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EC number: 222-746-8 | CAS number: 3598-16-1
Cited reports and publications:
- Caldwell, J. (1987) Human disposition of [14C]-ORP/178. Unpublished report. Private communication. Submitted to WHO by Flavor and Extract Manufacturers’ Association of the United States.Cited by WHO 2003.
- Hawkins, D.R. & Mayo, B.C. (1986) Plasma kinetics of [14C]-ORP/178 in the rat. Unpublished report. Private communication. Submitted to WHO by Flavor and Extract Manufacturers’ Association of the United States.Cited by WHO 2003.
- Howes, D. Absorption and metabolism of 2-phenoxyethanol in rat and man. Cosmet.Toiletries, 103, 75, 1988. Cited by WHO 2003.
- James, M.O., Smith, R.L., Williams, R.T. & Reidenberg, M. (1972) The conjugation of phenylacetic acid in man, sub-human primates and some non-primate species. Proc. R. Soc. London B, 182, 25–35.Cited by WHO 2003.
- Levey, S. & Lewis, H.B. The metabolism of phenoxyacetic acid, its homologues, and some monochlorophenoxyacetic acids. New examples of oxidation. J. Biol. Chem., 168, 213–221,1947. Cited by WHO 2003.
- Sangster, S.A. & Lindley, M.G. (1986) Metabolism and excretion of ORP/178 in man. Unpublished report. Private communication. Submitted to WHO by Flavor and Extract Manufacturers’ Association of the United States.Cited by WHO 2003.
- Thierfelder, H. & Schempp, E. Behaviour of benzoylpropionic acid, phenethyl alcohol and phenoxyacetic acid in the body of men and dogs. Arch. Ges. Physiol., 167, 280–288, 1917. Cited by WHO 2003.
- Williams, R.T. Book: Detoxication Mechanisms - The Metabolism and Detoxication of Drugs, Toxic Substances and Other Organic Compounds, 2nd Ed., London, Chapman & Hall. 1959. Cited by WHO 2003.
From WHO 2003, Section on Absorption, distribution and excretion:
"When ingested in traditional foods, in foods to which they have been intentionally added or as hydrolysis products resulting from either condition, phenethyl and phenoxyethyl alcohols, phenylacetaldehyde and phenylacetic and phenoxyacetic acids are rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Once absorbed, the alcohols and aldehydes are rapidly oxidized to yield phenylacetic or phenoxyacetic acid derivatives, which are subsequently excreted in the urine, either free as in the case of phenoxyacetic acid or conjugated as in the case of phenylacetic acid (Williams, 1959; James et al., 1972; Sangster & Lindley, 1986; Hawkins & Mayo, 1986; Caldwell, 1987)."
"Phenoxyacetic acid was fed to male rabbits at a dose of 100–200 mg/kg bw, and some animals also received glycine in amounts corresponding to three equivalents of the acid. In this test, 44–72% of the phenoxyacetic acid was recovered unchanged in the urine within 6 h and 82–105% within 24 h. There was no evidence of conjugation with either glucuronic acid or glycine, even when the diet was supplemented with glycine. A rabbit that received an oral dose of 500 mg of the glycine conjugate of phenoxyacetic acid excreted 30% of the dose unconjugated in the urine after 18 h (Levey & Lewis, 1947). "
"In another study, 55% of an oral dose of an unspecified amount of phenoxyacetic acid was recovered in the urine of dogs and 61% in the urine of humans. No evidence for glycine or glucuronic acid conjugation was found (Thierfelder & Schempp, 1917)."
Conclusion: Phenoxy acetic acid and sodium phenoxyacetate are easily and practically completely absorbed after oral administration. The common anion phenoxyacetate is excreted practically completely and unchanged in urine (of rabbits).
A read-across from the toxicity results of the substance 2-phenoxyethanol to the target substance sodium phenoxyacetate was performed. A NOAEL for an oral 90-day toxicity study with rats of 376 mg sodium phenoxyacetate per kg body weight and day was obtained.
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