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Short-term toxicity to fish

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Reference
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
14 Mar 1983
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 203 (Fish, Acute Toxicity Test)
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: American Public Health Association (APHA, 1980). Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (15th ed.)
GLP compliance:
not specified
Specific details on test material used for the study:
SOURCE OF TEST MATERIAL- Source and lot/batch No.of test material: Aldrich Chemical Co.- Expiration date of the lot/batch: no data- Purity test date: 99%
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
- Concentrations: all chambers at time 0 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, and 96 h- Sampling method: sampled at mid-depth of exposure chamber- Sample storage conditions before analysis: samples analysed immediately or adequately preserved for later analysis
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION (especially for difficult test substances)- Method: stock toxicant = 7300 mg/L (The pH of the stock solution was adjusted to that of lake water with HCl.)- Evidence of undissolved material (e.g. precipitate, surface film, etc): none
Test organisms (species):
Pimephales promelas
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM- Common name: fathead minnow- Strain: brood stock provided by the US EPA Environmental Research Laboratory-Duluth- Source: laboratory culture- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): 34-36 d- Length at end of exposure (length definition, mean, range and SD): 25.3 ± 2.296 mm- Weight at end of exposure (mean and range, SD): 262 ± 81.2 mg- Feeding during test: noneACCLIMATION- Acclimation period: none, fish were kept at conditions similar to test- Type and amount of food: freshly hatched brine shrimp nauplii to excess- Feeding frequency: 3 times/d; 2 times/d on weekends- Health during acclimation (any mortality observed): only groups of fish having healthy appearance and no history of unusual thermal history or abnormally high mortality rate were used
Test type:
flow-through
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Hardness:
39.9±0.85 mg/L as CaCO3
Test temperature:
24.5±0.37 °C
pH:
7.60±0.03
Dissolved oxygen:
6.2±0.32 mg/L
Nominal and measured concentrations:
nominal: 0 (control), 250, 385, 592, 910, 1400 mg/Lpercent recovery 100.1±2.7% (Concentrations were daily corrected for spike recovery due to the variability of spike recovery measurements.)
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM- Test vessel:- Type (delete if not applicable): open- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: glass tanks, 2.0 L- Aeration: no information- Type of flow-through (e.g. peristaltic or proportional diluter): proportional diluter- Renewal rate of test solution (frequency/flow rate): 18 v/d- No. of organisms per vessel: 20- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 1- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 1- No. of vessels per vehicle control (replicates): not applicable- Biomass loading rate: 2.620 g/LTEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS- Source/preparation of dilution water: natural water from Lake Superior (data from 1972) or (for few tests) dechlorinated water from City of Superior (WI)- Total organic carbon: no data- Particulate matter: < 1 mg/L / no data- Metals (µg/L): - Al: 1-26 / 0.60-1.9- Cd: < 0.1 / < 0.1- Cr: 2-20 / < 0.1- Co: < 0.5 / < 0.5- Cu: 0.3-3.2/ 2.0-6.0- Fe: 2-83 / 160-194- Pb: 7-20 / < 0.1- Mn: 0.2-11.5 / 6.6-7.8- Ni: < 0.5 / < 1.0-1.3- Zn: 1.0-2.7 / 2.2-3.0- Pesticides: no data- Chloride: 1.2-1.3 mg/L / 3.6-4.1 mg/L- Alkalinity: 77.4±42.7 mg/L CaCO3 (increased alkalinity values were due to a reaction between the titrant and toxicant, which delayed the endpoint of the titration, causing unusually high measuremerits.)- Ca/Mg ratio: ca. 6.5:1- Conductivity: 78-86 µmhos/cm / 91-138 µmhos/cm- Culture medium different from test medium:- Intervals of water quality measurement:OTHER TEST CONDITIONS- Adjustment of pH: yes- Photoperiod: 16 h daily photoperiod- Light intensity: no dataEFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) :- visible abnormalities and mortality: after 0, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h- pH: at least once in control, low medium and high test concentration- dissolved oxygen: after 0, 24, and 96 h in control, low medium and high test concentration- temperature: daily- analytical quantification of test concentrations: all chambers after 0, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h TEST CONCENTRATIONS- Spacing factor for test concentrations: ca. 1.5- Justification for using less concentrations than requested by guideline: not applicable- Range finding study- Test concentrations: no data- Results used to determine the conditions for the definitive study: no data
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
735 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CL: -; based on pH-adjusted test solutions
Details on results:
- Behavioural abnormalities: Affected fish lost schooling behavior and swam near the tank bottom. They were hypoactive and underreactive to external stimuli, and lost equilibrium prior to death. - Mortality of control: 0%- Effect concentrations exceeding solubility of substance in test medium: no- Information on Mode of Action from US EPA Fat Head Minnow Database: Narcosis I MOA with a B level of confidence

Mortality

Test item conc.

Cumulative mortality (n) after exposure of

(nominal; mg/L)

0 h

24 h

48 h

72 h

96 h

0

0

0

0

0

0

250

0

0

0

0

0

385

0

0

0

0

0

592

0

0

0

0

0

910

0

20

20

20

20

1400

0

20

20

20

20

 

Effect data on behaviour were not recorded.

Analytical verification of test item concentrations

Test item conc.

Measured concentrations (mg/L)

(nominal; mg/L)

0 h

24 h

48 h

72 h

96 h

Average

Corrected

average

Recovery

(%)

0

< 10

< 10

< 10

< 10

< 10

< 10

9.99

100.1±2.70

250

279

287

265

315

303

290

290

385

410

408

371

432

421

408

408

592

584

588

538

633

614

591

591

910

955

949

846

-

-

917

916

1400

1390

1390

-

-

-

1390

1389

 

Description of key information

With high probability acutely not harmful to fish.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

LC50 for freshwater fish:
735 mg/L

Additional information

The effect of 2,2'-phenyliminodiethanol (CAS 122-07-0) was investigated by Geiger et al. (1986) in an acute toxicity test similar to OECD 203 under flow-through conditions. The test item concentrations were analytically verified (recovery: 100.1%). The test species was Oncorhynchus mykiss. The 96-h LC50 was determined to be 735 mg/L (meas.).

The results from Applegate et al. (1957) are disregarded as the exposure period was very short (24 h) compared to the standard test period (96 h). In addition the studies were performed as limit tests with a low test item concentration of only 5 mg/L. Chemical analysis was not performed. Test species were Oncorhynchus mykiss, Lepomis macrochirus and Petromyzon marinus.