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Diss Factsheets

Administrative data

adsorption / desorption, other
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: see 'Remark'
Kd-values are based on reliable field data of concentration levels in pore water and sediment of rivers, which were highly exposed to untreated wastewater; no standard guideline test was conducted to generate Kd-values. Kd-values are calculated based on the hypothesis that equilibrium exists between the baseline levels in pore water and in sediment. LOD/LOQ were determined for each element, but values are not shown.

Data source

Reference Type:
Content, distribution and fate of 33 elements in sediments of rivers receiving wastewater in Hanoi, Vietnam
Marcussen, H. et al.
Bibliographic source:
Environ. Pollut. 155, 41-51

Materials and methods

Test guideline
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Determination of the content and the distribution of 33 elements, including aluminium, in the sediment and pore water of the main wastewater receiving rivers in Hanoi, Vietnam. Distribution coefficients (log10 Kd) were calculated as the ratio between sediment and pore water concentrations of aluminium.
GLP compliance:
Type of method:
other: field data of aluminium levels in pore water and sediment

Test material

Constituent 1
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
EC Number:
EC Name:
Cas Number:
Molecular formula:

Study design

Test temperature:
environmental relevant temperatures

Batch equilibrium or other method

Analytical monitoring:
Details on sampling:
Sediment sampling:
- three sediment samples were collected in both rivers, three replicates were collected from each site
- sediment sampler: equipped with a polymethylmethacrylat inner liner (KC Denmark)

Sediment treatment in laboratory:
- under a N2 atmosphere sediment core samples were subdivided into 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm and 20-30 cm sections

Pore water collection:
- Sediment samples from the 0-10 cm section were transferred to a polypropylene (PP) Büchner funnel with a 25 µm mesh nylon filter
- extraction of minimum 15 ml pore water under suction of 10 kPa to a 50 ml PP tube
- filtration of 10 ml of the collected pore water through a 0.45 µm nylon filter (Millipore)

Sediment and pore water parameters:
- pH and redox potentials was determined in the pore water

Sample storage:
- acidified pore water samples and sediments were frozen and transported to Denmark for further treatment and analyses
Details on matrix:
- organic carbon content in sediments: 1.2-5.3% and 1.8-10.6% in the To Lich and Kim Nguu rivers, respectively
- pH: 7.4-8.1 in the pore water extracted from the upper 10 cm sediment of both rivers
- inorganic carbon in sediments: 0.02-2.12%
- redox potential in the pore water samples: -257 to -185 mV (highly reduced)

Results and discussion

Partition coefficients
Key result
Phase system:
other: sediment-pore water
log Kp
6.81 L/kg
sediment and pore water samples from all six sites
Remarks on result:
other: see 'Remarks'
Log Kp range for all six sites: 5.92-6.81 L/kg; sediment organic carbon concentration 1.2-5.3% and 1.8-10.6% in the To Lich and Kim Nguu river, respectively

Results: Batch equilibrium or other method

Recovery of test material:
Transformation products:

Any other information on results incl. tables

Mean and standard deviation (n=3) for sediment elemental aluminium concentrations (mg/kg dw sediment) in Kim Nguu river:

 Depth  Site 1  Site 2  Site 3
 0 -10 cm  37 490 ± 4716  39 875 ± 2374  56 446 ± 13 168
 10 -20 cm  57 350 ± 7204  61 777 ± 15 707  47 658 ± 18 739
 20 -30 cm  53 492 ± 2619 41 870 ± 21 334  54 012 ± 30 252

Mean and standard deviation (n=3) for sediment elemental concentrations of aluminium (mg/kg dw sediment) in To Lich river:

 Depth  Site 1  Site 2  Site 3
 0 -10 cm 41 334  ± 3752 62 138  ± 32 641  61 062  ± 18 526
 10 -20 cm  41 104  ± 4122  47 034  ± 386  55 381  ± 5618
 20 -30 cm  47 911  ± 7017  64 845  ± 9037  50 917  ± 30 611

Range for the elemental pore water concentration (µg/L) in both river sediments:

Al: (5.92 -26.5) x 103

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Reliable levels of aluminium were determined in sediment and pore water samples of sediments from two rivers which were exposed to untreated wastewater in Hanoi, Vietnam. Sampling and analytical procedures are considered adequate and resulted in reliable data. Assuming equilibrium between the typical concentration in pore water and sediment, relevant Kd-values were generated. Data are therefore considered useful for the determination of a relevant Kd for the sediment compartment and log Kd values for all six locations in the rivers To Lich and Kim Nguu range from 5.92-6.81 L/kg.