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Key value for chemical safety assessment

Genetic toxicity in vitro

Description of key information

Prediction done using the OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.4 with log kow as the primary descriptor and considering the five closest read across substances, gene mutation was predicted for 4-hydroxy-6-(methylamino)naphthalene-2-sulfonic acid (6259-53-6). The study assumed the use of Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102 with and without S9 metabolic activation system. 4-hydroxy-6-(methylamino)naphthalene-2-sulfonic acid was predicted to not induce gene mutation in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102 in the presence and absence of S9 metabolic activation system and hence, according to the prediction made, it is not likely to classify as a gene mutant in vitro. Based on the predicted result it can be concluded that the substance is considered to not toxic as per the criteria mentioned in CLP regulatio

Link to relevant study records
Reference
Endpoint:
in vitro gene mutation study in bacteria
Type of information:
(Q)SAR
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
results derived from a valid (Q)SAR model and falling into its applicability domain, with limited documentation / justification
Justification for type of information:
Data is from OECD QSAR Toolbox version 3.4 and the supporting QMRF report has been attached
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: As mention below
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Prediction is done using OECD QSAR Toolbox version 3.4, 2017
GLP compliance:
not specified
Type of assay:
bacterial reverse mutation assay
Specific details on test material used for the study:
- Name of test material (IUPAC name): 4-hydroxy-6-(methylamino)naphthalene-2-sulfonic acid
- Molecular formula: C11H11NO4S
- Molecular weight: 253.2769 g/mol
- Smiles notation: CNc1ccc2cc(cc(c2c1)O)S(=O)(=O)O
- InChl: 1S/C11H11NO4S/c1-12-8-3-2-7-4-9(17(14,15)16)6-11(13)10(7)5-8/h2-6,12-13H,1H3,(H,14,15,16)
- Substance type: Organic
Target gene:
Histidine
Species / strain / cell type:
S. typhimurium TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102
Details on mammalian cell type (if applicable):
Not applicable.
Additional strain / cell type characteristics:
not specified
Cytokinesis block (if used):
not specified
Metabolic activation:
with
Metabolic activation system:
S9 metabolic activation
Test concentrations with justification for top dose:
not specified
Vehicle / solvent:
not specified
Untreated negative controls:
not specified
Negative solvent / vehicle controls:
not specified
True negative controls:
not specified
Positive controls:
not specified
Details on test system and experimental conditions:
not specified
Rationale for test conditions:
not specified
Evaluation criteria:
Prediction is done considering a dose dependent increase in the number of revrtants/plate
Statistics:
not specified
Species / strain:
S. typhimurium, other: TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102
Metabolic activation:
with
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
not specified
Vehicle controls validity:
not specified
Untreated negative controls validity:
not specified
Positive controls validity:
not specified
Additional information on results:
Not specified.
Remarks on result:
other: No mutagenic effect were observed.

The prediction was based on dataset comprised from the following descriptors: "Gene mutation"
Estimation method: Takes highest mode value from the 6 nearest neighbours
Domain  logical expression:Result: In Domain

((((("a" or "b" or "c" or "d" )  and ("e" and ( not "f") )  )  and ("g" and ( not "h") )  )  and ("i" and ( not "j") )  )  and ("k" and "l" )  )

Domain logical expression index: "a"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as SN1 AND SN1 >> Nitrenium Ion formation AND SN1 >> Nitrenium Ion formation >> Secondary aromatic amine by DNA binding by OECD

Domain logical expression index: "b"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Strong binder, OH group by Estrogen Receptor Binding

Domain logical expression index: "c"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as AN2 AND AN2 >> Michael-type addition to quinoid structures  AND AN2 >> Michael-type addition to quinoid structures  >> N-Substituted Aromatic Amines AND AN2 >> Michael-type addition to quinoid structures  >> Substituted Phenols by Protein binding by OASIS v1.4

Domain logical expression index: "d"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Acid moiety AND Phenols by Aquatic toxicity classification by ECOSAR

Domain logical expression index: "e"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as No alert found by DNA binding by OASIS v.1.4

Domain logical expression index: "f"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as AN2 OR AN2 >>  Michael-type addition, quinoid structures OR AN2 >>  Michael-type addition, quinoid structures >> Flavonoids OR AN2 >>  Michael-type addition, quinoid structures >> Quinoneimines OR AN2 >>  Michael-type addition, quinoid structures >> Quinones and Trihydroxybenzenes OR AN2 >> Michael-type addition on alpha, beta-unsaturated carbonyl compounds OR AN2 >> Michael-type addition on alpha, beta-unsaturated carbonyl compounds >> Four- and Five-Membered Lactones OR AN2 >> Nucleophilic addition reaction with cycloisomerization OR AN2 >> Nucleophilic addition reaction with cycloisomerization >> Hydrazine Derivatives OR AN2 >> Schiff base formation by aldehyde formed after metabolic activation OR AN2 >> Schiff base formation by aldehyde formed after metabolic activation >> Geminal Polyhaloalkane Derivatives OR AN2 >> Shiff base formation after aldehyde release OR AN2 >> Shiff base formation after aldehyde release >> Specific Acetate Esters OR Non-covalent interaction OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation >> Acridone, Thioxanthone, Xanthone and Phenazine Derivatives OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation >> Amino Anthraquinones OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation >> Coumarins OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation >> DNA Intercalators with Carboxamide and Aminoalkylamine Side Chain OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation >> Fused-Ring Nitroaromatics OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation >> Fused-Ring Primary Aromatic Amines OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation >> Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon and Naphthalenediimide Derivatives OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation >> Quinones and Trihydroxybenzenes OR Non-specific OR Non-specific >> Incorporation into DNA/RNA, due to structural analogy with  nucleoside bases    OR Non-specific >> Incorporation into DNA/RNA, due to structural analogy with  nucleoside bases    >> Specific Imine and Thione Derivatives OR Radical OR Radical >> Radical mechanism by ROS formation OR Radical >> Radical mechanism by ROS formation >> Five-Membered Aromatic Nitroheterocycles OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Acridone, Thioxanthone, Xanthone and Phenazine Derivatives OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Amino Anthraquinones OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Conjugated Nitro Compounds OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Coumarins OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Flavonoids OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Fused-Ring Nitroaromatics OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Fused-Ring Primary Aromatic Amines OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Geminal Polyhaloalkane Derivatives OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Hydrazine Derivatives OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Nitro Azoarenes OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Nitroaniline Derivatives OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Nitroarenes with Other Active Groups OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Nitrophenols, Nitrophenyl Ethers and Nitrobenzoic Acids OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> p-Aminobiphenyl Analogs OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Quinones and Trihydroxybenzenes OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Single-Ring Substituted Primary Aromatic Amines OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Specific Imine and Thione Derivatives OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Thiols OR Radical >> ROS formation after GSH depletion (indirect) OR Radical >> ROS formation after GSH depletion (indirect) >> Quinoneimines OR SN1 OR SN1 >> Alkylation after metabolically formed carbenium ion species OR SN1 >> Alkylation after metabolically formed carbenium ion species >> Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon and Naphthalenediimide Derivatives OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after carbenium ion formation OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after carbenium ion formation >> N-Nitroso Compounds OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after carbenium ion formation >> Specific Acetate Esters OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after diazonium or carbenium ion formation OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after diazonium or carbenium ion formation >> Nitroarenes with Other Active Groups OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after metabolic nitrenium ion formation OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after metabolic nitrenium ion formation >> Amino Anthraquinones OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after metabolic nitrenium ion formation >> Fused-Ring Primary Aromatic Amines OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after nitrenium ion formation OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after nitrenium ion formation >> p-Aminobiphenyl Analogs OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after nitrenium ion formation >> Single-Ring Substituted Primary Aromatic Amines OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after nitrosonium cation formation OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after nitrosonium cation formation >> N-Nitroso Compounds OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after reduction and nitrenium ion formation OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after reduction and nitrenium ion formation >> Conjugated Nitro Compounds OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after reduction and nitrenium ion formation >> Fused-Ring Nitroaromatics OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after reduction and nitrenium ion formation >> Nitro Azoarenes OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after reduction and nitrenium ion formation >> Nitroaniline Derivatives OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after reduction and nitrenium ion formation >> Nitroarenes with Other Active Groups OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after reduction and nitrenium ion formation >> Nitrophenols, Nitrophenyl Ethers and Nitrobenzoic Acids OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic substitution on diazonium ion OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic substitution on diazonium ion >> Specific Imine and Thione Derivatives OR SN2 OR SN2 >> Acylation OR SN2 >> Acylation >> Specific Acetate Esters OR SN2 >> Acylation involving a leaving group after metabolic activation OR SN2 >> Acylation involving a leaving group after metabolic activation >> Geminal Polyhaloalkane Derivatives OR SN2 >> Alkylation, direct acting epoxides and related OR SN2 >> Alkylation, direct acting epoxides and related >> Epoxides and Aziridines OR SN2 >> Alkylation, direct acting epoxides and related after P450-mediated metabolic activation OR SN2 >> Alkylation, direct acting epoxides and related after P450-mediated metabolic activation >> Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon and Naphthalenediimide Derivatives OR SN2 >> Alkylation, ring opening SN2 reaction OR SN2 >> Alkylation, ring opening SN2 reaction >> Four- and Five-Membered Lactones OR SN2 >> Direct acting epoxides formed after metabolic activation OR SN2 >> Direct acting epoxides formed after metabolic activation >> Coumarins OR SN2 >> Direct acting epoxides formed after metabolic activation >> Quinoline Derivatives OR SN2 >> Direct nucleophilic attack on diazonium cation OR SN2 >> Direct nucleophilic attack on diazonium cation >> Hydrazine Derivatives OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 Carbon atom OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 Carbon atom >> Specific Acetate Esters OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 carbon atom after thiol (glutathione) conjugation OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 carbon atom after thiol (glutathione) conjugation >> Geminal Polyhaloalkane Derivatives OR SN2 >> SN2 at an activated carbon atom OR SN2 >> SN2 at an activated carbon atom >> Quinoline Derivatives OR SN2 >> SN2 attack on activated carbon Csp3 or Csp2 OR SN2 >> SN2 attack on activated carbon Csp3 or Csp2 >> Nitroarenes with Other Active Groups by DNA binding by OASIS v.1.4

Domain logical expression index: "g"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Aromatic amine AND Aryl AND Fused carbocyclic aromatic AND Naphtalene AND Phenol AND Sulfonic acid by Organic Functional groups

Domain logical expression index: "h"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Acrylamide OR Acrylate OR Acyloin OR Alcohol OR Aldimine OR Aliphatic Amine, primary OR Aliphatic Amine, secondary OR Aliphatic Amine, tertiary OR Alkane branched with quaternary carbon OR Alkane, branched with tertiary carbon OR Alkene OR Alkenyl halide OR Alkoxy OR Alkyl arenes OR Alkyl halide OR Alkyne OR Allyl OR Alpha amino acid OR Aminoaniline, meta OR Ammonium salt OR Aniline OR Anthracene  OR Anthracenone/ Antracendione OR Aromatic perhalogencarbons OR Aryl halide OR Azetidine OR Azo OR Azomethine OR Benzimidazole OR Benzopyran OR Benzothiazole/ Benzoisothiazole OR Benzyl OR Biphenyl OR Bridged-ring carbocycles OR Carbamate OR Carbazole OR Carbenium, salt OR Carbocyclic spiro rings OR Carboxylic acid OR Carboxylic acid ester OR Chromene OR Coumaran OR Cyclo conjugated system OR Cycloalkane OR Cycloalkene OR Cycloketone OR Dihydrobenzopyranone OR Dihydrochromene/ Dihydrobenzopyran OR Dihydropyran OR Dihydroquinoline/ Dihydroisoquinoline OR Dihydrothiadiazine OR Dihydroxyl group OR Diketone OR Disulfide OR Enol OR Ether OR Ether, cyclic OR Fluorene OR Furane OR Fused heterocyclic aromatic OR Fused saturated carbocycles OR Fused saturated heterocycles OR Fused unsaturated carbocycles OR Fused unsaturated heterocycles OR Guanidine OR Heterocyclic spiro rings OR Hydantoin OR Imidazolidine OR Imide OR Inden OR Indole/ Isoindole OR Indoline OR Isobenzofuran OR Isopropyl OR Ketal OR Ketimine OR Ketone OR Lactams OR Lactone OR Nitrobenzene OR No functional group found OR Organic amide and thioamide OR Oxolane OR Oxoxanthene OR Phosphate ester OR Piperazine OR Piperazinedione OR Piperidine OR Piperidone/ Piperidindione OR Precursors quinoid compounds OR Pyrazole OR Pyrazolidine OR Pyrazolidinedione/Pyrazolidone OR Pyridine/ Pyridinium ion OR Pyrrolidine OR Quinoline/ Isoquinoline OR Quinolizine OR Quinoxaline OR Saturated heterocyclic amine OR Saturated heterocyclic fragment OR Steroids OR Sulfen amide OR Sulfide OR Sulfonamide OR Sulfonate ester OR Terpenes OR tert-Butyl OR Tetrahydropyran OR Tetrahydropyridoindol OR Tetrahydroquinoline/ Tetrahydroisoquinoline OR Tetralin OR Tetralone OR Thiaazabicycloheptane, oxo OR Thiazolidine OR Unsaturated heterocyclic amine OR Unsaturated heterocyclic fragment OR Urea derivatives OR Xanthene by Organic Functional groups

Domain logical expression index: "i"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Benzene/ Naphthalene sulfonic acids (Less susceptible) Rank C by Repeated dose (HESS)

Domain logical expression index: "j"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as 3-Methylcholantrene (Hepatotoxicity) Alert OR Anilines (Hemolytic anemia with methemoglobinemia) Rank A OR Anilines (Hepatotoxicity) Rank C OR Not categorized OR Oxyphenistain (Hepatotoxicity) Alert by Repeated dose (HESS)

Domain logical expression index: "k"

Parametric boundary:The target chemical should have a value of log Kow which is >= -4

Domain logical expression index: "l"

Parametric boundary:The target chemical should have a value of log Kow which is <= -0.466

Conclusions:
4-hydroxy-6-(methylamino)naphthalene-2-sulfonic acid (6259-53-6)was predicted to not induce gene mutation in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102 in the presence of S9 metabolic activation system and hence, according to the prediction made, it is not likely to classify as a gene mutant in vitro.
Executive summary:

Based on the prediction done using the OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.4 with log kow as the primary descriptor and considering the five closest read across substances, gene mutation was predicted for 4-hydroxy-6-(methylamino)naphthalene-2-sulfonic acid (6259-53-6). The study assumed the use of Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102 with S9 metabolic activation system. 4-hydroxy-6-(methylamino)naphthalene-2-sulfonic acid was predicted to not induce gene mutation in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102 in the presence of S9 metabolic activation system and hence, according to the prediction made, it is not likely to classify as a gene mutant in vitro. Based on the predicted result it can be concluded that the substance is considered to not toxic as per the criteria mentioned in CLP regulation.

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed (negative)

Genetic toxicity in vivo

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available

Additional information

Gene mutation in vitro:

Prediction model based estimation and data from read across chemical have been reviewed to determine the mutagenic nature of4-hydroxy-6-(methylamino) naphthalene-2-sulfonic acid (6259-53-6). The studies are as mentioned below

Based on the prediction done using the OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.4 with log kow as the primary descriptor and considering the five closest read across substances, gene mutation was predicted for 4-hydroxy-6-(methylamino)naphthalene-2-sulfonic acid (6259-53-6). The study assumed the use of Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102 with and without S9 metabolic activation system. 4-hydroxy-6-(methylamino)naphthalene-2-sulfonic acid was predicted to not induce gene mutation in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102 in the presence and absence of S9 metabolic activation system and hence, according to the prediction made, it is not likely to classify as a gene mutant in vitro. Based on the predicted result it can be concluded that the substance is considered to not toxic as per the criteria mentioned in CLP regulation.

Based on the prediction done using the OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.4 with log kow as the primary descriptor and considering the five closest read across substances, chromosomal aberration was predicted for4-hydroxy-6-(methylamino)naphthalene-2-sulfonic acid (6259-53-6) .The study assumed the use of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line with and without S9 metabolic activation system 4-hydroxy-6-(methylamino)naphthalene-2-sulfonic acid was predicted to not induce chromosomal aberrations in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line in the presence and absence of S9 metabolic activation system and hence, according to the prediction made, it is not likely to classify as a gene mutant in vitro. Based on the predicted result it can be concluded that the substance is considered to not toxic as per the criteria mentioned in CLP regulation.

In a study for structurally and functionally similar read across chemical, Gene mutation toxicity study was performed by King-Thom Chunget al.( Applied And Environmental Microbiology,1981) to determine the mutagenic nature of R salt; IUPAC name: disodium 3-hydroxynaphthalene-2,7-disulfonate (135-51-3). The read across substances share high similarity in structure and log kow .Therefore, it is acceptable to derive information on mutation from the analogue substance. Gene mutation toxicity study was performed to determine the mutagenic nature of R salt. The study was performed by the standard plate incorporation assay using Salmonella typhimurium strainsTA1535, TA1537, TA1538, TA98, and TA100 with and without S9 metabolic activation system. The test chemical was dissolved in DMSO and upto a maximum nontoxic dose of 5000 µg/plate. Concurrent solvent and positive controls were also included in the study. R salt did not induce gene mutation in Salmonella typhimurium strainsTA1535, TA1537, TA1538, TA98, and TA100 in the presence and absence of S9 metabolic activation system and hence it is not likely to classify as a gene mutant in vitro.

In a study for structurally and functionally similar read across chemical, Gene mutation toxicity study was performed by F. Rafii,et al,( Food and Chemical Toxicology, 1997) to determine the mutagenic nature of D&C Red No. 33; IUPAC Name; disodium 5-amino-4-hydroxy-3-(phenyldiazenyl) naphthalene- 2,7-disulfonate (3567-66-). The read across substances share high similarity in structure and log kow .Therefore, it is acceptable to derive information on mutation from the analogue substance. In a gene toxicity test, Salmonella typhimurium Strain-TA 98, TA 100 were exposed to D&C Red No. 33 in the concentration of 50 and 200 µg/plate with and without metabolic activation. In addition D&C Red No. 33 metabolites were also prepared by treating with azo reductase -producing bacteria namely Clostridium strain isolated from the human gastrointestinal tract. The results showed that there was no evidence of gene toxicity after treatment with D&C Red No. 33 in the concentration of 50 and 200 µg/plate in Salmonella typhimurium Strain-TA 98, TA 100. Independently of tested D&C Red No. 33 reduced metabolite in the concentration of 50 and 200 µg/plate showed that there was no evidence of gene toxicity. Therefore, it is considered that D&C Red No. 33 and its reduced metabolites in the concentration of 50 and 200 µg/plate do not cause genetic mutation(s) when Salmonella typhimurium Strain-TA 98, TA 100 exposed to the test chemical in the presence and absence of metabolic activation (S9).

Based on the data available for the target chemical and its read across substance and applying weight of evidence 4-hydroxy-6-(methylamino)naphthalene-2-sulfonic acid (6259-53-6)does not exhibit gene mutation in vitro. Hence the test chemical is not likely to classify as a gene mutant in vitro.

Justification for classification or non-classification

Based on the above annotation for the target chemical , 4-hydroxy-6-(methylamino)naphthalene-2-sulfonic acid (6259-53-6)does not exhibit gene mutation in vitro. Hence the test chemical is not likely to classify as a gene mutant in vitro.