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Key value for chemical safety assessment

Genetic toxicity in vitro

Description of key information

- Ames Test (OECD 471, GLP, K, rel. 1): Standard quality (Item 2) is non mutagenic up to cytotoxic or limit concentration in S. typhimurium TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 & E.coli WP2uvrA.

Link to relevant study records
Reference
Endpoint:
in vitro gene mutation study in bacteria
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
From 26 May to 19 June, 2008
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Remarks:
GLP study conducted according to OECD test Guideline No. 471 without any deviation.
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 471 (Bacterial Reverse Mutation Assay)
Version / remarks:
July 21, 1997
Deviations:
no
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
EU Method B.13/14 (Mutagenicity - Reverse Mutation Test Using Bacteria)
Version / remarks:
May 19, 2000
Deviations:
no
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
JAPAN: Guidelines for Screening Mutagenicity Testing Of Chemicals
Version / remarks:
Kanpoan No. 287 - Environment Protection Agency; Eisei No. 127 - Ministry of Health & Welfare; Heisei 09/10/31 Kikyoku No.2 - Ministry of International Trade & Industry
Deviations:
no
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Not applicable
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. QA statement)
Remarks:
National GLP Compliance Program (inspected on September 02, 2006 / Signed on January 19, 2007)
Type of assay:
bacterial reverse mutation assay
Target gene:
Histidine and tryptophan for S. typhimurium and E. coli, respectively.
Species / strain / cell type:
S. typhimurium TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and E. coli WP2
Details on mammalian cell type (if applicable):
Not applicable
Additional strain / cell type characteristics:
not applicable
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Metabolic activation system:
10% S9: S9-mix from the livers of male rats treated with phenobarbital/β-naphthoflavone (80 mg/kg bw i.p. and 80 mg/kg bw/day by oral route, during three days).
Test concentrations with justification for top dose:
3; 10; 33; 100; 333; 1000; 2500; and 5000 µg/plate
Vehicle / solvent:
- Vehicle(s)/solvent(s) used: Ethanol (MERCK, D-64293 Darmstadt; purity > 99 %).
- Justification for choice of solvent/vehicle: The solvent was chosen because of its solubility properties and its relative non-toxicity to the bacteria.
Untreated negative controls:
yes
Negative solvent / vehicle controls:
yes
Remarks:
Ethanol
True negative controls:
no
Positive controls:
yes
Positive control substance:
sodium azide
methylmethanesulfonate
other:
Remarks:
Without S9-mix
Untreated negative controls:
yes
Negative solvent / vehicle controls:
yes
Remarks:
Ethanol
True negative controls:
no
Positive controls:
yes
Positive control substance:
other: 2-Aminoanthracene / TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100, WP2 uvrA
Remarks:
With S9-mix
Details on test system and experimental conditions:
METHOD OF APPLICATION: in agar (plate incorporation) [Exp. 1], pre-incubation [Exp. 2]

DURATION
Pre-incubation period): 37°C for 60 minutes [Exp. 2]
- Exposure duration: Plates were incubated at 37 °C ± 3 °C for at least 48 hours in the dark [Exp. 1 and 2]

NUMBER OF REPLICATIONS: Triplicate plates per dose level.

DETERMINATION OF CYTOTOXICITY
- Method: reduction in the number of spontaneous revertants or a clearing of the bacterial background lawn
Evaluation criteria:
A test item is considered as a mutagen if a biologically relevant increase in the number of revertants exceeding the threshold of twice (strains TA 98, TA 100, and WP2 uvrA) or thrice (strains TA 1535 and TA 1537) the colony count of the corresponding solvent control is observed.
A dose dependent increase is considered biologically relevant if the threshold is exceeded at more than one concentration.
An increase exceeding the threshold at only one concentration is judged as biologically relevant if reproduced in an independent second experiment.
A dose dependent increase in the number of revertant colonies below the threshold is regarded as an indication of a mutagenic potential if reproduced in an independent second experiment. However, whenever the colony counts remain within the historical range of negative and solvent controls such an increase is not considered biologically relevant.
Statistics:
According to the OECD guideline 471, a statistical analysis of the data is not mandatory
Key result
Species / strain:
S. typhimurium, other: TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98 and TA 100
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
cytotoxicity
Remarks:
from 1000 µg/plate (Exp.1), from 100 µg/plate (Exp.2)
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Untreated negative controls validity:
valid
Positive controls validity:
valid
Key result
Species / strain:
E. coli WP2 uvr A
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
no cytotoxicity nor precipitates, but tested up to recommended limit concentrations
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Untreated negative controls validity:
valid
Positive controls validity:
valid
Additional information on results:
TEST-SPECIFIC CONFOUNDING FACTORS
- Effects of pH: Not applicable
- Effects of osmolality: Not applicable
- Evaporation from medium: No data
- Water solubility: None
- Precipitation: Precipitation of the test item was observed in the overlay agar in the test tubes in both experiments from 1000 Mg/plate up to 5000 Mg/plate. The undissolved particles had no influence on the data recording.
- Other confounding effects: None

COMPARISON WITH HISTORICAL CONTROL DATA: All tester strain cultures exhibit a characteristic number of spontaneous revertants per plate in the vehicle and positive controls. The comparison was made with the historical control ranges for 2007of the corresponding Testing Laboratory.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ON CYTOTOXICITY:
Toxic effects, evident as a reduction in the number of revertants (below the induction factor of 0.5), occurred in all S. typhimurim test groups (see attached background document).

See the attached document for information on tables of results

Conclusions:
Under the test condition, test material is not mutagenic with and without metabolic activation in S. typhimurium (strains TA1535, TA1537, TA98 and TA100) and E.coli WP2 uvrA-.
Executive summary:

In a reverse gene mutation assay performed according to the OECD test guideline No. 471 and in compliance with GLP, Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98 and TA 100 and Escherichia coli strain WP2 uvrA- were exposed to test material both in the presence and absence of metabolic activation system (10% liver S9 in standard co-factors).

The assay was performed in two independent experiments both with and without liver microsomal activation. Each concentration, including the controls, was tested in triplicate.

The test item was tested at the following concentrations: 3; 10; 33; 100; 333; 1000; 2500; and 5000 µg/plate

The plates incubated with the test item showed reduced background growth in nearly all strains with and without metabolic activation in both independent experiments.

Toxic effects, evident as a reduction in the number of revertants (below the indication factor of 0.5), occurred in nearly all strains with and without metabolic activation.

No substantial increase in revertant colony numbers of any of the five tester strains was observed following treatment with Pink Pepper (ST 08 C 08) at any dose level, neither in

the presence nor absence of metabolic activation (S9 mix). There was also no tendency of higher mutation rates with increasing concentrations in the range below the generally

acknowledged border of biological relevance.

Appropriate reference mutagens were used as positive controls and showed a distinct increase of induced revertant colonies.

 

Under the test condition, test material is not mutagenic with and without metabolic activation in S. typhimurium (strains TA1535, TA1537, TA98 and TA100) and E.coli WP2 uvrA-.

This study is considered as acceptable and satisfies the requirement for reverse gene mutation endpoint.

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed (negative)

Genetic toxicity in vivo

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available

Additional information

Table 7.6/1: Summary of genotoxicity tests

Test n°

Test / Guideline

Reliability

Focus

Strains tested

Metabolic activation

Test concentration

Statement

1

 

Harlan, 2008

Ames Test

(OECD 471)

K, rel. 1

Gene mutation

TA 1535,

TA 1537,

TA 98,

TA 100

E. coli WP2uvrA

-S9

+S9

Up to cytotoxic or limit concentration

-S9 : non mutagenic

+S9 : non mutagenic

Gene mutation Assays (Tests n° 1):

A Bacterial Reverse mutation Assay (Ames test) was performed according to OECD guideline No. 471 with the substance (Standard quality - Item 2 / Test n°1, see Table 7.6/1). No significant increases in the frequency of revertant colonies were recorded for any of the bacterial strains under the test condition, with any dose of the substance, either in the presence or absence of metabolic activation. The substance does not induce gene mutations in bacteria whereas all positive control chemicals (with and without metabolic activation) induced significant increase of colonies. The substance is therefore considered as non-mutagenic according to the Ames test.

Justification for classification or non-classification

Harmonized classification:

The test material has no harmonized classification for human health according to the Regulation (EC) No. 1272/2008 (CLP).

Self-classification:

Based on the available data, no additional classification is proposed for all qualities (see Section 13 for further justification) regarding germ cell mutagenicity according to the CLP and the GHS.