Registration Dossier

Administrative data

Description of key information

Oral LD50 (rat) > 10 mL/kg bw
Dermal LD 50 (rabbit) > 3.16 mL/kg bw
Inhalative LC50 (rat) = 17300 - 23300 mg/m³

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Acute toxicity: via oral route

Link to relevant study records

Referenceopen allclose all

Endpoint:
acute toxicity: oral
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
1961
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Comparable to guideline study with acceptable restrictions (limited documentation).
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 401 (Acute Oral Toxicity)
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Study was performed before actual guideline was established. Limited documentation.
GLP compliance:
no
Test type:
standard acute method
Limit test:
no
Species:
rat
Strain:
Sprague-Dawley
Sex:
male
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Weight at study initiation: 101 - 132 g
- Fasting period before study: Food was withheld from the animals for a period of 3 to 4 hours prior to dosage.

Route of administration:
oral: gavage
Vehicle:
corn oil
Details on oral exposure:
VEHICLE
- Concentration in vehicle: 0.1, 1.0 or 10 % volume/volume solution in corn oil (Mazola)
Doses:
31.6; 100; 316; 1000; 3160; and 10,000 µL/kg body weight
No. of animals per sex per dose:
5
Control animals:
yes
Details on study design:
- Duration of observation period following administration: 14 days
- Frequency of observations (mortality and toxic effects): immediately after administration; at 1, 4 and 24 hours; and once daily thereafter for a total of 14 days
- Necropsy of survivors performed: yes
- Other examinations performed: body weight, pathology (brain, liver, kidney), blood levels were collected by exsanguination
Statistics:
no data
Key result
Sex:
male
Dose descriptor:
LD50
Effect level:
> 10 mL/kg bw
Key result
Sex:
male
Dose descriptor:
LD50
Effect level:
> 7 100 - 7 800 mg/kg bw
Remarks on result:
other: recalculated values based on the LD50 of 10 mL/kg bw; the range is due to the range of density (0.71-0.78 g/cm3)
Mortality:
The test material produced no deaths at any dosage level tested.
Gross pathology:
There were no pathological findings in any animal at autopsy following sacrifice.
Other findings:
The animals at all dosage levels seemed normal in appearance and behaviour following intubation and daily during the 14 -day observation period.

The acute oral LD50 of MRD-61-33 for male albino rats is therefore greater than 10 mL/kg body weight corresponding to 7100 - 7800 mg/kg bw.

Interpretation of results:
other: Not classified
Remarks:
Criteria used for interpretation of results: other: CLP
Conclusions:
Under the conditions of this study the test substance, hydrocarbons, C7-C9, isoalkanes, does not need to be classified.
Executive summary:

Under the conditions of this study the test substance, hydrocarbons, C7-C9, isoalkanes, does not need to be classified.

Endpoint:
acute toxicity: oral
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
July - September 1961
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Comparable to guideline study with acceptable restrictions. Limited documentation.
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 401 (Acute Oral Toxicity)
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Study was performed before actual guideline was established.
GLP compliance:
no
Test type:
standard acute method
Species:
rat
Strain:
Sprague-Dawley
Sex:
male
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Weight at study initiation: 101 - 132 g
- Fasting period before study: Food was withheld from the animals for a period of 3 to 4 hours prior to dosage.

Route of administration:
oral: gavage
Vehicle:
corn oil
Details on oral exposure:
VEHICLE
- Concentration in vehicle: 0.1, 1.0 or 10 % volume/volume solution in corn oil (Mazola)
Doses:
31.6; 100; 316; 1000; 3160; and 10,000 µL/kg body weight
No. of animals per sex per dose:
5
Control animals:
yes
Details on study design:
- Duration of observation period following administration: 14 days
- Frequency of observations (mortality and toxic effects): immediately after administration; at 1, 4 and 24 hours; and once daily thereafter for a total of 14 days
- Necropsy of survivors performed: yes
- Other examinations performed: body weight, pathology (brain, liver, kidney), blood levels were collected by exsanguination
Statistics:
no data
Key result
Sex:
male
Dose descriptor:
LD50
Effect level:
> 10 mL/kg bw
Key result
Sex:
male
Dose descriptor:
LD50
Effect level:
> 7 100 - 7 800 mg/kg bw
Remarks on result:
other: recalculated values based on the LD50 of 10 mL/kg bw; the range is due to the range of density (0.71-0.78 g/cm3)
Mortality:
The test material produced no deaths at any dosage level tested.
Gross pathology:
There were no pathological findings in any animal at autopsy following sacrifice.
Other findings:
The animals at all dosage levels seemed normal in appearance and behaviour following intubation and daily during the 14 -day observation period.

The acute oral LD50 of MRD-61-33 for male albino rats is therefore greater than 10 mL/kg bw corresponding to 7100 - 7800 mg/kg bw.

Interpretation of results:
other: Not classified
Remarks:
Criteria used for interpretation of results: other: CLP
Conclusions:
Under the conditions of this study the test substance, hydrocarbons, C7-C9, isoalkanes, does not need to be classified.
Executive summary:

Under the conditions of this study the test substance, C7-C9, isoalkanes, does not need not to be classified.

Acute toxicity: via inhalation route

Link to relevant study records

Referenceopen allclose all

Endpoint:
acute toxicity: inhalation
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Comparable to guideline study with acceptable restrictions. Limited documentation.
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 403 (Acute Inhalation Toxicity)
GLP compliance:
not specified
Test type:
standard acute method
Limit test:
yes
Species:
rat
Strain:
Sprague-Dawley
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: Charles River Breeding Laboratories (males: Lakeview Facility, Lakeview, New Jersey; females: Kingston Facility, Stone Ridge, New York)
- Age at study initiation: probe study: 8-9 weeks
- Weight at study initiation: 237-363 g
- Housing: individually housed during and after exposure; stainless steel wire mesh
- Diet: non-certified, pelleted, rat and mouse ration (NIH-07), Zeigler Bros., Inc., Gardners, PA, USA; not contaminated; ad libitum during non-exposure periods
- Water: automatic watering system (Elizabethtown Water Company, NJ, USA); not contaminated; ad libitium during non-exposure periods
- Acclimation period: 22 days; paired by sex for one week, then individiually thereafter
- Other: Random allocation to groups via computer-generated random numbers, with assignment to groups so as to nearly equalise by sex the initial mean group body weights.
Animals were identified by ear tags and corresponding cage identification.


ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature (°C): 20-22.2 °C (68-72 degree Fahrenheit)
- Humidity (%): 33-67 %
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): 12/12

Route of administration:
inhalation: vapour
Type of inhalation exposure:
whole body
Vehicle:
other: unchanged (no vehicle)
Details on inhalation exposure:
GENERATION OF TEST ATMOSPHERE / CHAMBER DESCRIPTION
- Exposure apparatus: glass inhalation chamber
- Exposure chamber volume: approximately 1000 L
- Method of holding animals in test chamber: individually housed
- Source and rate of air: 200 L per minute; equivalent to 12 air changes
- Temperature, humidity: 21.1-27.8°C (70-82 °Fahrenheit); 31-42 %

Dual generators were needed to volatilise the test material. The test material was pumped (Fluid Metering, Inc.) at a fixed rate into the top of each generator, so that it would run down along the internal spiral shelf of the generator. As it ran down in contact with the heated surface, the test material volatilised, and was swept into the dosing chamber by the chamber airflow.
Analytical verification of test atmosphere concentrations:
yes
Remarks:
Actual exposure concentrations were determined by spectrophotometry (Miran 1A Ambient Air Analyser).
Duration of exposure:
4 h
Concentrations:
21.25 mg/L nominal
21.00 mg/L actual
No. of animals per sex per dose:
6
Control animals:
yes
Details on study design:
- Duration of observation period following administration: 14 days
- Frequency of observations and weighing: Detailed individual observations were performed again upon removal from the chamber following exposure, and once daily for 14 days post-exposure.
- Necropsy of survivors performed: yes - A gross necropsy was performed on each animal by a qualified prosector.
- Other examinations performed: Lungs (with trachea), liver, kidneys, and whole head were collected and preserved in 10 % neutral-buffered formalin (lungs perfused by a constant pressure device) for possible future histopathological evaluation.
Statistics:
Means and standard deviations of relevant animal and exposure data were calculated. In addition, group mean body weights were compared statistically by group and sex. A computerised statistical evaluation for equality of means (2 groups) was performed, using a 2 sample t-test. The computer performed a standard F-test to determine if the 2 groups had equal variance. If the variances were equal, testing was be based on the standard t-test. If the variances were not equal, the Smith-Satterthwaite Correction for unequal variances was used. The F-test for equal variances was conducted at the 1% level of significance. The t-test were conducted at the 5% and 1% level of significance.
Key result
Sex:
male/female
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect level:
> 21 mg/L air (analytical)
Exp. duration:
4 h
Remarks on result:
other: 21 mg/L correspond to 4504 ppm.
Mortality:
no mortality
Clinical signs:
other: During exposure (after 2 of 4 hours), the dosed animals showed signs for irritation (eye, nose and throat). Dosed animals also appeared to be more alert than control animals after 2 hours of dosing. After exposure 3 of 12 rats had dried red nasal discharg
Body weight:
Mean animal body weights for all males and females were unremarkable at all weighing intervals.
Gross pathology:
There were 7 control rats and 8 dosed rats without abnormalities at necropsy. Of the remainder, there was a greater incidence of focal lung discoloration in the controls than in the dosed rats, a comparable incidence of dilated renal pelvis, and one instance of a dosed rat having a broken upper incisor. None of these observations was considered to be related to treatment with the test substance.
Interpretation of results:
other: Not classified
Remarks:
Criteria used for interpretation of results: EU
Endpoint:
acute toxicity: inhalation
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Comparable to guideline study with acceptable restrictions. Only 6 males tested per dose level, limited documentation on environmental conditions.
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 403 (Acute Inhalation Toxicity)
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Study was performed before actual guideline was established.
GLP compliance:
no
Test type:
standard acute method
Limit test:
no
Species:
rat
Strain:
Wistar
Sex:
male
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Age at study initiation: adult
- Weight at study initiation: mean weight range: 254 - 397 g
- Fasting period before study: no
- Housing: in groups
- Diet (e.g. ad libitum): ad libitum during pre-and postexposure period
- Water (e.g. ad libitum): ad libitum during pre-and postexposure period
- Acclimation period: yes, duration not reported
Route of administration:
inhalation: vapour
Type of inhalation exposure:
whole body
Vehicle:
other: unchanged (no vehicle)
Details on inhalation exposure:
GENERATION OF TEST ATMOSPHERE / CHAMBER DESCRIPTION
- Exposure apparatus: dynamic exposure chamber
- Exposure chamber volume: 20 liter
- Method of holding animals in test chamber: none
- System of generating particulates/aerosols: The compound was mixed with air and metered: room air was passed through the heated test substance in a fritted-disc glass gas washing bottle. Different chamber concentrations were obtained by: 1) dilution of the saturated main air stream with make-up air in varying ratios, or 2) elevating the generation temperature and thus increasing the vapour pressure to provide a supersaturated vapour. The test material vapour was generated at 75°F (23.9°C).
- Method of particle size determination: not applicable


TEST ATMOSPHERE
- Brief description of analytical method used: 1) Determination of the ratio of the net loss of material to the total air flow volume for the period of exposure; 2) Sampling with a Model 40 M.S.A. Combustible Gas Meter standardized against pentane. The latter method required the use of a correction for each reading due to a Lower Explosive Limit of 1.4 for pentane and of 1.0 for the test compound.
- Samples taken from breathing zone: no


TEST ATMOSPHERE (if not tabulated)
- Particle size distribution: not applicable, vapour
Analytical verification of test atmosphere concentrations:
yes
Remarks:
Sampling with a Model 40 M.S.A. Combustible Gas Meter standardized against pentane
Duration of exposure:
4 h
Concentrations:
1850, 3100, 5750, 10000 ppm
No. of animals per sex per dose:
6 males
Control animals:
no
Details on study design:
- Duration of observation period following administration: 14 days
- Necropsy of survivors performed: yes
- Other examinations performed: clinical signs, histopathology (not performed, but sections of lungs, liver, spleen, kidneys, adrenals and testes were prepared for possible future analysis)
Key result
Sex:
male
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect level:
4 240 ppm
Exp. duration:
4 h
Key result
Sex:
male
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect level:
17.3 - 22.2 mg/L air
Exp. duration:
4 h
Remarks on result:
other: Recalculated values based on the LC50 of 4240 ppm; the range of LC50 is due to unknown amounts of hydrocarbons in the test substance with chain lengths ranging from C7 to C9.
Mortality:
1850 ppm: 0/6
3100 ppm: 0/6
5750 ppm: 6/6
> 10000 ppm: 6/6
Clinical signs:
other: Exposure to lethal concentrations induced a rapid and dramatic response. Repeated episodes of violent epileptiform convulsions, interspersed with periods of running and jumping. If the animal succumbed, it was always in a position with all four legs fully
Gross pathology:
The lungs of animals which died during exposure showed hemorrhagic areas with gray spots on the surfaces. Severe lung congestion was an isolated finding and lung consolidation was seen infrequently. In general, the livers and kidneys were congested in these animals, but all other organs appeared normal. Animals surviving the 14-day observation period revealed little of interest at autopsy. In a few instances, hemorrhagic areas were noted on the lung surfaces and an occasionally darkened liver or kidney was seen. All other organs appeared normal.

Vapour concentrations in the air in the range of 0.5 to 1.0 % are easily produced by the volatilization of the test substance at room temperature.

Interpretation of results:
other: Harmful
Remarks:
Criteria used for interpretation of results: expert judgment
Conclusions:
The LC50 value was calculated to be 4240 ppm, corresponding to 17300 -22200 mg/m³ (recalculated values based on the LC50 of 4240 ppm). The range of LC50 is due to unknown amounts of hydrocarbons in the test substance with chain lengths ranging from C7 to C9.

Due to the unknown composition of the test substance of hydrocarbons of varying chain length (C7-C9), there is the possibility of a recalculated LC50 below 20 mg/L. Therefore, the test substance should be classified as harmful if inhaled (Category 4) according to the criteria of the CLP.
Executive summary:

The LC50 value was calculated to be 4240 ppm, corresponding to 17300 -22200 mg/m³ (recalculated values based on the LC50 of 4240 ppm). Ther ange of LC50 is due to unknown amounts of hydrocarbons in the test substance with chain lengths ranging from C7 to C9.

Due to the unknown composition of the test substance of hydrocarbons of varying chain length (C7-C9), there is the possibility of a recalculated LC50 below 20 mg/L. Therefore, the test substance should be classified as harmful if inhaled (Category 4) according to the criteria of the CLP.

Endpoint:
acute toxicity: inhalation
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Comparable to guideline study with acceptable restrictions. Only 6 males tested per dose level, limited documentation on environmental conditions.
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 403 (Acute Inhalation Toxicity)
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Study was performed before actual guideline was established.
GLP compliance:
no
Test type:
standard acute method
Limit test:
no
Species:
rat
Strain:
Wistar
Sex:
male
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Age at study initiation: adult
- Weight at study initiation: mean weight range: 272 - 318 g
- Fasting period before study: no
- Housing: in groups
- Diet (e.g. ad libitum): ad libitum during pre-and postexposure period
- Water (e.g. ad libitum): ad libitum during pre-and postexposure period
- Acclimation period: yes, duration not reported
Route of administration:
inhalation: vapour
Type of inhalation exposure:
whole body
Vehicle:
other: unchanged (no vehicle)
Details on inhalation exposure:
GENERATION OF TEST ATMOSPHERE / CHAMBER DESCRIPTION
- Exposure apparatus: dynamic exposure chamber
- Exposure chamber volume: 20 liter
- Method of holding animals in test chamber: none
- System of generating particulates/aerosols: The compound was mixed with air and metered: room air was passed through the heated test substance in a fritted-disc glass gas washing bottle. Different chamber concentrations were obtained by: 1) dilution of the saturated main air stream with make-up air in varying ratios, or 2) elevating the generation temperature and thus increasing the vapour pressure to provide a supersaturated vapour. The test material vapour was generated at 75°F (23.9°C).
- Method of particle size determination: not applicable


TEST ATMOSPHERE
- Brief description of analytical method used: 1) Determination of the ratio of the net loss of material to the total air flow volume for the period of exposure; 2) Sampling with a Model 40 M.S.A. Combustible Gas Meter standardized against pentane. The latter method required the use of a correction for each reading due to a Lower Explosive Limit of 1.4 for pentane and of 1.0 for the test compound.
- Samples taken from breathing zone: no


TEST ATMOSPHERE (if not tabulated)
- Particle size distribution: not applicable, vapour
Analytical verification of test atmosphere concentrations:
yes
Remarks:
Sampling with a Model 40 M.S.A. Combustible Gas Meter standardized against pentane
Duration of exposure:
4 h
Concentrations:
1050, 2390, 4450, 7140 ppm
No. of animals per sex per dose:
6 males
Control animals:
no
Details on study design:
- Duration of observation period following administration: 14 days
- Necropsy of survivors performed: yes
- Other examinations performed: clinical signs (histopathology was not performed, but sections of lungs, liver, spleen, kidneys, adrenals and testes were prepared for possible future analysis)
Key result
Sex:
male
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect level:
4 450 ppm
Exp. duration:
4 h
Key result
Sex:
male
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect level:
18.2 - 23.3 mg/L air (analytical)
Exp. duration:
4 h
Remarks on result:
other: Recalculated values based on the LC50 of 4450 ppm; the range of LC50 is due to unknown amounts of hydrocarbons in the test substance with chain lengths ranging from C7 to C9.
Mortality:
1050 ppm: 0/6
2390 ppm: 0/6
4450 ppm: 3/6
> 7140 ppm: 6/6
Clinical signs:
other: Animals exposed to lethal concentrations exhibited clonic convulsions, laboured respiration, ataxia, and prostration preterminally. At the highest concentration, all six rats died within 1 hour; animals which survived 4 hours of exposure to 4450 ppm had a
Gross pathology:
The lungs of animals which died during exposure showed hemorrhagic areas with gray spots on the surfaces. Severe lung congestion was an isolated finding and lung consolidation was seen infrequently. In general, the livers and kidneys were congested in these animals, but all other organs appeared normal. Animals surviving the 14-day observation period revealed little of interest at autopsy. In a few instances, hemorrhagic areas were noted on the lung surfaces and an occasionally darkened liver or kidney was seen. All other organs appeared normal.

Vapour concentrations in the air of the order of 0.5 to 1.0 % are easily produced by the volatilization of the test substance at room temperature.

Interpretation of results:
other: harmful
Remarks:
Criteria used for interpretation of results: expert judgment
Conclusions:
The LC50 value was calculated to be 4450 ppm, corresponding to 18200 -23300 mg/m³ (recalculated values based on the LC50 of 4450 ppm). The range of LC50 is due to unknown amounts of hydrocarbons in the test substance with chain lengths ranging from C7 to C9.

Due to the unknown composition of the test substance of hydrocarbons of varying chain length (C7-C9), there is the possibility of a recalculated LC50 below 20 mg/L. Therefore, the test substance should be classified as harmful if inhaled (Category 4) according to the criteria of the CLP.
Executive summary:

The LC50 value was calculated to be 4450 ppm, corresponding to 18200 -23300 mg/m³ (recalculated values based on the LC50 of 4450 ppm). The range of LC50 is due to unknown amounts of hydrocarbons in the test substance with chain lengths ranging from C7 to C9.

Due to the unknown composition of the test substance of hydrocarbons of varying chain length (C7-C9), there is the possibility of a recalculated LC50 below 20 mg/L. Therefore, the test substance should be classified as harmful if inhaled (Category 4) according to the criteria of the CLP.

Acute toxicity: via dermal route

Link to relevant study records

Referenceopen allclose all

Endpoint:
acute toxicity: dermal
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
July - September 1961
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Comparable to guideline study with acceptable restrictions.
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Standard acute method, applying 4 different doses to the clipped, intact abdominal skin
GLP compliance:
no
Test type:
standard acute method
Limit test:
no
Species:
rabbit
Strain:
other: albino
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Weight at study initiation: 1.4 - 2.3 kg
- Housing: Throughout the observation period, the rabbits were housed individually in metal cages elevated above the droppings. Purina Rabbit Pellets and water were freely available at all times.
Type of coverage:
occlusive
Vehicle:
unchanged (no vehicle)
Details on dermal exposure:
TEST SITE
- Area of exposure: abdominal skin
- Type of wrap if used: dental daming binder; wrapped with gauze and adhesive tape


REMOVAL OF TEST SUBSTANCE
- Washing (if done): with sponge and warm water
- Time after start of exposure: 24 hours
Duration of exposure:
24 hours
Doses:
100, 316, 1000, 3160 µL/kg bw
No. of animals per sex per dose:
4
Control animals:
yes
Details on study design:
- Duration of observation period following administration: 14 days (daily)
- Frequency of observations and weighing: 0, 1, 4, 24 hours
- Necropsy of survivors performed: yes
- Other examinations performed: clinical signs, body weight,organ weights, histopathology
Key result
Sex:
male/female
Dose descriptor:
LD50
Effect level:
> 3.16 mL/kg bw
Key result
Sex:
male/female
Dose descriptor:
LD50
Effect level:
> 2 200 - 2 500 mg/kg bw
Remarks on result:
other: Recalculated values based on the LD50 of 3.16 mL/kg bw; the range of LD50 is due to the range of density 0.71 -0.78 g/cm3.
Mortality:
No deaths at any dosage level.
Clinical signs:
Apart from 3 rabbits (2 of the 100 µL/kg dose group and one of the 3160 µL/kg dose group) which showed diarrhea for 2 to 4 days during the observation period, all animals seemed normal in appearance and behaviour throughout the study.
Body weight:
The final body weight of 2 of the animals which exhibited diarrhea showed a decrease from the initial body weight, while the remaining animals showed a normal body weight gain.
Gross pathology:
At autopsy, the 3 rabbits which showed diarrhea for 2 to 4 days during the observation period, exhibited pathological findings. One animals of the 100 µL/kg dose group showed paleness of the cortical portion of the kidneys. The other animals from the 100 µL/kg dose group showed an excessive amount of clear fluid in the peritoneal cavity and congested, pitted, tough kidneys. The rabbit of the high dose group showed inflammation of the intestines.
Other findings:
Dermal effects: Following removal of the binders at the end of the exposure period, the abdomens and binders were dry. At this time, the exposed skin areas of the animals showed a slight degree of erythema. Within an additional one to three days, the erythema had completely subsided in all animals. The low level animals showed no other signs of irritation during the reminder of the observation period. The high level animals showed slight or moderate desquamation during the final few days of the first week and during most of the second week. At termination, however, the exposed skin of the surviving animals was completely free of signs of irritation.
Interpretation of results:
other: Not classified
Remarks:
Criteria used for interpretation of results: other: CLP
Conclusions:
There is no need for classification.
Executive summary:

There is no need for classification.

Endpoint:
acute toxicity: dermal
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
July - September 1961
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Comparable to guideline study with acceptable restrictions.
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Standard acute method, applying 4 different doses to the clipped, intact abdominal skin
GLP compliance:
no
Test type:
standard acute method
Limit test:
no
Species:
rabbit
Strain:
other: albino
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Weight at study initiation: 1.4 - 2.3 kg
- Housing: Throughout the observation period, the rabbits were housed individually in metal cages elevated above the droppings. Purina Rabbit Pellets and water were freely available at all times.
Type of coverage:
occlusive
Vehicle:
unchanged (no vehicle)
Details on dermal exposure:
TEST SITE
- Area of exposure: abdominal skin
- Type of wrap if used: dental daming binder; wrapped with gauze and adhesive tape


REMOVAL OF TEST SUBSTANCE
- Washing (if done): with sponge and warm water
- Time after start of exposure: 24 hours
Duration of exposure:
24 hours
Doses:
100, 316, 1000, 3160 µL/kg bw
No. of animals per sex per dose:
4
Control animals:
yes
Details on study design:
- Duration of observation period following administration: 14 days (daily)
- Frequency of observations and weighing: 0, 1, 4, 24 hours
- Necropsy of survivors performed: yes
- Other examinations performed: clinical signs, body weight,organ weights, histopathology
Key result
Sex:
male/female
Dose descriptor:
LD50
Effect level:
> 3.16 mL/kg bw
Key result
Sex:
male/female
Dose descriptor:
LD50
Effect level:
> 2 200 - 2 500 mg/kg bw
Remarks on result:
other: Recalculated values based on the LD50 of 3.16 mL/kg bw; the range of LD50 is due to the range of density 0.71 -0.78 g/cm3.
Mortality:
There were three deaths, one at each at the 100, 1000, and 3160 µL/kg bw levels. These deaths were apparently the result of a severe intestinal infection. Blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture. All samples were frozen
Clinical signs:
100 µL/kg dose: 2 animals normal in appearance and behaviour; One animal normal until 11th day, at which time this animal showed diarrhea and on day 14 depression, labored respiration, diarrhea
316 µL/kg dose: all animals showed normal behaviour
1000 µL/kg dose: 3 animals showing normal behaviour
3160 µL/kg dose: 3 animals showing normal behaviour
Body weight:
100 µL/kg dose: 2 animals showing typical weight gain, 1 animal weight loss after day 11 after exposure, 1 animal died on day 12
316 µL/kg dose: all animals showed normal body weight gain
1000 µL/kg dose: 3 animals showing typical weight gain, 1 animal dead on day 10
3160 µL/kg dose: 3 animals showing typical weight gain, 1 one of the 3 showed a decrease in weight at termination on day14, 1 animal died on day 12
Gross pathology:
100 µL/kg dose: congestion of the kidneys, inflammation of the samll intestine, and a large amount of fluid in the gastrointestinal tract was found in one animal sacrificed
316 µL/kg dose: no pathology observed
1000 µL/kg dose: no pathology observed
3160 µL/kg dose: firm, elevated, blanched areas on the gallbladder, and extensive amount of fluid in the peritoneal cavity, and inflammation of the intestines
Other findings:
Dermal effects: Following removal of the binders at the end of the exposure period, the abdomens and binders were dry. At this time, the exposed skin areas of the animals showed a slight degree of erythema. Within an additional one to three days, the erythema had completely subsided in all animals. The low level animals showed no other signs of irritation during the reminder of the observation period. The high level animals showed slight or moderate desquamation during the final few days of the first week and during the second week. At termination, however, the exposed skin of the surviving animals was completely free of signs of irritation.
Interpretation of results:
other: Not classified
Remarks:
Criteria used for interpretation of results: other: CLP
Conclusions:
There is no need for classification.
Executive summary:

There is no need for classification.

Additional information

Oral

 

The acute oral LD50value in rats was greater than 10 mL/kg for hydrocarbons, C7-C9, isoalkanes in two studies performed according to a protocol similar to OECD 401. The test material produced no deaths at any dosage level tested (31.6-10000 µL/kg body weight). There were no pathological findings in any animal at autopsy following sacrifice. The animals at all dosage levels seemed normal in appearance and behaviour throughout the study period (ExxonMobil Chemical, 1961).

 

Inhalation

 

Hydrocarbons, C7-C9, isoalkanes, have been tested in several studies for acute inhalation toxicity following both standard (similar to OECD 403) and non-standard protocols.

In one study, 6 rats (male and female) were exposed to a nominal concentration of 21500 mg/m³ (21000 mg/m³ actual concentration) in a whole body chamber for 4 h. Another group of 6 animals was sham-exposed to room air and served as control. No mortalities occurred throughout the duration of the study (14 days). After exposure 3 of 12 rats had dried red nasal discharge, 1 of 12 rats had slight salivation, and 1 of 12 rats had slight lacrimation. All abnormal signs in the dosed animals were cleared by day 2 post-exposure. One control rat exhibited dried red nasal discharge on days 10 and 11 post-exposure, but this sign was considered inconsequential to the study outcome. There were 7 control rats and 8 dosed rats without abnormalities at necropsy. Of the remainder, there was a greater incidence of focal lung discoloration in the controls than in the dosed rats, a comparable incidence of dilated renal pelvis, and one instance of a dosed rat having a broken upper incisor. None of theses observations was considered to be related to treatment with the test substance. The LC50was greater than 21000 mg/m³, corresponding to 4504 ppm (ExxonMobil Chemical, 1985).

In two earlier studies, rats (6 males) were exposed for 4 h to 1850, 3100, 5750 and 10000 ppm and 1050, 2390, 4450 and 7140 ppm, respectively. In the first study, mortalities occurred at 5750 ppm (6/6) and higher. Exposure to lethal concentrations induced a rapid and dramatic response. Repeated episodes of violent epileptiform convulsions, interspersed with periods of running and jumping. Death occured within 17 minutes for all rats tested at the highest concentration. The lungs of animals which died during exposure showed hemorrhagic areas with gray spots on the surfaces. Severe lung congestion was an isolated finding and lung consolidation was seen infrequently. In general, the livers and kidneys were congested in these animals, but all other organs appeared normal. Animals surviving the 14-day observation period revealed little of interest at autopsy. In a few instances, hemorrhagic areas were noted on the lung surfaces and an occasionally darkened liver or kidney was seen. All other organs appeared normal. The LC50value was calculated to be 4240 ppm, corresponding to 17300 -22200 mg/m³. The range of LC50is due to unknown amounts of hydrocarbons in the test substance with chain lengths ranging from C7 to C9 (ExxonMobil Chemical, 1962).

In the second study, 3/6 and 6/6 animals died at 4450 and 7140 ppm, respectively. Animals exposed to lethal concentrations exhibited clonic convulsions, laboured respiration, ataxia, and prostration preterminally. At the highest concentration, all six rats died within 1 hour; animals which survived 4 hours of exposure to 4450 ppm had a bloody exudate around the eyes and nose at the end of the exposure period. The lungs of animals which died during exposure showed hemorrhagic areas with gray spots on the surfaces. Severe lung congestion was an isolated finding and lung consolidation was seen infrequently. In general, the livers and kidneys were congested in these animals, but all other organs appeared normal. Animals surviving the 14-day observation period revealed little of interest at autopsy. In a few instances, hemorrhagic areas were noted on the lung surfaces and an occasionally darkened liver or kidney was seen. All other organs appeared normal. The LC50value was 4450 ppm, corresponding to 18200 -23300 mg/m³. As mentioned above, the range of LC50is due to unknown amounts of hydrocarbons in the test substance with chain lengths ranging from C7 to C9 (ExxonMobil Chemical, 1962).

Two further studies were performed on guinea pigs and rats following non-guideline procedures. In each study, 5 animals were exposed to 9400 mg/m³ for 10 min every 30 min during 4 h, yielding a total of eight 10-min exposures. In both studies, none of the guinea pigs or rats exposed died during the exposures or during the 14-day observation period which followed. No pathological, histopathological or behavioural effects were observed throughout the study. The LC50value in both guinea pigs and rats was greater than 9400 mg/m³ (ExxonMobil Chemical, 1972).

 

Dermal

 

Two studies were performed in which hydrocarbons, C7-C9, isoalkanes, were applied to the clipped, intact abdominal skin of albino rabbits (4/sex/dose) at 100, 316, 1000, 3160 µL/kg bw for 24 h under occlusive conditions. In the first study, there were three deaths, one each at the 100, 1000, and 3160 µL/kg bw levels. These deaths were apparently the result of a severe intestinal infection. In the 100 µL/kg group one animal showed diarrhea on day 11 and on day 14 depression, labored respiration and diarrhea. In the same group, congestion of the kidneys, inflammation of the samll intestine, and a large amount of fluid in the gastrointestinal tract was found in one animal at necropsy. At the 3160 µL/kg level, firm, elevated, blanched areas on the gallbladder, and extensive amount of fluid in the peritoneal cavity, and inflammation of the intestines were observed.

In the second study, no deaths at any dosage level occurred. Appart from 3 rabbits all other animals showed normal behaviour and appearance throughout the study. Two rabbits from the lowest dose treatment showed diarrhea for two to four days and a decrease in body weight. At autopsy one showed paleness of the cortical portion of the kidneys, the other an excessive amount of clear fluid in the peritoneal cavity and congested, pitted, tough kidneys. One rabbit of the high dose group showed inflammation of the intestines.

In both studies the following dermal effects were noted: After removal of the binders at the end of the exposure period, the abdomens and binders were dry. At this time, the exposed skin areas of the animals showed a slight degree of erythema. Within an additional one to three days, the erythema had completely subsided in all animals. The low dose animals showed no other signs of irritation during the remainder of the observation period. The high dose animals showed slight or moderate desquamation during the final few days of the first week and during the second week. At termination, however, the exposed skin of the surviving animals was completely free of signs of irritation.

The LD50value was greater than 3.16 mL/kg bw in both studies (ExxonMobil Chemical, 1961).

Justification for classification or non-classification

The available data on the acute toxicity of hydrocarbons, C7 -C9, isoalkanes are conclusive but not sufficient for classification. However, acute exposure may result in non-lethal narcotic effects and hydrocarbons poses aspiration hazard.

CLP: Aspiration Toxicity Category 1, STOT Single Exposure Category 3 (narcosis)