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Environmental fate & pathways

Biodegradation in water: screening tests

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Endpoint:
biodegradation in water: ready biodegradability
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
From 02 February 1981 to 20 May 1981
Reliability:
4 (not assignable)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
documentation insufficient for assessment
Remarks:
This study was not performed according to OECD Guideline and GLP requirements and the documentation is not sufficient to assess the reliability of the study.
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
- Principle of test: Not mentionned in the report
- Short description of test conditions: activated sludge concentration = 30 ppm; test substance concentration = 100 ppm; duration of the test = 28 days; closed system.
- Parameters analysed / observed: O2 consumption
GLP compliance:
no
Specific details on test material used for the study:
No additional information
Oxygen conditions:
not specified
Inoculum or test system:
activated sludge (adaptation not specified)
Details on inoculum:
No data
Duration of test (contact time):
28 d
Initial conc.:
100 other: ppm
Based on:
test mat.
Parameter followed for biodegradation estimation:
O2 consumption
Parameter followed for biodegradation estimation:
TOC removal
Parameter followed for biodegradation estimation:
test mat. analysis
Details on study design:
No additional information
Reference substance:
aniline
Preliminary study:
None
Test performance:
No data
Key result
Parameter:
% degradation (O2 consumption)
Value:
97
Sampling time:
28 d
Parameter:
% degradation (TOC removal)
Value:
96
Sampling time:
28 d
Parameter:
% degradation (test mat. analysis)
Remarks:
GC
Remarks on result:
not determinable
Details on results:
Biodegradation was 97% by analysis of O2 consumption and 96% by TOC after 28 days. A final biodegradability was not calculated by LC because the product decomposed in water.

Comment on stability of the product in water soln.:
After the end of this test, a quasi-theoretical value of DOC was detected in water soln., and the following points were observed:
- LC analysis shows a disappearence of a pic of the product.
- UV absorption at 287 mm disappeared.
- pH value decreased: pH 5.4 at starting point and 3.9 after 4 weeks.
These phenomenon indicated that a covalent bond alpha and beta-unsaturated ketones received some alternation (for ex. poolarization due to bond cutting). This product is easy to decompose. Identification of the decomposed products were not done. Nevertheless, the result of the test says that this product is biodegradable.
Results with reference substance:
Degradation of Aniline = 67% after 7 days

No additional information

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Remarks:
No Guideline followed.
Interpretation of results:
other: Biodegradable
Conclusions:
The result of the test says that this product is biodegradable (96-97% biodegradation after 28 days).
Executive summary:

This study assessed the biodegradability of the test substance by activated sludge microorganism. This study was not performed according to OECD Guideline and GLP requirements and the documentation is not sufficient to assess the reliability of the study.

Concentration of activated sludge and test substance were 30 and 100 ppm, respectively. A closed system oxygen consumption measuring apparatus was used. Cultivation was performed for 28 days. After the termination of cultivation, the test solutions were pretreated to prepare the sample for liquid chromatography (LC) and TOC analysis.

Biodegradation was 97% by analysis of O2 consumption and 96% by TOC after 28 days. A final biodegradability was not calculated by LC because the product decomposed in water. Endeed, LC analysis shows a disappearence of a pic of the product, UV absorption at 287 mm disappeared and pH value decreased (pH 5.4 at starting point and 3.9 after 28 days). These phenomenon indicated that a covalent bond alpha and beta-unsaturated ketones received some alternation (for ex. poolarization due to bond cutting). This product is easy to decompose. Identification of the decomposed products were not done. Nevertheless, the result of the test says that this product is biodegradable.

Endpoint:
biodegradation in water: screening tests
Type of information:
(Q)SAR
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
Not applicable
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: see 'Remark'
Remarks:
The value is not an experimental result, however the QSAR model is recommended by the ECHA guidance document on information requirements, is well documented with regard to validation parameters according to OECD principles. Moreover, the substance is fully characterised towards the applicability domain.
Justification for type of information:
1. SOFTWARE
EPISUITE v4.1

2. MODEL (incl. version number)
BIOWIN v4.10

3. SMILES OR OTHER IDENTIFIERS USED AS INPUT FOR THE MODEL
O=C(C(O)=C(O1)C)C1C

4. SCIENTIFIC VALIDITY OF THE (Q)SAR MODEL
See attached QMRF

5. APPLICABILITY DOMAIN
See attached QMRF

6. ADEQUACY OF THE RESULT
See attached QPRF
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: Reach Guidance on QSAR - R.6
Deviations:
no
Principles of method if other than guideline:
QSAR, Biowin v4.10. More details are given in QMRF/QPRF attached to the dossier.
GLP compliance:
no
Specific details on test material used for the study:
No additional information
Details on inoculum:
not applicable
Details on study design:
not applicable
Preliminary study:
not applicable
Test performance:
not applicable
Key result
Parameter:
probability of ready biodegradability (QSAR/QSPR)
Remarks on result:
readily biodegradable based on QSAR/QSPR prediction
Details on results:
Biowin 1 (linear model prediction) = Biodegrades Fast
Biowin 2 (non-linear model prediction) = Does Not Biodegrade Fast
Biowin 3 (ultimate biodegradation timeframe) = Weeks
Biowin 4 (Primary biodegradation timeframe) = Days
Biowin 5 (MITI linear model prediction) = Readily Degradable
Biowin 6 (MITI non-linear model prediction) = Readily Degradable
Biowin 7 (Anaerobic model prediction) = Does Not biodegrade Fast
Ready Biodegradability Prediction: YES

See details in "Any other information on results incl. tables".
Results with reference substance:
not applicable

Table 5.2.1/1: Biowin 1 result

TYPE

NUM

Biowin 1

FRAGMENT DESCRIPTION

COEFF

VALUE

Frag

Frag

Frag

MolWt

Const

1

1

1

*

*

Aliphatic alcohol [-OH]

Aliphatic ether [C-O-C]

Ketone [-C-C(=O)-C-]

Molecular weight parameter

Equation constant

0.1587

-0.3474

0.0068

0.1587

-0.3474

0.0068

-0.0610

0.7475

RESULT

Biowin 1 (linear biodeg probability)

0.5047

The fragments present in the molecule are within the applicability domain of the model.

For Biowin 1: a probability greater than or equal to 0.5 indicates -> Biodegrades Fast

Table 5.2.1/2: Biowin 2 result

TYPE

NUM

Biowin 2

FRAGMENT DESCRIPTION

COEFF

VALUE

Frag

Frag

Frag

MolWt

1

1

1

*

Aliphatic alcohol [-OH]

Aliphatic ether [C-O-C]

Ketone [-C-C(=O)-C-]

Molecular weight parameter

1.1178

-3.4294

-0.4530

1.1178

-3.4294

-0.4530

-1.8194

RESULT

Biowin 2 (non-linear biodeg probability)

0.1715

The fragments present in the molecule are within the applicability domain of the model.

For Biowin 2: a probability less than 0.5 indicates -> Does Not Biodegrade Fast

Table 5.2.1/3: Biowin 3 result

TYPE

NUM

Biowin 3

FRAGMENT DESCRIPTION

COEFF

VALUE

Frag

Frag

Frag

MolWt

Const

1

1

1

*

*

Aliphatic alcohol [-OH]

Aliphatic ether [C-O-C]

Ketone [-C-C(=O)-C-]

Molecular weight parameter

Equation constant

0.1600

-0.0087

-0.0225

0.1600

-0.0087

-0.0225

-0.2831

3.1992

RESULT

Biowin 3 (survey model – ultimate biodeg)

3.0448

The fragments present in the molecule are within the applicability domain of the model. 

For Biowin 3: 2.0 = months; 3.0 = weeks; 4.0 = days

Table 5.2.1/4: Biowin 4 result

TYPE

NUM

Biowin 4

FRAGMENT DESCRIPTION

COEFF

VALUE

Frag

Frag

Frag

MolWt

Const

1

1

1

*

*

Aliphatic alcohol [-OH]

Aliphatic ether [C-O-C]

Ketone [-C-C(=O)-C-]

Molecular weight parameter

Equation constant

0.1294

-0.0097

-0.0222

0.1294

-0.0097

-0.0222

-0.1849

3.8477

RESULT

Biowin 4 (survey model – primary biodeg)

3.7604

The fragments present in the molecule are within the applicability domain of the model. 

For Biowin 4: 2.0 = months; 3.0 = weeks; 4.0 = days

Table 5.2.1/5: Biowin 5 result

TYPE

NUM

Biowin 5

FRAGMENT DESCRIPTION

COEFF

VALUE

Frag

Frag

Frag

Frag

Frag

MolWt

Const

1

1

1

2

1

*

*

Aliphatic alcohol [-OH]

Aliphatic ether [C-O-C]

Ketone [-C-C(=O)-C-]

Methyl [-CH3]

-CH - [cyclic]

Molecular weight parameter

Equation constant

0.1611

0.0015

0.1177

0.0004

0.0124

0.1611

0.0015

0.1177

0.0008

0.0124

-0.3812

0.7121

RESULT

Biowin 5 (MITI linear biodeg probability)

0.6246

The fragments presents in the molecule are within the applicability domain of the model. 

For Biowin 5: a probability greater than or equal to 0.5 indicates -> Readily degradable.

Table 5.2.1/6: Biowin 6 result

TYPE

NUM

Biowin 6

FRAGMENT DESCRIPTION

COEFF

VALUE

Frag

Frag

Frag

Frag

Frag

MolWt

1

1

1

2

1

*

Aliphatic alcohol [-OH]

Aliphatic ether [C-O-C]

Ketone [-C-C(=O)-C-]

Methyl [-CH3]

-CH - [cyclic]

Molecular weight parameter

1.0041

-0.1071

0.8334

0.0194

-0.1295

1.0041

-0.1071

0.8334

0.0389

-0.1295

-3.6989

RESULT

Biowin 6 (MITI non-linear biodeg probability)

0.6146

The fragments presents in the molecule are within the applicability domain of the model.

For Biowin 6: a probability greater than or equal to 0.5 indicates -> Readily degradable.

Table 5.2.1/7: Biowin 7 result

TYPE

NUM

Biowin 7

FRAGMENT DESCRIPTION

COEFF

VALUE

Frag

Frag

Frag

Frag

Frag

Const

1

1

1

2

1

*

Aliphatic alcohol [-OH]

Aliphatic ether [C-O-C]

Ketone [-C-C(=O)-C-]

Methyl [-CH3]

-CH - [cyclic]

Equation Constant

0.1328

-0.2573

-0.3919

-0.0796

0.0395

0.1328

-0.2573

-0.3919

-0.1591

0.0395

0.8361

RESULT

Biowin 7 (anaerobic linear biodeg probability)

0.2000

The fragments presents in the molecule are within the applicability domain of the model.

For Biowin 7: a probability less than 0.5 indicates -> Does Not Biodegrade Fast.

Ready biodegradability prediction (YES or NO):

Criteria for the YES or NO prediction: if the Biowin 3 result is "weeks" or faster (i.e. "days", "days to weeks", or "weeks") AND the Biowin 5 probability is >= 0.5, then the prediction is YES (readily biodegradable). If this condition is not satisfied, the prediction is NO (not readily biodegradable). This method is based on application of Bayesian analysis to ready biodegradation data. Biowin 5 and 6 also predict ready biodegradability, but for degradation in the OECD 301C test only; using data from the Chemicals Evaluation and Research Institute Japan (CERIJ) database.

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Interpretation of results:
readily biodegradable
Conclusions:
It is expected that the substance is readily biodegradable.
Executive summary:

The substance ready biodegradation property was investigated using QSAR approach with Biowin v4.10 plug-in from EPISUITE v4.1 from US EPA.

The Biowin 3 result is "weeks" and the Biowin 5 probability is > 0.5, therefore the prediction is readily biodegradable. In conclusion, it's expected that the substance is readily biodegradable.

Description of key information

Weight of evidence approach using experimental study (no Guideline followed) and QSAR data (Biowin v4.10):

Readily biodegradable

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Biodegradation in water:
readily biodegradable

Additional information

To assess the ready biodegradability of the registered substance, a weight of evidence approach was used based on one experimental study and one QSAR.

The experimental study (Nihon Firmenich KK, 1981) was performed on the registered substance but was not conducting according to OECD Guideline / GLP statement and the documentation is not sufficient to assess the reliability of the study. The test substance (at 100 ppm) was exposed to activated sludge (at 30 ppm) with culture medium in closed conditions for 28 days. The degradation of the test substance was assessed by the measurement of oxygen consumption. In addition, after the termination of cultivation, the test solutions were pretreated to prepare the sample for liquid chromatography (LC) and TOC analysis. According to the results of this study, the biodegradation was 97% by analysis of oxygen consumption and 96% by TOC after 28 days. A final biodegradability was not calculated by LC because the product decomposed in water. Endeed, LC analysis shows a disappearence of a pic of the product, UV absorption at 287 mm disappeared and pH value decreased (pH 5.4 at starting point and 3.9 after 28 days). These phenomenon indicated that a covalent bond alpha and beta-unsaturated ketones received some alternation (for ex. poolarization due to bond cutting). This product is easy to decompose. Identification of the decomposed products were not done. Nevertheless, we can conclude that the registered substance is biodegradable.

The QSAR data was performed on the registered substance. The model used is Biowin v4.10, plug-in from EPISUITE v4.1 from US EPA. This model is recommended by the ECHA guidance document on information requirements and is well documented with regard to validation parameters according to OECD principles. Moreover, the substance is fully characterised for the applicability domain. The Biowin 3 result is "weeks" and the Biowin 5 probability is >0.5, therefore it's expected that the substance is readily biodegradable.

In conclusion, as we obtained similar results between the experimental and the predicted data, we can conclude, based on this weight of evidence approach, that the registered substance is readily biodegradable.