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EC number: 231-180-0
CAS number: 7440-74-6
Information obtained on soluble InCl3 is considered relevant for the
general ecotoxicity of the In3+ ion, in combination with In(OH)3
complexes. It is therefore also used for the general conservative
assessment of the acute ecotoxicity of In metal (powder). Given the
proven very limited solubility and lack of aquatic ecotoxicity of In
metal powder (see results on chronic testing with C. dubia and P.
subcapitata), this general approach must be considered as very
conservative for In metal.
There were studies on 3 freshwater species and 3 saltwater species
In freshwater, EC50 varied between >3.1 mg In/L (Hyalella azteca)
and >455.5 mg/L (Daphnia magna)
in marine water, EC50 varied between 24.4 mg In/L (Brachionus
plicatilis) and 51.0 mg In/L (Artemia salina)
For freshwater, there were three studies available with Daphnia magna
as a test species; two studies with InCl3 as toxicant and one study used
Indium nitrate as toxicant.
Addition of In at higher loading (i.e. > 10 mg InCl3/L) causes a pH
effect, which could influence the ecotoxicity results. Therefore, there
were two studies conducted with Daphnia magna as a test species
where in a first study (Aecom 2012b) pH was adjusted to test conditions
and in a second study (Aecom 2012b) pH was not adjusted. The study with
the unadjusted pH (lower pH shift in the higher In concentrations) had a
8.5 times lower LC50 compared to the adjusted pH test. As the higher In
concentrations in the unadjusted pH tests had pH lower than 4.5, the
LC50 of the adjusted pH test was used as an appropriate toxicity
endpoint for acute freshwater toxicity tests. Zurita et al. (2007)
examined the acute effect of Indium nitrate on Daphnia magna. The
LC50 was 26220 µg In/L. In this study pH was not reported; although the
higher loading could lead to a pH drop which decreases the LC50.
The results of the different tests with Daphnia magna are shown
in the table below:
pH adjusted conditions
pH non-adjusted conditions
µg total In /L
µg total In/L
11400 (after 48-h exp.)
pH was only controlled in the Aecom (2012b) study with pH adjustment,
these LC50 and NOEC were used for classification of In compounds.
Borgmann et al. (2005) conducted two test with a different hardness
(soft water and tap water). The LC50 was > 3150 µg In/L in the tapwater
test and > 1000 µg In/L in the soft water test. Although these tests
were conducted with Hyellella azteca (sediment species), the
results indicate that hardness could influence the ecotoxicity results
In the marine tests (3 species) (Onikura et al., 2008), information on
pH and In measurements were not available. Although the tests were not
according to standard protocols, the studies are of good quality with a
lowest LC50 of 24420 mg In/L.
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice.Reproduction or further distribution of this information may be subject to copyright protection. Use of the information without obtaining the permission from the owner(s) of the respective information might violate the rights of the owner.
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