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Please be aware that this old REACH registration data factsheet is no longer maintained; it remains frozen as of 19th May 2023.

The new ECHA CHEM database has been released by ECHA, and it now contains all REACH registration data. There are more details on the transition of ECHA's published data to ECHA CHEM here.

Diss Factsheets

Environmental fate & pathways

Endpoint summary

Administrative data

Description of key information

Additional information

Leucophor 1111X is a Stilbene Fluorescent Whitening Agent (SFWA), 4,4’-bis(1,3,5-triazinyl-2-yl)amino)stilbene-2,2’-disulfonic acid (DAS) derivative. This class of substances have been available since 1941 and remain the most important class of optical brighteners in terms of quantity [1]. Some 75 derivatives have been put on the market [2]. Extensive work has been done to characterize aquatic toxicity and photo- and biodegradation: many data are available in the contexts of IUCLID dataset, OECD SIDS, HPV, HERA projects and some DAS derivatives have been registered under the REACH Regulation. In general, they are considered as neither readily nor inherently biodegradable.

Further biotic degradation testing shall be proposed only if the Chemical Safety Assessment according to Annex I indicates the need to investigate further degradation of the substance and its degradation products. Based on the Chemical Safety Assessment the exposure of sediment and soil will be negligible, since the substance and its formulations are produced and used in plants equipped with industrial STP which filter the waste waters before discharging in the municipal net. There are no direct releases involving air and soil compartments. No further tests on biodegradation are proposed.

Literature available data involving field and monitoring studies gave no evidence of significant biodegradation; these type of substances seem mostly removed by adsorption, rather than by biodegradation.

In conclusion, it is assumed that the Leucophor 1111X would be non biodegradable in water, soil and sediment.


[1] AAVV 2003. Industrial dyes. Chemistry, Properties, Applications. Edited by Klaus Hunger. Wiley-vch.

[2] Siegrist A. E., Eckhardt C., Kaschig J., Schmidt E. 1991. Optical Brighteners in Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, vol. A18, VCH, Weinheim, pp. 153176.