 100 µg/L (without food) and 280 µg/L (with food) (meas.).
Executive summary:

A study was conducted to determine the toxicity of the test substance to Daphnia magna. Tests were not conducted according to a standard protocol, but were of good quality and considered useful for setting the reference value for acute aquatic ecotoxicity. Study results (without food) were used for that purpose in the EU risk assessment process on zinc (ECB 2008). Under the study conditions, the 48 h LC50 was established at 100 µg/L (without food) and 280 µg/L (with food) (meas.) (Biesinger, 1972).

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: see 'Remark'
Remarks:
study not according to standard protocol but good quality and considered useful for setting the reference value for acute aquatic ecotoxicity. Study used for that purpose in the EU risk assessment process on zinc (ECB 2008). Culture medium, test water conditions well described and relevant the purpose of classification.
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
lab-designed dose -response test along the lines of later developed standard test protocols
GLP compliance:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
not specified
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
dechlorinated tap water
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
Daphnia were fed 5 to 10 ml of a fine suspension of trout chow at the start of the 48 hrs period.
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Hardness:
45 mg CaCO3/l
Test temperature:
different test temperatures were used: 5,10,15,20,25°C
results from 20°C were used, as in the risk assessment analysis (ECB 2008)
pH:
7.5
Dissolved oxygen:
6mg/l
Nominal and measured concentrations:
no data
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
280 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mortality
Details on results:
According to OECD guidelines, and in accordance with the data used in the EU risk assessment (ECB 2008), results obtained at 20°C are reported. tests were also performed at other temperatures;
Reported statistics and error estimates:
LC50 values were obtained by probit analysis using the statistical analysis system
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Under the study conditions, the 48 h LC50 at 20°C was established at 280 µg/L (nominal).
Executive summary:

A study was conducted to determine the toxicity of the test substance to Daphnia magna. Tests were not done according to standard protocol, but along the lines of later developed standard test protocols. The tests were of good quality and considered useful for setting the reference value for acute aquatic ecotoxicity. The study was used for that purpose in the EU risk assessment process on zinc (ECB 2008). Under the study conditions, the 48 h LC50 at 20°C was established at 280 µg/L (nominal) (Cairns, 1978).

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: see 'Remark'
Remarks:
Tests done according to standard protocol. Good quality and considered useful for setting the reference value for acute aquatic ecotoxicity. Study used for PNEC derivation in the EU risk assessment process on zinc (ECB 2008). Culture medium, test water conditions well described and relevant the purpose of classification.
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
different hardnesses were applied within acceptable boundaries
Principles of method if other than guideline:
lab-designed dose response test
GLP compliance:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
2 samples for metal analysis were taken at the start and the end of the test. One sample was filtered over a 0.45µm mesh
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
Culture and test medium: well water with parent (ambient) hardness of 22-60 mg/l (as CaCO3), adjusted to nominal hardness of 100 and 200 by adding CaSO4, MgCl2.2H2O, NaHCO3, and KHCO3, to achieve medium-hard and hard water with an average ionic composition as medium hard and hard types of natural (North American) waters. these conditions are also relevant for EU waters.
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
Separate cultures were maintained at each water hardness, so it appears that the animals were acclimated to the hardness of the water before testing
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Hardness:
variable, as indicated in results section
Test temperature:
19.5°C at 54 hardness
19.8°C at 105 hardness
20.4 at 196 hardness
pH:
variable, as indicated in results section
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
330 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: at hardness 54 mg CaCO3/l, pH 7.6
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
530 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: at hardness 105 mg CaCO3/l, pH 8.1
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
660 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: at hardness 196 mg CaCO3/l, pH 8.2
Reported statistics and error estimates:
no statistics reported
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Under the study conditions, the 48 h LC50 was established at 330 µg/L meas. at a hardness of 54 mg CaCO3/L, pH 7.6.
Executive summary:

A study was conducted to determine the toxicity of the test substance to Daphnia. Tests were not done according to a standard protocol but following a method similar to OECD Guideline 202. The tests were of good quality and considered useful for setting the reference value for acute aquatic ecotoxicity. The study was used for that purpose in the EU risk assessment process on zinc (ECB 2008). Under the study conditions, the 48 h LC50 was established at 330 µg/L meas. at a hardness of 54 mg CaCO3/L, pH 7.6 (Chapman, 1980).

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
comparable to guideline study
Remarks:
Tests done according to standard protocol. Good quality and considered useful for setting the reference value for acute aquatic ecotoxicity. Study used for that purpose in the EU risk assessment process on zinc (ECB 2008). Culture medium, test water conditions well described and relevant the purpose of classification.
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
tests run over 96 hrs; results after 48 hrs are reported. Tests carried out at different hardnesses, see results.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
duplicate samples were taken at the start and the end of the experiment, and acidified with HNO3
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
synthetic inorganic medium and varying hardness (see below)
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
Daphnids were fed daily with Chlorella vulgaris
Test type:
semi-static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Hardness:
soft water: 46 mg CaCO3/l
moderately hard water: 91 mg CaCO3/l
hard water: 179 mg CaCO3/l
Test temperature:
20+/-0.5 °C
pH:
softw ater: 7.2
moderately hard water: 7.7
hard water: 8.1
Nominal and measured concentrations:
results expressed as measured concnetrations
Details on test conditions:
tests at different hardnesses
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
259 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: Clone C; low hardness
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
1 060 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: Clone C; moderate hardness
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
962 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: Clone C; high hardness
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
131 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: Clone A; low hardness
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
457 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: Clone A; moderate hardness
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
601 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: Clone A; high hardness
Reported statistics and error estimates:
LC50 values were determined using probit analysiswith a maximum likelihoodprocedure. only LC50 values with 95% CI <50% of the mean were used.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Under the study conditions, the lowest 48 h LC50 was established at 131 µg/L (measured not specified.) and the 48 h LC50s values were within range of: 131 to 962 µg/L.
Executive summary:

A study was conducted to determine the effect of genetic variability on zinc toxicity response in standard testing with Daphnia magna (OECD Guideline 202). Under the study conditions, the lowest 48 h LC50 was established at 131 µg/L (measured not specified.) and the 48 h LC50s values were within range of: 131 to 962 µg/L (Barata, 1998).

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Remarks:
Tests done according to standard protocol. Good quality and considered useful for assessing acute aquatic ecotoxicity. Culture medium, test water conditions well described and relevant.
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
Daphtoxkit T
GLP compliance:
yes
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on test solutions:
tests were done in artificial water and 6 natural river waters.
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
origin: Daphtoxkit T
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Hardness:
Ca++ in natural waters varied between 124 and 58 mg/l; artificial medium CaCl2.2H20: 294mg/l
Test temperature:
20°C
pH:
pH of natural waters varied between 7.5 and 8.2, artificial water: 7.8
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Zn background of natural waters baried between 1.4 and 3.1 mg (total)/l
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
1.4 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: artificial water
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
1.8 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: river 1
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
2 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: river 2
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
1.6 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: river 3
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
2.5 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: river 4
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
1.4 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: river 5
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
1.7 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: river 6
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Under the study conditions, the 48 h EC50 values ranged between 1.4 to 2.5 mg/L.
Executive summary:

A study was conducted to determine the toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles. This study contains also the results on the ZnSO4 control. The tests were performed according to OECD Guideline 202. Under the study conditions, the 48 h EC50 values ranged between 1.4 to 2.5 mg/L (Blinova, 2010).

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: see 'Remark'
Remarks:
study not according to standard protocol but good quality and considered useful for setting the reference value for acute aquatic ecotoxicity. Study used for that purpose in the EU risk assessment process on zinc (ECB 2008). Culture medium, test water conditions well described and relevant the purpose of classification.
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
lab-designed dose -response test along the lines of later developed standard test protocols
GLP compliance:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
not specified
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
dechlorinated tap water
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia pulex
Details on test organisms:
Daphnia were fed 5 to 10 ml of a fine suspension of trout chow at the start of the 48 hrs period.
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Hardness:
45 mg CaCO3/l
Test temperature:
different test temperatures were used: 5,10,15,20,25°C
results from 20°C were used, as in the risk assessment analysis (ECB 2008)
pH:
7.5
Dissolved oxygen:
6mg/l
Nominal and measured concentrations:
no data
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
500 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mortality
Details on results:
According to OECD guidelines, and in accordance with the data used in the EU risk assessment (ECB 2008), results obtained at 20°C are reported. tests were also performed at other temperatures;
Reported statistics and error estimates:
LC50 values were obtained by probit analysis using the statistical analysis system.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Under the study conditions, the 48 h LC50 was established at 500 µg/L (nominal).
Executive summary:

A study was conducted to determine the toxicity of the test substance towards Daphnia pulex according to OECD Guidelines and in accordance with the data used in the EU risk assessment (ECB 2008). Results were obtained at 20°C. Under the study conditions, the 48 h LC50 was established at 500 µg/L (nominal) (Cairns, 1978).

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: see 'Remark'
Remarks:
Tests done according to standard protocol, but not GLP (article was submitted for publication on 28 April 2008, so tests were done before June 1st 2008, when GLP requirement starts). Good quality and considered useful for setting the reference value for acute aquatic ecotoxicity. Culture medium, test water conditions well described and relevant the purpose of classification.
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: Environment Canada EPS/RM/11 test guideline for "Biological test method: acute lethality test using Daphnia spp.
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
physicochemical parameters of the test medium were varied
GLP compliance:
no
Remarks:
Tests done according to standard protocol, but not GLP (article was submitted before June 1st 2008, when GLP requirement starts). Good quality and considered useful for setting the reference value for acute aquatic ecotoxicity.
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
samples taken prior to testing and after 48hrs.
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
key parameters from the test solution (pH, hardness, DOC) was varied to check the effect on acute zinc toxicity.
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia pulex
Details on test organisms:
D. pulex originating from Aquatic research Organisms Inc (Hampton, NH) were used. adults were transferred daily to fresh medium and fed a mixture of algae and YTC (yeast, cerrophyl and trout feed). algal food was mixture of 70% Pseudokircherniella subcapitata and 30% Chlorella vulgaris.
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Hardness:
varying between 51 and 241 (as CaCO3 +MgCO3) in mg/l (see results)
Test temperature:
21°C
pH:
varying between 6.32 and 8.01 (see results)
Nominal and measured concentrations:
nominal added varied between 98 and 2943 µg/l. all the zinc in solution was found to be dissolved (mean dissolved was 96.3%). Measured total zinc concnetrations are reported and considered equal to measured dissolved.
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
105 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: at hardness 51
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
190 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: at hardness 69
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
399 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: at hardness 86
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
321 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: at hardness 104
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
556 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: at hardness 131
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
1 014 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: at hardness 241
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
268 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: at hardness 46
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
399 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: at hardness 81
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
432 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: at hardness 122
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
353 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: at hardness 163
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
615 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: at hardness 224
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
425 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: at pH 6.32
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
765 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: at pH 7.28
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
687 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: at pH 8.01
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
523 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: at Na+ 0.1mM
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
399 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: at Na+ 0.56mM
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
706 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: at Na+1.17mM
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
399 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: at K+0.01mM
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
477 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: at K+ 0.12mM
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
392 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: at K+ 1.39mM
Details on results:
All hardness dependent results were obtained at pH 7.85.
All pH dependent results were obtained at hardness 84.
Only results obtained under test conditions within the criteria of pH and hardness set out in the EU risk assessment (ECB 2008) are reported and used.
3 additional EC50 were reported for varying Na+ and K+ conditions, resp., and at constant pH (7.85) and hardness (84).
Results obtained on test waters with natural DOC are not used and reported.
Reported statistics and error estimates:
EC50 values were calculated using the software programme PROBIT. Lower and upper 95% CI are reported and generally within +/- 40% of mean LC50.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Under the study conditions, the 48 h EC50 values were within the range of 105 to 1014 µg/L (meas. arithm. mean).
Executive summary:

A study was conducted to develop a biotic ligand model for zinc bioavailability in Daphnia pulex in soft water. Tests were done according to a standard protocol. All hardness dependent results were obtained at pH 7.85. All pH dependent results were obtained at hardness 84. Measured total zinc concentrations were reported and considered equal to measured dissolved. Under the study conditions, the 48 h EC50 values were within the range of 105 to 1014 µg/L (meas. arithm. mean) (Clifford, 2009).

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
comparable to guideline study
Remarks:
Tests done according to standard protocol, but not GLP (article was received for publication October 1st 2008). Good quality and considered useful for setting the reference value for acute aquatic ecotoxicity. Culture medium, test water conditions well described and relevant the purpose of classification.
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: US EPA -821-R-02-012: Methods for measuring the acute toxicity of effluents and receiving waters to freshwater and marine organisms (2002)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
not specified
Remarks:
publication
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
samples were taken on day 1
Vehicle:
no
Test organisms (species):
Ceriodaphnia dubia
Details on test organisms:
C. dubia originated from the Center for ecotoxicology, environment protection authority, New South Wales, Australia
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Hardness:
82 mg CaCO2/l
Test temperature:
25.3+/-0.5°C
pH:
7.5+/-0.3
Nominal and measured concentrations:
nominal and measured dissolved concentrations are very similar: nominal added: 0, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 800 µg Zn/l; measured: 2, 13.2, 25.5, 52.5, 102,5, 219, 417, 832 µg Zn/l.
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
174 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (initial)
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: results are expressed as dissolved zinc ions 95% C.I. are 131-232 µg Zn/l
Reported statistics and error estimates:
median LC50 values are calculated using the trimmed Spearman-Karber method.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Under the study conditions, the 48 h LC50 was established at 174 µg/L (measured initial conc.).
Executive summary:

A study was conducted to determine the toxicity of the test substance towards Ceriodaphnia dubia according to US EPA Guideline 821-R-02-012. Exposure media were analysed. The nominal and measured dissolved concentrations were very similar: nominal added: 0, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 800 µg Zn/L; measured: 2, 13.2, 25.5, 52.5, 102,5, 219, 417, 832 µg Zn/L. Under the study conditions, the 48 h LC50 was established at 174 µg/L (measured initial conc.) (Cooper, 2009).

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: see 'Remark'
Remarks:
study not according to standard protocol but sufficient quality and considered useful for setting the reference value for acute aquatic ecotoxicity. Study used for that purpose in the EU risk assessment process on zinc (ECB 2008). Culture medium, critical test water conditions well described, and although having too high hardness,considered relevant the purpose of classification.
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
lab-designed dose-response test at varying pH and at relatively high hardness conditions.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
no data
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
tests done in very hard reconstituted water at varying pH.
Test organisms (species):
Ceriodaphnia dubia
Details on test organisms:
C. dubia was cultured at at the US EPAlaboratory in Duluth (Minnesota. organisms were <48hrs old at start test. organisms were fed 100µl of yeast-cerophyl (Agri-tech, kansas city)fermented Purina brand (St. Louis MO) trout chow solution (6mg/l solids).
Test type:
not specified
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Hardness:
280-300mg CaCO3/l
Test temperature:
25°C
pH:
6-6.5
7-7.5
8-8.5
Dissolved oxygen:
dissolved O2 was never below 5mg/l (60% saturation)
Nominal and measured concentrations:
nominal concentrations and measured concentrations never deviating >10 % from each other
Details on test conditions:
varying pH; tests done in relatively hard water
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
> 530 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: at pH 6-6.5
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
360 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: at pH 7-7.5
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
95 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: at pH 8-8.5
Reported statistics and error estimates:
median LC50s and corresponding 95%CI were calculated using the trimmed Spearman-karber method.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Under the study conditions, toxicity to Cerodaphnia dubia at different pH values was established as follows: 48 h LC50 at pH 6-6.5 was >530 µg/L, 48 h LC50 at pH 7-7.5 was 360 µg/L and 48 LC50 at pH 8-8.5 was 95 µg/L.
Executive summary:

A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of pH on zinc toxicity to different aquatic organisms. Test were not conducted according to standard protocols, but were of good quality and considered useful for setting the reference value for acute aquatic ecotoxicity. The study was used for that purpose in the EU risk assessment process on zinc (ECB 2008). Under the study conditions, toxicity to Cerodaphnia dubia at different pH values was established as follows: 48 h LC50 at pH 6-6.5 was >530 µg/L, 48 h LC50 at pH 7-7.5 was 360 µg/L and 48 LC50 at pH 8-8.5 was 95 µg/L (Schubauer-Berrigan, 1993).

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: see 'Remark'
Remarks:
study not according to standard protocol but good quality and considered useful for setting the reference value for acute aquatic ecotoxicity. Study used for that purpose in the EU risk assessment process on zinc (ECB 2008). Culture medium, test water conditions well described and relevant the purpose of classification.
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
lab designed flow-through test system for testing acute toxicity to daphnia magna.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
samples for metal dosage were taken daily
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
Bristol's algae medium prepared in dechlorinated Montreal city water
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
D. magna culture was obtained from the Arbor Scientific Supply house, Port credit, Ontario.
Test type:
flow-through
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Hardness:
100 mg CaCO3
Test temperature:
20°C
pH:
6.95
Nominal and measured concentrations:
nominal concentrations ranging between 10.6 and 450.9 µg/l
Details on test conditions:
flow-through design
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
800 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mortality
Details on results:
results after 48 hrs exposure are reported
Reported statistics and error estimates:
dosage-mortality curves at 48 hrs were used to define the LC50. goodness-of fit was tested with chi-square test.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Under the study conditions, the 96 h LC50 was established at 800 µg/L meas. (arithm. mean).
Executive summary:

A study was conducted to determine toxicity of the test substance to Daphnia magna in a flow-through test system. Under the study conditions, the 96 h LC50 was established at 800 µg/L meas. (arithm. mean) (Attar, 1982).

Description of key information

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information

Zinc chloride studies

Study 1:

A study was conducted to determine toxicity of the test substance to Daphnia magna in a flow-through test system. Under the study conditions, the 96 h LC50 was established at 800 µg/L meas. (arithm. mean) (Attar, 1982).

Study 2:

A study was conducted to determine the toxicity of the test substance to Daphnia. Tests were not done according to a standard protocol but following a method similar to OECD Guideline 202. The tests were of good quality and considered useful for setting the reference value for acute aquatic ecotoxicity. The study was used for that purpose in the EU risk assessment process on zinc (ECB 2008). Under the study conditions, the 48 h LC50 was established at 330 µg/L meas. at a hardness of 54 mg CaCO3/L, pH 7.6 (Chapman, 1980).

Study 3:

A study was conducted to determine the toxicity of the test substance to Daphnia magna. Tests were not done according to standard protocol, but along the lines of later developed standard test protocols. The tests were of good quality and considered useful for setting the reference value for acute aquatic ecotoxicity. The study was used for that purpose in the EU risk assessment process on zinc (ECB 2008). Under the study conditions, the 48 h LC50 at 20°C was established at 280 µg/L (nominal) (Cairns, 1978).

Study 4:

A study was conducted to determine toxicity of the test substance to Ceriodaphnia dubia. Tests were conducted according to a standard protocol. Good quality result obtained in Lake Superior water were considered useful for setting the reference value for acute aquatic ecotoxicity. Under the study conditions, the 48 h LC50 was established at 169 µg/L (meas.) (Carlson, 1986).

Study 5:

A study was conducted to determine the toxicity of the test substance to Daphnia magna. Tests were not conducted according to a standard protocol, but were of good quality and considered useful for setting the reference value for acute aquatic ecotoxicity. Study results (without food) were used for that purpose in the EU risk assessment process on zinc (ECB 2008). Under the study conditions, the 48 h LC50 was established at 100 µg/L (without food) and 280 µg/L (with food) (meas.) (Biesinger, 1972).

 

Zinc sulphate studies

Study 1:

A study was conducted to determine the toxicity of the test substance towards Ceriodaphnia dubia according to US EPA Guideline 821-R-02-012. Exposure media were analysed. The nominal and measured dissolved concentrations were very similar: nominal added: 0, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 800 µg Zn/L; measured: 2, 13.2, 25.5, 52.5, 102,5, 219, 417, 832 µg Zn/L. Under the study conditions, the 48 h LC50 was established at 174 µg/L (measured initial conc.) (Cooper, 2009).

Study 2:

A study was conducted to determine the effect of genetic variability on zinc toxicity response in standard testing with Daphnia magna (OECD Guideline 202). Under the study conditions, the lowest 48 h LC50 was established at 131 µg/L (measured not specified.) and the 48 h LC50s values were within range of: 131 to 962 µg/L (Barata, 1998).

Study 3:

A study was conducted to determine the toxicity of the test substance towards Ceriodaphnia dubia according to a method equivalent to OECD Guideline 202. Under the study conditions, the 48 h EC50 was established at 670 µg/L (measured initial) (Muyssen and Jansseen, 2002).

Study 4:

A study was conducted to determine the toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles. This study contains also the results on the ZnSO4 control. The tests were performed according to OECD Guideline 202. Under the study conditions, the 48 h EC50 values ranged between 1.4 to 2.5 mg/L (Blinova, 2010).

Study 5:

A study was conducted to determine the toxicity of the test substance towards Daphnia pulex according to OECD Guidelines and in accordance with the data used in the EU risk assessment (ECB 2008). Results were obtained at 20°C. Under the study conditions, the 48 h LC50 was established at 500 µg/L (nominal) (Cairns, 1978).

Study 6:

A study was conducted to develop a biotic ligand model for zinc bioavailability in Daphnia pulex in soft water. Tests were done according to a standard protocol. All hardness dependent results were obtained at pH 7.85. All pH dependent results were obtained at hardness 84. Measured total zinc concentrations were reported and considered equal to measured dissolved. Under the study conditions, the 48 h EC50 values were within the range of 105 to 1014 µg/L (meas. arithm. mean) (Clifford, 2009).

Study 7:

A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of pH on zinc toxicity to different aquatic organisms. Test were not conducted according to standard protocols, but were of good quality and considered useful for setting the reference value for acute aquatic ecotoxicity. The study was used for that purpose in the EU risk assessment process on zinc (ECB 2008). Under the study conditions, toxicity to Cerodaphnia dubia at different pH values was established as follows: 48 h LC50 at pH 6-6.5 was >530 µg/L, 48 h LC50 at pH 7-7.5 was 360 µg/L and 48 LC50 at pH 8-8.5 was 95 µg/L (Schubauer-Berrigan, 1993).

 

Acrylic acid studies

A study was conducted to determine the acute toxicity of acrylic acid towards Daphnia magna. This study followed EPA OTS Guideline 797.1300 using a flow-through design. Nominal exposure concentrations ranged from 7.2 to 120 mg/L and mean measured concentrations ranged from 7.9 to 110 mg/L. Under the study conditions, the 48 h EC50 was established at 95 mg/L based on mean measured concentrations and the NOEC was 23 mg/L (BAMM, 1990).