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Toxicity to soil macroorganisms except arthropods

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waiving 

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Leucophor 1111X is a Stilbene Fluorescent Whitening Agent (SFWA), 4,4’-bis(1,3,5-triazinyl-2-yl)amino)stilbene-2,2’-disulfonic acid (DAS) derivative. This class of substances have been available since 1941 and remain the most important class of optical brighteners in terms of quantity [1]. Some 75 derivatives have been put on the market [2]. Extensive work has been done to characterize FWAs: many data are available in the contexts of IUCLID dataset, OECD SIDS, HPV, HERA projects and some DAS derivatives have been registered under the REACH Regulation. The review of the available information fails to identify any reason of concern for the soil macroorganisms.

REFERENCE

[1] AAVV, 2003. Industrial dyes. Chemistry, Properties, Applications. Edited by Klaus Hunger. Wiley-vch.

[2] Siegrist A. E., Eckhardt C., Kaschig J., Schmidt E., 1991. Optical Brighteners in Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, vol. A18, VCH, Weinheim, pp. 153176.