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Ecotoxicological information

Toxicity to birds

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Description of key information

Two reliable NOEC values were found for birds (Davies et al, 1960; Stafford et al, 2015). Davies et al (1960) reported a NOEC value of 400 mg /kg dry weight for chicken. Stafford et al (2015), on the other hand, determined a NOAEC of 1200 mg Mo/kg food (administered as sodium molybdate dihydrate), and this for the bobwhite quail. The other supportive studies by Reid et al (1956) with chicken and turkey resulted in unbounded NOECs.
In terms of secondary poisoning, an assessment can be made considering, in combination, the BAF values with the toxicity in birds. the modest BAF in combination with the low toxicity in birds would suggest that the soil-earthworm-bird pathway is unlikely to pose any risk to wildlife and that the generic PNECsoil will drive the risk assessment.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Long-term EC10, LC10 or NOEC for birds:
400 mg/kg food

Additional information