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Long-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Description of key information

Two freshwater and two marine species were tested. The lowest NOEC/EC10 for freshwater was 94 µg total In/L; which is the geomean of five Ceriodaphnia tests.


The lowest NOEC/EC10 observed in marine waters was for Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (130 µg total In/L and 825 µg total In/L, resp.).

When available, preference was given to EC10 values, rather than NOEC values.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Fresh water invertebrates

Fresh water invertebrates
Effect concentration:
94 µg/L

Marine water invertebrates

Marine water invertebrates
Effect concentration:
825 µg/L

Additional information

Eocotoxicity tests with InCl3 on two freshwater species (C. dubia and Daphnia magna) and two marine species were available.

Freshwater

For freshwater, 5 tests in total were conducted with C. dubia as the test species and two tests with D. magna. In precipitates under neutral (6 -8) pH conditions. Therefore, no dose-response could be correlated with the observed dissolved In concentrations. The effect concentrations are expressed as total In concentrations. Indium binds strongly to DOC, as the the dissolved In concentration in the Aecom (2012d) study was comparable to the total In concentration.

NOEC nominal (µg In/L) NOEC dissolved (µg In/L)  NOEC total (µg In/L)   Hardness DOC  reference 
62 3.6  52.9 96 ND  Aecom (2011a) 
62 1.9 58.1 400 ND  Aecom (2012c)
1847  1184  1710  90  10 Aecom (2012d) 
1000 5.4  809  170  ND  Aecom (2012e)
 <3300 3.6 2780 500 ND  Aecom (2012e) 

The study of Aecom (2011b) was a range finder test, where the scale of the tested concentrations is not according to standard OECD protocols. The Aecom (2012d) study was conducted in test water with high DOC concentration. The NOEC of that study was actually determined by the differences in the control; therefore the NOEC of that study was not used to derive the geomean NOEC of C. dubia. The lowest NOEC found for C. dubia was when exposed to moderately hard water. It seems that hardness and DOC had an effect on the toxicity, expressed as EC10, of InCl3 for C. dubia. The geomean of the 3 test results in a geomean NOEC for C. dubia of 39.46 µg total In/L. The geomean of 4 studies results in a geomean EC10 of 32.47 µg total In/L.

Hardness

(mg CaCO3/L)

DOC

(mg/L)

NOEC 

(µg total In/L)

 EC10

(µg total In/L)

 Reference
96 ND 20  8.4  Aecom (2011c)
90 ND 52.9   11.68  Aecom (2011a)
402 ND 58.1  87.2  Aecom (2012c)
90 10 Not used as lower reproduction in control determines NOEC  130  Aecom (2012d)

The effect of water hardness was also seen in the studies with Daphnia magna. The NOEC and EC10 was lower in the hard water (170 mg CaCO3/L) compared to the NOEC and EC10 in the very hard water (510 mg CaCO3/L):

Hardness (mg CaCO3/L)  NOEC (µg total In/L) EC10 (µg total In/L) Reference 
170 809 1398  Aecom (2012e)
510 <2780 <2780  Aecom (2012e) 

Marine water

Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (purple sea urchin) was the most sensitive marine species and had a 72 times lower NOEC than the Blue Mussel exposed to InCl3.

species  NOEC (µg In/L) EC10 (µg In/L)  reference
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus  130  825 Nautilus (2012a)
Mytillus galloprovincialis  9450  18100 Nautilus (2012a)