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EC number: 265-200-4
CAS number: 64742-96-7
A complex combination of hydrocarbons obtained from the distillation of crude oil or natural gasoline. It consists predominantly of saturated hydrocarbons having carbon numbers predominantly in the range of C11 through C16 and boiling in the range of approximately 190°C to 290°C (374°F to 554°F).
Kerosines are of low acute toxicity with mortality rarely reported even at very high exposures in experimental animal studies conducted by oral (similar to OECD 420), dermal (similar to OECD 402), and inhalation (similar to OECD 403) exposure.
• The oral LD50 was > 5000 mg/kg bw in male and female rats for kerosine.
• The dermal LD50 was > 2000 mg/kg/bw in male and female rabbits for kerosine.
• The inhalation LC50 was > 5.28 mg/L vapour in male and female rats for kerosine.
are of low acute toxicity, with an oral LD50 greater than 5000 mg/kg
(rat), a dermal LD50 greater than 2000 mg/kg (rabbit), and an inhalation
LC50 greater than 5.28 mg/L (rat). The most important effects in animals
following very high oral doses were slight irritation of the stomach and
the gastrointestinal tract. The
only adverse effects observed in acute inhalation studies were decreased
activity and breathing frequency at very high doses. Dermal
application of kerosine did not lead to acute toxic systemic effects. Clinical
effects observed were related to dermal irritation rather than to
systemic toxicity. The
acute toxicity of kerosine is not classified by EU
CLP Regulation (EC No. 1272/2008).
the key acute oral toxicity study (Klimisch score=1; ARCO, 1992a),
groups of fasted (5 per sex), young adult, Sprague Dawley rats were
given a single oral dose of undiluted thermocracked kerosine at a dose
of 5000 mg/kg bw and observed for 14 days. There were no treatment
related mortalities. All of the study animals exhibited one or more of
the following clinical signs: nasal discharge, ocular discharge,
abnormal stools, lethargy, stained coat, and alopecia. All animals
gained weight during study period. At necropsy, one of the ten animals
exhibited visual lesions, the remaining nine showed signs of alopecia in
the inguinal and/or perineal regions. The oral LD50 was determined to be
greater than 5000 mg/kg in males and females.
supporting studies conducted on kerosine substances (ARCO, 1992a; ARCO,
1992b; ARCO, 1992c; ARCO, 1987a; ARCO, 1986a; ARCO, 1986b; ARCO, 1986c;
API, 1985a; API, 1982; API, 1980a), rats were administered single oral
gavage doses of the test substance, and results supported an oral LD50
of > 5000 mg/kg in males and females.
the key acute inhalation toxicity study (Klimisch score = 1; API,
1987a), groups of Sprague-Dawley rats, five males and five females, were
exposed by inhalation route to straight-run kerosine for 4 hours to
their whole body at a single dose of 5.28 mg/L (vapour, analytical). All
except one animal had normal growth rates throughout the study. The one
exception on day 8 had a body weight less than its starting body weight
but by the end of the study normal growth had resumed. All animals
exhibited decreased activity during the exposure. Otherwise there were
no treatment-related clinical signs of toxicity. No macroscopic lesions
were observed in any animal at post-mortem and no microscopic changes
were observed in any lung section examined. The LC50 was greater than
supporting studies conducted on kerosine substances (ARCO, 1992e; ARCO,
1992f; ARCO, 1987b; ARCO, 1987c; ARCO, 1987d; ARCO, 1987e; API, 1983a;
Carpenter et al., 1976), rats were administered single doses of the test
substance via inhalation. The
LC50s as measured based on mortality and systemic effects do not
indicate classification of kerosine as an acute inhalation toxicant. One
supporting study on deodorised kerosine showed a lack of systemic
effects after repeated exposure to rats (6 hours each day for 4 days),
and resulted in an LC50 of > 7.5 mg/L (Carpenter et al., 1976). Another
supporting study on deodorised kerosine showed a lack of systemic
effects after a single 6 hour exposure to cats, and resulted in an LC50
of > 6.4 mg/L (Carpenter et al., 1976).
the key acute dermal toxicity study (Klimisch score=1; ARCO, 1992g),
groups of young adult New Zealand White rabbits, five males and five
females, were dermally exposed to undiluted thermocracked kerosine for
24 hours to 10% of their body surface area at a dose of 2000 mg/kg.
Animals were then observed for 14 days. There were no mortalities and
all animals gained weight during the study. All of the animals exhibited
one or more of the following clinical signs during the observation
period: dermal irritation (erythema, edema, eschar, fissuring and/or
dried skin) and/or abnormal stools. Apart from skin irritation, there
were no other abnormalities noted at necropsy. The dermal LD50 was
determined to be greater than 2000 mg/kg in both males and females.
supporting studies conducted on kerosine substances (ARCO, 1992h; ARCO,
1992i; ARCO, 1992j; ARCO, 1987f; ARCO, 1987g; ARCO, 1987h; ARCO, 1987i;
API, 1985a; API, 1982; API, 1980a), rabbits were administered single
dermal doses of the test substance, and results supported a dermal LD50
of > 2000 mg/kg in males and females.
Justification for selection of acute toxicity – oral endpoint
One of 11 acute oral studies with representative members of the kerosine category which gave similar results
Justification for selection of acute toxicity – inhalation endpoint
One of 11 acute inhalation studies with representative members of the kerosine category which gave similar results
Justification for selection of acute toxicity – dermal endpoint
One of 11 acute dermal studies with representative members of the kerosine category which gave similar results
on evaluation of all the acute toxicity data discussed above, kerosines
do not meet the criteria for classification as an acute oral, inhalation
or dermal toxicant under the EU CLP Regulation (EC No. 1272/2008).
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice.Reproduction or further distribution of this information may be subject to copyright protection. Use of the information without obtaining the permission from the owner(s) of the respective information might violate the rights of the owner.
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