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Environmental fate & pathways

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Description of key information

Bioadegradation in water:

Biodegradability of test chemical 2-chlorobenzene-1,4-diammonium sulphate (CAS no. 6219 -71 -2) was estimated by uisng OECD QSAR tool box v3.3 and by considering seven closest read across chemicals with log Kow as primary descriptor. Percent degradation of test chemical  2-chlorobenzene-1,4-diammonium sulphate was determined to be 1.18% on the basis of BOD as parameter and microorganisms as inoculum in 28 days. On the basis of this percentbiodegrdadability value it is concluded that this test chemical is not readily biodegradable.

Bioadegradation in water and sediments:

Estimation Programs Interface (EPI Suite, 2017) prediction model was run to predict the half-life in water and sediment for the test compound 2-chlorobenzene-1,4-diammonium sulphate (CAS no.6219 -71 -2) . If released in to the environment, 23.6 % of the chemical will partition into water according to the Mackay fugacity model level III and the half-life period of test chemical in water is estimated to be 37.5 days (360 hrs). The half-life (37.5 days estimated by EPI suite) indicates that the chemical is not persistent in water and the exposure risk to aquatic animals is low whereas the half-life period of test chemical 2-chlorobenzene-1,4-diammonium sulphate in sediment is estimated to be 337.5 days (8100 hrs). However, as the percentage release of test chemical into the sediment is less than 1 % (i.e, reported as 0.0879 %), indicates that test chemical 2-chlorobenzene-1,4-diammonium sulphate is not persistent in sediment as well.

Biodegradation in soil:

The half-life period of test chemical 2-chlorobenzene-1,4-diammonium sulphate (CAS no.6219 -71 -2) in soil was estimated using Level III Fugacity Model by EPI Suite version 4.1 estimation database (EPI suite, 2017). If released into the environment, 76.4 % of the chemical will partition into soil according to the Mackay fugacity model level III. The half-life period of test chemical 2-chlorobenzene-1,4-diammonium sulphate in soil is estimated to be 75 days (1800 hrs). Based on this half-life value of test chemical 2-chlorobenzene-1,4-diammonium sulphate , it is concluded that the chemical is not persistent in the soil environment and the exposure risk to soil dwelling animals is low .

Additional information

Bioadegradation in water: Two predicted data studies for target chemical 2-chlorobenzene-1,4-diammonium sulphate (CAS no. 6219 -71 -2) and three experimental studies for its structurally similar read across chemical have been conducted to biodegradability of test chemical and their results are summarized below

 

In first weight of evidence study the Biodegradability of test chemical 2-chlorobenzene-1,4-diammonium sulphate (CAS no. 6219 -71 -2) was estimated by using OECD QSAR tool box v3.3 and by considering seven closest read across chemicals with log Kow as primary descriptor. Percent degradation of test chemical 2-chlorobenzene-1,4-diammonium sulphate was determined to be 1.18% on the basis of BOD as parameter and microorganisms as inoculum in 28 days. On the basis of this percent biodegrdadability value it is concluded that this test chemical is not readily biodegradable.

 

Next weight of evidence study was done by using Estimation Programs Interface Suite (EPI suite, 2017) to estimate the biodegradation potential of the test compound 2-chlorobenzene-1,4-diammonium sulphate (CAS no. 6219 -71 -2) in the presence of mixed populations of environmental microorganisms. The biodegradability of the substance was calculated using seven different models such as Linear Model, Non-Linear Model, Ultimate Biodegradation Timeframe, Primary Biodegradation Timeframe, MITI Linear Model, MITI Non-Linear Model and Anaerobic Model (called as Biowin 1-7, respectively) of the BIOWIN v4.10 software. The results indicate that chemical  2-chlorobenzene-1,4-diammonium sulphate is expected to be not readily biodegradable.

 

Further, in experimental study Biodegradation test was conducted for 14 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of read across substance 2-Amino-5-methylbenzenesulfonic acid from authoritative data base (J check, 2017). In this study the Concentration of inoculum i.e, sludge used was 30 mg/l and initial test substance conc. used in the study was 100 mg/l. The percentage degradation of read across substance was determined to be 0% by O2 consumption & BOD and < 0 % by TOC removal, Test mat. analysis & UV-Vis in 14 days.

 

Similarly another experimental study was conducted for read across chemical from same source mentioned above (J check, 2017) in this study Biodegradation experiment was conducted for 28 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of read across substance Sulfanilic acid. Concentration of inoculum i.e, sludge used was 100 mg/l and initial test substance conc. used in the study was 30 mg/l. The percentage degradation of read across substance was determined to be 3% by BOD, 4% by TOC removal and 1% by HPLC in 28 days.

 

Last weight of evidence study was also done from authoritative database (J check, 2017) for read across chemical in this study the Biodegradation experiment was conducted for 14 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of read across substance 2-Amino-5-chloro-4 -methylbenzene sulfonic acid. Concentration of inoculum i.e, sludge used was 30 mg/l and initial test substance conc. used in the study was 100 mg/l. The percentage degradation of red across substance was determined to be 0% by O2 consumption & BOD, 2% by TOC removal and < 0% by Test mat. analysis & UV-Vis in 14 days.

 

By considering results of all the studies mentioned above it is observed that all the studies have shown percent biodegradability very low therefore it can be concluded that target chemical 2-chlorobenzene-1,4-diammonium sulphate (CAS no. 6219 -71 -2) is not readily biodegradable.

Bioadegradation in water and sediments:

Estimation Programs Interface (EPI Suite, 2017) prediction model was run to predict the half-life in water and sediment for the test compound 2-chlorobenzene-1,4-diammonium sulphate (CAS no.6219 -71 -2) . If released in to the environment, 23.6 % of the chemical will partition into water according to the Mackay fugacity model level III and the half-life period of test chemical in water is estimated to be 37.5 days (360 hrs). The half-life (37.5 days estimated by EPI suite) indicates that the chemical is not persistent in water and the exposure risk to aquatic animals is low whereas the half-life period of test chemical 2-chlorobenzene-1,4-diammonium sulphate in sediment is estimated to be 337.5 days (8100 hrs). However, as the percentage release of test chemical into the sediment is less than 1 % (i.e, reported as 0.0879 %), indicates that test chemical 2-chlorobenzene-1,4-diammonium sulphate is not persistent in sediment as well.

Biodegradation in soil:

The half-life period of test chemical 2-chlorobenzene-1,4-diammonium sulphate (CAS no.6219 -71 -2) in soil was estimated using Level III Fugacity Model by EPI Suite version 4.1 estimation database (EPI suite, 2017). If released into the environment, 76.4 % of the chemical will partition into soil according to the Mackay fugacity model level III. The half-life period of test chemical 2-chlorobenzene-1,4-diammonium sulphate in soil is estimated to be 75 days (1800 hrs). Based on this half-life value of test chemical 2-chlorobenzene-1,4-diammonium sulphate , it is concluded that the chemical is not persistent in the soil environment and the exposure risk to soil dwelling animals is low .