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Environmental fate & pathways

Biodegradation in water: screening tests

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Reference
Endpoint:
biodegradation in water: ready biodegradability
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: data is from peer reviewed journal
Justification for type of information:
data is from peer reviewed journal
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: refer principle below
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Biodegradability of test chemical 4-methoxyphenylacetone was determined by considering degradative oxidation as parameter and Beauveria bassiana (ATCC 7 159) as inoculums for 3 days.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Specific details on test material used for the study:
- Name of test material: 4-methoxyphenylacetone
- IUPAC name: 1-(4-methoxyphenyl)acetone
- Molecular formula: C10H12O2
- Molecular weight: 164.203 g/mole
- Smiles : c1(ccc(OC)cc1)CC(C)=O
- Inchl: 1S/C10H12O2/c1-8(11)7-9-3-5-10(12-2)6-4-9/h3-6H,7H2,1-2H3
- Substance type: Organic
- Physical state: Colorless, oily liquid
Oxygen conditions:
not specified
Inoculum or test system:
other: Beauveria bassiana fungus (ATCC 7159)
Duration of test (contact time):
3 d
Initial conc.:
1 000 mg/L
Based on:
test mat.
Parameter followed for biodegradation estimation:
other: degradative oxidation
Details on study design:
TEST CONDITIONS
- Composition of medium:
T 1corn step atomised 12 g/l,
D-glucose 10 g/l,
agar 30 g/l,
pH 5.5.
T3, bacto-triptone 10 g/l,
K2HPO4 1 g/l, D-glucose 30 g/l, FeSO4, .
7H2O 0.01 g/l, MgSO4 7H2O 0.5 g/l, ZnSO47H2O 0.3 g/l, KCl 0.5 g/l, pH 7.2. MPGB, D-glucose 20 g/l, peptone 5 g/l, malt 20 g/l.

- Test temperature: 30 oC

- Inoculation procedure: 5 ml of T1 medium were seeded with the microorganism and incubated for 4 days at 30°C. The biomass was suspended in 4 ml of T3 medium and 2 ml of this suspension was inoculated in 50 ml of the same medium and shaken at 180 rpm for 24 h at 30°C. 5 ml of this culture was inoculated in 50 ml of fresh T3 medium and incubated for 3 days in the same conditions. 3
ml of the content of the flask was transferred in 50 ml of MPGB medium and shaken at 180 rpm at 30°C for 24 h. At this point 50 mg of solid substrates 4-methoxyphenylacetone
was added and the mixture stirred at 180 rpm for 72 h at 30°C.
Key result
Parameter:
other: degradative oxidation
Value:
28
Sampling time:
3 d
Remarks on result:
other: other details not available
Details on results:
The test chemical 4 methoxyphenylacetone undergoes 28 % degradation by considering degradative oxidation as parameter in 3 days.

Chemical

Degradative oxidation (%)

4 methoxyphenylacetone

24 h

48 h

72 h

<1

12

28

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Interpretation of results:
readily biodegradable
Conclusions:
The test chemical 4 methoxyphenylacetone undergoes 28 % degradation by considering degradative oxidation as parameter and Beauveria bassiana (ATCC 7 159) as inoculums in 3 days. On the basis of percent degradability value it can be conluded that test chemical 4 methoxyphenylacetone is readily biodegradable.
Executive summary:

Biodegradation experiment was performed for test chemical 4 methoxyphenylacetone by using Beauveria bassiana (ATCC 7 159) fungus as inoculums for 3 days following procedure was used in this experiment.

5 ml of T1 medium were seeded with the microorganism and incubated for 4 days at 30°C. The biomass was suspended in 4 ml of T3 medium and 2 ml of this suspension was inoculated in 50 ml of the same medium and shaken at 180 rpm for 24 h at 30°C. 5 ml of this culture was inoculated in 50 ml of fresh T3 medium and incubated for 3 days in the same conditions. 3

ml of the content of the flask was transferred in 50 ml of MPGB medium and shaken at 180 rpm at 30°C for 24 h. At this point 50 mg of solid substrates4-methoxyphenylacetone

was added and the mixture stirred at 180 rpm for 72 h at 30°C.The test chemical 4 methoxyphenylacetone undergoes 28 % degradation by considering degradative oxidation as parameter and Beauveria bassiana (ATCC 7159) as inoculums in 3 days. On the basis of percent degradability value it can be conluded that test chemical 4 methoxyphenylacetone is readily biodegradable.

Description of key information

In experimental study done from Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic 4 (1998) 47-52 by Claudio Fuganti et al the test chemical 4 methoxyphenylacetone undergoes 28 % degradation by considering degradative oxidation as parameter and Beauveria bassiana (ATCC 7 159) as inoculums in 3 days. On the basis of percent degradability value it can be concluded that test chemical 4 methoxyphenylacetone is readily biodegradable.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Biodegradation in water:
readily biodegradable

Additional information

Two experimental studies and one predicted data study for target chemical 4 methoxyphenylacetone (CAS no. 122-84-9) have been carried out and to support results of target chemical two more experimental studies for structurally similar read across chemical have been carried out and results of all the studies are summarized below for biodegradation in water endpoint.

 

The first experimental study was done from Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic 4 (1998) 47-52 by Claudio Fuganti et al in this study biodegradation experiment was performed for test chemical 4 methoxyphenylacetone by using Beauveria bassiana (ATCC 7 159) fungus as inoculums for 3 days following procedure was used in this experiment.

5 ml of T1 medium were seeded with the microorganism and incubated for 4 days at 30°C. The biomass was suspended in 4 ml of T3 medium and 2 ml of this suspension was inoculated in 50 ml of the same medium and shaken at 180 rpm for 24 h at 30°C. 5 ml of this culture was inoculated in 50 ml of fresh T3 medium and incubated for 3 days in the same conditions. 3 ml of the content of the flask was transferred in 50 ml of MPGB medium and shaken at 180 rpm at 30°C for 24 h. At this point 50 mg of solid substrates 4-methoxyphenylacetone was added and the mixture stirred at 180 rpm for 72 h at 30°C. The test chemical 4 methoxyphenylacetone undergoes 28 % degradation by considering degradative oxidation as parameter and Beauveria bassiana (ATCC 7159) as inoculums in 3 days. On the basis of percent degradability value it can be concluded that test chemical 4 methoxyphenylacetone is readily biodegradable.

 

Next experimental study was done from journal Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology (1990) 33: 637-640 by Katsuhiko Nakamichi et al in this study Percent conversion of test chemical 4 methoxyphenylacetone (CAS no. 122-84-9) was determined by using bacteria brevibacterium linens as inoculums. This bacterium was grown in laboratory at 30oC for 48 hrs. Then for conversion of test material 4 methoxyphenylacetone 3.284 mg/L concentration of test substrate was added to medium containing100 mM NH4Cl, 100 mM sodium L-glutamate, 100 mM L-alanine, 1% methyl sulfoxide, and 50 mM potassium phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, was added, and incubated at 30°C for 48 h. After incubation test material 4methoxyphenylacetoneand conversion product (S)-(+)-4-methoxyamphetamine was analysed by HPLC. The test chemical 4 methoxyphenylacetone undergoes 94 % conversion by considering test material analysis as parameter and brevibacterium linens IFO 12141 as inoculums in 2 days. On the basis of percent conversion value it can be concluded that test chemical 4 methoxyphenylacetone is readily biodegradable.

 

Next study was predicted data study in this study the Biodegradability of test chemical 4-methoxyphenylacetone was estimated by using OECD QSAR tool box v3.3 (2018) considering seven closest read across chemicals with log Kow as primary descriptor. Percent degradation of test chemical 4-methoxyphenylacetone was estimated to be 85.22 % by considering BOD as parameter and microorganisms as inoculum in 28 days.  On the basis of this percent degradability value it can be concluded that test chemical 4-methoxyphenylacetone is readily biodegradable.

 

Further experimental study was done for structurally similar read across chemical 4-methoxybenzaldehyde (CAS no. 123-11-5) from authoritative database (J CHECK, 2017) in this study the Biodegradation experiment was conducted for 14 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of read across substance 4-methoxybenzaldehyde (CAS no. 123-11-5). The study was performed according to OECD Guideline 301C “Ready biodegradability: Modified MITI Test (I)” under aerobic conditions. Activated sludge was used as a test inoculum. Sludge and surface water including surface soil were collected from ten different places in Japan which includes water treatment plants, rivers, lake and inner bays. These sludge and water/soil were mixed and cultivated with glucose and peptone as nutrient in a testing laboratory. Concentration of inoculum i.e, sludge used was 30 mg/l and initial test substance conc. used in the study was 100 mg/L, respectively. Aniline was used as a reference substance for the study. Portion of the test solution was taken out followed by the centrifuge separation. Then, the supernatant solution was employed for the quantitative analysis for HPLC and TOC. BOD was continuously measured by BOD analysis over 14 days. Direct analysis by HPLC and TOC analysis were conducted after 28 days. The percentage degradation of read across substance 4-methoxybenzaldehyde was determined to be 99, 98 and 100% by BOD, TOC removal and HPLC parameter in 28 days. Thus, based on percentage degradation, 4-methoxybenzaldehyde is considered to be readily biodegradable in nature.

 

Last experimental study was done from High Production Volume (HPV) Challenge Program; 2017 by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in this study the Biodegradation study was conducted for 28 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of read across substance 4-methoxybenzaldehyde (CAS no. 123-11-5). The study was performed according to OECD Guideline 301 B (Ready Biodegradability: CO2 Evolution Test) under aerobic conditions at a temperature range of 17-22°C. Activated sludge was used as a test inoculum for the study. Initial test substance conc. used in the study was 10 mg/L. Concentration of inoculum used was 10% by volume of secondary effluent from an unacclimatised activated sludge. The mean percentage biodegradation was calculated from 4 vessels on day 28. The percentage degradation of read across substance 4 -methoxy benzaldehyde was determined to be 94.9% by CO2 evolution parameter in 28 days. Thus, based on percentage degradation, 4 -methoxybenzaldehyde is considered to be readily biodegradable in nature.

 

 On the basis results of all the studies mentioned above it can be concluded that test chemical 4 methoxyphenylacetone is readily biodegradable.