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Toxicological information

Genetic toxicity: in vitro

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
in vitro gene mutation study in bacteria
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
data from handbook or collection of data
Justification for type of information:
Data is from peer reviewed publication

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
A Compilation of Two Decades of Mutagenicity Test Results with the Ames Salmonella typhimurium and L5178Y Mouse Lymphoma Cell Mutation Assays
Author:
H. E. Seifried, R. M. Seifried, J. J. Clarke, T. B. Junghans and R. H. C. San
Year:
2006
Bibliographic source:
Chem. Res. Toxicol. 2006, 19, 627-644

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 471 (Bacterial Reverse Mutation Assay)
Principles of method if other than guideline:
The Ames salmonella typhimurium mutagenicity test was conducted for chemical 2-acetylpyridine
GLP compliance:
not specified
Type of assay:
bacterial reverse mutation assay

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Details on test material:
- Name of test material: 2-acetylpyridine
- Molecular formula: C7H7NO
- Molecular weight: 121.138 g/mol
- Substance type: Organic
Specific details on test material used for the study:
- Name of test material: 2-acetylpyridine
- Molecular formula: C7H7NO
- Molecular weight: 121.138 g/mol
- Substance type: Organic
- Physical state: No data
- Purity: No data available
- Impurities (identity and concentrations):No data available

Method

Target gene:
Histidine
Species / strain
Species / strain / cell type:
S. typhimurium, other: TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537, and TA1538
Details on mammalian cell type (if applicable):
Not applicable
Additional strain / cell type characteristics:
not specified
Cytokinesis block (if used):
No data
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Metabolic activation system:
Liver S9 homogenate was prepared from male Sprague-Dawley rats and Syrian golden hamsters that had been injected with Aroclor 1254 at 500 mg/kg body weight.
Test concentrations with justification for top dose:
100-10000 µg/plate
Vehicle / solvent:
- Vehicle(s)/solvent(s) used: Yes, no detailed data available
- Justification for choice of solvent/vehicle: No data available
Controls
Untreated negative controls:
not specified
Negative solvent / vehicle controls:
yes
True negative controls:
not specified
Positive controls:
yes
Positive control substance:
not specified
Details on test system and experimental conditions:
METHOD OF APPLICATION: in agar (plate incorporation)

DURATION
- Preincubation period: No data available
- Exposure duration: 48 h
- Expression time (cells in growth medium): 48 h
- Selection time (if incubation with a selection agent): No data available
- Fixation time (start of exposure up to fixation or harvest of cells): No data available

SELECTION AGENT (mutation assays): No data available
SPINDLE INHIBITOR (cytogenetic assays): No data available

STAIN (for cytogenetic assays): No data available

NUMBER OF REPLICATIONS: Triplicate

NUMBER OF CELLS EVALUATED: No data available

DETERMINATION OF CYTOTOXICITY
- Method: mitotic index; cloning efficiency; relative total growth; other: No data available

OTHER EXAMINATIONS:
- Determination of polyploidy: No data available
- Determination of endoreplication: No data available
- Other: No data available

OTHER: No data available
Rationale for test conditions:
No data
Evaluation criteria:
The criteria used to evaluate a test were as follows: for a test article to be considered positive, it had to induce at least a doubling (TA98, TA100, and TA1535) in the mean number of revertants per plate of at least one tester strain. This increase in the mean revertants per plate had to be accompanied by a dose response to increasing concentrations of the test chemical. If the study showed a dose response with a less than 3-fold increase on TA1537 or TA1538, the response had to be confirmed in a repeat experiment.
Statistics:
No data

Results and discussion

Test results
Species / strain:
S. typhimurium, other: TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537, and TA1538
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
not specified
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Untreated negative controls validity:
not specified
Positive controls validity:
valid
Additional information on results:
TEST-SPECIFIC CONFOUNDING FACTORS
- Effects of pH: No data
- Effects of osmolality: No data
- Evaporation from medium: No data
- Water solubility: No data
- Precipitation: No data
- Other confounding effects: No data

RANGE-FINDING/SCREENING STUDIES:
The doses that were tested in the mutagenicity assay were selected based on the levels of cytotoxicity observed in a preliminary dose range-finding study using strain TA100. Ten dose levels of the chemical, one plate per dose, were tested in both the presence and the absence of induced hamster S9. If no toxicity was observed, a total maximum dose of 10 mg of test chemical per plate was used.

COMPARISON WITH HISTORICAL CONTROL DATA: No data

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ON CYTOTOXICITY: No data
Remarks on result:
other: No mutagenic effect were observed

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
2-Acetylpyridine(1122-62-9) did not induce gene mutation in the Salmonella typhirium TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537, and TA1538 both in the presence and absence of S9 activation system and hence the chemical is not likely to be a gene mutant.
Executive summary:

Ames mutagenicity test was conducted for 2-acetylpyridine to evaluate its genetoxic effects when exposed to Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537, and TA1538 with dose concentration of 100-10000 µg/plate in plate incorporation assay. Based on the preliminary study conducted, the test compound was used at a five dose level from 100-10000 µg/plate. The plates were incubated for 48 h at 37±2 °C. Five doses of test chemical, together with the appropriate concurrent solvent and positive controls, were tested in triplicate on each tester strain without metabolic activation and also with activation by induced rat and hamster liver S9 preparations. For a test article to be considered positive, it had to induce at least a doubling (TA98, TA100, and TA1535) in the mean number of revertants per plate of at least one tester strain. This increase in the mean revertants per plate had to be accompanied by a dose response to increasing concentrations of the test chemical.

 

2-acetylpyridine did not induce gene mutation in theSalmonella typhiriumTA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537, and TA1538 both in the presence and absence of S9 activation system and hence the chemical is not likely to be a gene mutant.