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Repeated dose toxicity: oral

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
short-term repeated dose toxicity: oral
Remarks:
combined repeated dose and reproduction / developmental screening
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
06 Jun - 04 Aug 2013
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
study report
Title:
Unnamed
Year:
2014
Report date:
2014

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 422 (Combined Repeated Dose Toxicity Study with the Reproduction / Developmental Toxicity Screening Test)
Version / remarks:
adopted in 22 Mar 1996
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes
Limit test:
no

Test material

Constituent 1
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
Tetradecyl oleate
EC Number:
244-949-0
EC Name:
Tetradecyl oleate
Cas Number:
22393-85-7
Molecular formula:
C32H62O2
IUPAC Name:
tetradecyl octadec-9-enoate

Test animals

Species:
rat
Strain:
Sprague-Dawley
Remarks:
Crl:CD(SD)BR
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals or test system and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: Charles River Italia S.p.A., Calco (Lecco), Italy
- Age at study initiation: 6 to 7 weeks
- Weight at study initiation: 191 to 204 g (males) and 172 to 179 g (females)
- Housing: From arrival to pairing: animals were housed 5 of one sex to a cage, in polysulphone solid bottomed cages measuring 59.5x38x20 cm (Techniplast Gazzada S.a.r.l., Buguggiate, Varese, Italy). Nesting material was provided inside suitable bedding bags and changed at least twice a week.
During mating: animals were housed one male to one female in clear polysulphone cages measuring approximately 43x27x18 cm with a stainless steel mesh lid and floor (Techniplast Gazzada S.a.r.l., Buguggiate, Varese, Italy). Each cage tray held absorbent material which was inspected and changed daily. After mating, the males were re-caged as they were before mating; the females were transferred to individual solid bottomed cages (Techniplast Gazzada S.a.r.l., Buguggiate, Varese, Italy) for the gestation period and parturition.
- Diet: laboratory rodent diet, 4 RF 21 (Mucedola S.r.l., Settimo Milanese (MI), Italy), ad libitum
- Water: drinking water, ad libitum
- Acclimation period: 2 weeks

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature (°C): 22 ± 2
- Humidity (%): 55 ± 15
- Air changes (per hr): 15-20
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): 12/12

Administration / exposure

Route of administration:
oral: gavage
Vehicle:
other: 0.5% aqueous carboxymethylcellulose (0.5% CMC)
Details on oral exposure:
PREPARATION OF DOSING SOLUTIONS: The test substance was suspended in the vehicle. Formulations were prepared daily.

VEHICLE
- Concentration in vehicle: 10, 30 and 100 mg/mL for dose levels of 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg bw/day, respectively
- Amount of vehicle: 10 mL/kg bw
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
yes
Details on analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
Concentration, homogeneity and stability of the test substance in the vehicle were verified by gas chromatopgraphy with a flame ionisation detection (FID). Concentration verification was conducted on a weekly basis.
Duration of treatment / exposure:
Males: The daily administration of the test item was started two weeks before mating and lasted until test day 28 to 29, which was one day before sacrifice.
Females: The daily administration of the test item was started two weeks before mating and continued until day 3 post-partum.
Maximum: 54 days of treatment.
Frequency of treatment:
once daily, 7 days/week
Doses / concentrationsopen allclose all
Dose / conc.:
100 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Dose / conc.:
300 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Dose / conc.:
1 000 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
No. of animals per sex per dose:
10
Control animals:
yes, concurrent vehicle
Details on study design:
- Dose selection rationale: based on a 14-day range-finding study (Rossiello, 2013. RTC Study No.: 93730EXT)

Examinations

Observations and examinations performed and frequency:
CAGE SIDE OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: at least once daily during the study, each animal was observed and any clinical signs recorded.

DETAILED CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: once before commencement of treatment and at least once a week thereafter, each animal was given a detailed clinical examination. Each animal was removed from the home cage and observed in an open arena. The tests included observation of changes in gait and posture, reactivity to handling, presence of clonic or tonic movements, stereotypes or bizarre behaviour and effects on the autonomic nervous system (e.g. lachrymation, piloerection, pupil size, unusual respiratory pattern).

BODY WEIGHT: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: females: weekly from allocation to positive identification of mating and on gestation Days 0, 7, 14 and 20. Dams were also weighed on Days 1 and 4 post partum.

FOOD CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE
- Food consumption for each animal determined and mean daily diet consumption calculated as g food/kg body weight/day: the weight of food consumed by each cage of males and females was recorded weekly during the pre-mating period starting from allocation. Individual food consumption for the females was measured on gestation Days 7, 14 and 20 starting from Day 0 post coitum and on Day 4 post partum starting from Day 1 post partum.
- Compound intake calculated as time-weighted averages from the consumption and body weight gain data: No data

FOOD EFFICIENCY:
- Body weight gain in kg/food consumption in kg per unit time X 100 calculated as time-weighted averages from the consumption and body weight gain data: No

WATER CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE : Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: daily by visual appraisal

OPHTHALMOSCOPIC EXAMINATION: No

HAEMATOLOGY: Yes
- Time schedule for collection of blood: at the end of treatment
- Anaesthetic used for blood collection: Yes with isofluorane
- Animals fasted: Yes
- How many animals: 5/sex/dose
- Parameters examined: haematocrit, haemoglobin, red blood cell count, reticulocyte count, mean red blood cell volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, white blood cell count and differential leucocyte count

Coagulation tests: Prothrombin time

CLINICAL CHEMISTRY: Yes
- Time schedule for collection of blood: at the end of treatment
- Animals fasted: Yes
- How many animals :5/sex/dose
- Parameters examined: albumin, globulin, albumin/globulin ratio, bile acids, total bilirubin, total cholesterol, creatinine, glucose, urea, total protein, calcium, chloride, potassium, sodium, alanine aminotransferase (ALAT), alkaline phosphatase (AP), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), gamma-glutamyltransferase, triglycerides, inorganic phosphorus

URINALYSIS: No

NEUROBEHAVIOURAL EXAMINATION: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: once during the study, towards the end of treatment, 5 males and 5 females were randomly
selected from each group for evaluation of sensory reactivity to stimuli of different modalities (e.g. auditory, visual and proprioceptive stimuli), for assessment of grip strength and for the motor activity was measured (for approximately 5 min).
- Dose groups that were examined: all dose groups
- Battery of functions tested: sensory reactivity to stimuli of different types (e.g. auditory, visual and proprioceptive stimuli) (based on Gad), as well as the assessment of grip strength (Meyer) and motor activity

Sacrifice and pathology:
GROSS PATHOLOGY: Yes
-Organ weights: adrenal glands, brain (cerebrum, cerebellum, medulla/pons), epididymides, heart, kidneys, liver, ovaries with oviducts, parathyroid glands, prostate gland, seminal vesicles with coagulating glands, spleen, testes, thymus (where present), thyroid and uterus-cervix,
-Fixation: adrenal glands, bone marrow (from sternum), brain (cerebrum, cerebellum, medulla/pons), caecum, clitoral gland, colon, duodenum, epididymides, heart, ileum (including Peyer’s patches), jejunum, kidneys, liver, lungs (including mainstem bronchi), lymph nodes (mesenteric and cervical), ovaries with oviducts, parathyroid glands, pituitary gland, penis, preputial gland, prostate gland, rectum, sciatic nerve, seminal vesicles with coagulating glands, spinal column, spinal cord (cervical, thoracic, lumber), spleen, stomach, testes, thymus (where present), thyroid, trachea, urinary bladder, uterus-cervix and vagina.

HISTOPATHOLOGY: Yes, all organs that were included for fixation (5/sex of control and high dose group)

In addition, the testes and epididymides were cut at 2-3 micrometer thickness and stained with Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS). The morphological evaluation of the seminiferous epithelium (staging of spermatogenic cycle) was performed. A detailed qualitative evaluation of testes was performed on 5 randomly selected control and high dose males. The evaluation took into account the tubular stages of the spermatogenic cycle, in order to identify treatment-related effects such as: missing germ cell layers or types, retained spermatids, multinucleated or apoptotic germ cells and sloughing of spermatogenic cells into the lumen.
Other examinations:
Vaginal smears were taken daily in the morning starting two weeks before pairing until a positive identification of copulation was made.
Statistics:
Standard deviations were calculated as appropriate. For continuous variables the significance of the differences amongst group means was assessed by Dunnett’s test or a modified t test, depending on the homogeneity of data. The non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance was used for the other parameters. Intergroup differences between the control and treated groups were assessed by the nonparametric version of the Williams test.
The criterion for statistical significance was p<0.05.

Results and discussion

Results of examinations

Clinical signs:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
No relevant clinical signs or mortality were observed in males and females throughout the study.
Mortality:
no mortality observed
Description (incidence):
No relevant clinical signs or mortality were observed in males and females throughout the study.
Body weight and weight changes:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
No differences of toxicological significance were seen in terminal body weight or body weight gain.
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
No intergroup differences were seen in food consumption.
Food efficiency:
not examined
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
no effects observed
Ophthalmological findings:
not examined
Haematological findings:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
No changes of toxicological significance were observed. The statistically significant differences between control and treated animals (erythrocytes, mean corpuscular haemoglobin and leucocytes in males, haemoglobin, haematocrit and platelets in females) were of low magnitude and/or not dose-related, therefore considered incidental.
Clinical biochemistry findings:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
No changes of toxicological significance were observed. Statistically significant fluctuations of some biochemical parameters (mean group values) were recorded such as: increase of glucose in males dosed with 100 and 1000 mg/kg bw/day (48% for both dosages), increase in urea in those receiving 100 mg/kg bw/day (19%), increase of aspartate aminotransferases in females dosed with 300 mg/kg bw/day (35%), decrease of bilirubin (81%) and increase of potassium (10%) in those treated with 1000 mg/kg/day when compared to controls.
Due to the lack of dose- and sex-consistency and to the absence of other relevant findings, the above alterations were considered unrelated to treatment.
Urinalysis findings:
not examined
Behaviour (functional findings):
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
No significant differences were observed between groups, in motor activity, grip strength and sensory reactivity to stimuli, evaluated at the end of treatment.
Immunological findings:
not examined
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
No relevant differences in organ weights were seen between the controls and treated animals of both sexes.
Gross pathological findings:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
No remarkable changes were noted at post mortem examination in treated animals when compared with controls.
Neuropathological findings:
not examined
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
No treatment-related changes were observed. The lesions reported in control and treated animals were considered to be an expression of spontaneous and/or incidental pathology, commonly seen in this species and age under the experimental conditions.
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
not examined
Other effects:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
Spermatogenic cycle
Seminiferous tubules were evaluated with respect to their stage in the spermatogenic cycle and to the integrity of the various cell types within the different stages; regular layering in the germinal epithelium was noted. No relevant difference in estrous cycle was observed in treated females when compared to controls.

Effect levels

Key result
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
>= 1 000 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: no adverse effects observed

Target system / organ toxicity

Key result
Critical effects observed:
no

Applicant's summary and conclusion

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