Registration Dossier

Administrative data

Endpoint:
screening for reproductive / developmental toxicity
Type of information:
(Q)SAR
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
results derived from a valid (Q)SAR model and falling into its applicability domain, with limited documentation / justification
Justification for type of information:
Data is predicted by OECD QSAR Toolbox version 3.3. The supporting QMRF report has been attached

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
other: Predicted data
Title:
[R]: 150 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received); Estimation for NOAEL for CAS 144-29-6
Author:
Sustainability Support Services (Europe) AB
Year:
2016
Bibliographic source:
Prediction using OECD QSAR Toolbox 3.3.

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: The prediction is done using QSAR Toolbox version 3.3
Principles of method if other than guideline:
The data is predicted using the OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.3 with log Kow as the primary descriptor.
GLP compliance:
no
Justification for study design:
The data is predicted using the OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.3 with log Kow as the primary descriptor.

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Details on test material:
SMILES:C1CNCCN1_C1CNCCN1_C1CNCCN1_OC(=O)CC(O)(CC(O)=O)C(O)=O_OC(=O)CC(O)(CC(O)=O)C(O)=O
Specific details on test material used for the study:
- Name of test material (as cited in study report): Piperazine citrate - Molecular formula (if other than submission substance): C6-H8-O7.3/2C4-H10-N2 - Molecular weight (if other than submission substance): 642.6554 g/mole -SMILES:C1CNCCN1_C1CNCCN1_C1CNCCN1_OC(=O)CC(O)(CC(O)=O)C(O)=O_OC(=O)CC(O)(CC(O)=O)C(O)=O- Substance type: Organic - Physical state: Solid

Test animals

Species:
rat
Strain:
not specified
Details on species / strain selection:
not specified
Sex:
not specified

Administration / exposure

Route of administration:
oral: gavage
Type of inhalation exposure (if applicable):
not specified
Remarks on MMAD:
not specified
Vehicle:
not specified
Details on exposure:
not specified
Details on mating procedure:
not specified
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
not specified
Details on analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
not specified
Duration of treatment / exposure:
not specified
Frequency of treatment:
Daily
Details on study schedule:
not specified
No. of animals per sex per dose:
not specified
Control animals:
not specified
Positive control:
not specifiednot specified

Examinations

Parental animals: Observations and examinations:
not specified
Oestrous cyclicity (parental animals):
not specified
Sperm parameters (parental animals):
not specified
Litter observations:
not specified
Postmortem examinations (parental animals):
not specified
Postmortem examinations (offspring):
not specified
Statistics:
not specified
Reproductive indices:
not specified
Offspring viability indices:
not specified

Results and discussion

Results: P0 (first parental generation)

General toxicity (P0)

Clinical signs:
not specified
Dermal irritation (if dermal study):
not specified
Mortality:
not specified
Body weight and weight changes:
not specified
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
not specified
Food efficiency:
not specified
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
not specified
Ophthalmological findings:
not specified
Haematological findings:
not specified
Clinical biochemistry findings:
not specified
Urinalysis findings:
not specified
Behaviour (functional findings):
not specified
Immunological findings:
not specified
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
not specified
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
not specified
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
not specified
Other effects:
not specified

Reproductive function / performance (P0)

Reproductive function: oestrous cycle:
not specified
Reproductive function: sperm measures:
not specified
Reproductive performance:
no effects observed

Details on results (P0)

not specified

Effect levels (P0)

Key result
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
150 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
not specified
Basis for effect level:
reproductive performance

Results: F1 generation

Effect levels (F1)

Dose descriptor:
other: not specified
Generation:
other: not specified
Based on:
not specified
Sex:
not specified
Basis for effect level:
other: not specified
Remarks on result:
other: not specified

Target system / organ toxicity (F1)

Critical effects observed:
not specified

Overall reproductive toxicity

Reproductive effects observed:
not specified
Treatment related:
not specified

Any other information on results incl. tables

The prediction was based on dataset comprised from the following descriptors: NOAEL
Estimation method: Takes average value from the 5 nearest neighbours
Domain  logical expression:Result: In Domain

(((((("a" or "b" or "c" or "d" or "e") and("f" and(not "g")) ) and(("h" or "i" or "j" or "k" or "l") and("m" and(not "n")) ) and(("o" or "p" or "q" or "r" or "s") and("t" and(not "u")) ) ) or((("v" or "w" or "x" or "y" or "z") and("aa" and(not "ab")) ) and(("ac" or "ad" or "ae" or "af" or "ag") and("ah" and(not "ai")) ) and(("aj" or "ak" or "al" or "am" or "an") and("ao" and(not "ap")) ) ) ) and "aq") and("ar" and "as") )

Domain logical expression index: "a"

Referential boundary:The target chemical should be classified as Aliphatic Amines AND Not categorized by US-EPA New Chemical Categories

Domain logical expression index: "b"

Referential boundary:The target chemical should be classified as Not categorized AND Secondary amines by OECD HPV Chemical Categories

Domain logical expression index: "c"

Referential boundary:The target chemical should be classified as Alcohol AND Carboxylic acid by Organic Functional groups

Domain logical expression index: "d"

Referential boundary:The target chemical should be classified as Acid, aliphatic attach [-COOH] AND Alcohol, olefinic attach [-OH] AND Alcohol-acid Carbon [HO-C-COOH] AND Aliphatic Carbon [C] AND Aliphatic Carbon [CH] AND Aliphatic Carbon [-CH2-] AND Carbonyl, aliphatic attach [-C(=O)-] AND Hydroxy, aliphatic attach [-OH] AND Miscellaneous sulfide (=S) or oxide (=O) AND Multi alcohol  AND Olefinic carbon [=CH- or =C<] AND Tertiary Carbon by Organic functional groups (US EPA)

Domain logical expression index: "e"

Referential boundary:The target chemical should be classified as Alcohol AND Alpha-hydroxyacid AND Carbonic acid derivative AND Carboxylic acid AND Carboxylic acid derivative AND Hydroxy compound by Organic functional groups, Norbert Haider (checkmol)

Domain logical expression index: "f"

Referential boundary:The target chemical should be classified as Non binder, non cyclic structure AND Non binder, without OH or NH2 group by Estrogen Receptor Binding

Domain logical expression index: "g"

Referential boundary:The target chemical should be classified as Moderate binder, NH2 group OR Moderate binder, OH grooup OR Non binder, impaired OH or NH2 group OR Non binder, MW>500 OR Strong binder, NH2 group OR Strong binder, OH group OR Weak binder, NH2 group OR Weak binder, OH group OR Very strong binder, OH group by Estrogen Receptor Binding



<i>-1M) Metabolism:</i>In boundaries [6], [7] profiling scheme "Estrogen Receptor Binding" was combined with "Observed Mammalian metabolism"

Domain logical expression index: "h"

Referential boundary:The target chemical should be classified as Aliphatic Amines AND Not categorized by US-EPA New Chemical Categories

Domain logical expression index: "i"

Referential boundary:The target chemical should be classified as Not categorized AND Secondary amines by OECD HPV Chemical Categories

Domain logical expression index: "j"

Referential boundary:The target chemical should be classified as Alcohol AND Carboxylic acid by Organic Functional groups

Domain logical expression index: "k"

Referential boundary:The target chemical should be classified as Acid, aliphatic attach [-COOH] AND Alcohol, olefinic attach [-OH] AND Alcohol-acid Carbon [HO-C-COOH] AND Aliphatic Carbon [C] AND Aliphatic Carbon [CH] AND Aliphatic Carbon [-CH2-] AND Carbonyl, aliphatic attach [-C(=O)-] AND Hydroxy, aliphatic attach [-OH] AND Miscellaneous sulfide (=S) or oxide (=O) AND Multi alcohol  AND Olefinic carbon [=CH- or =C<] AND Tertiary Carbon by Organic functional groups (US EPA)

Domain logical expression index: "l"

Referential boundary:The target chemical should be classified as Alcohol AND Alpha-hydroxyacid AND Carbonic acid derivative AND Carboxylic acid AND Carboxylic acid derivative AND Hydroxy compound by Organic functional groups, Norbert Haider (checkmol)

Domain logical expression index: "m"

Referential boundary:The target chemical should be classified as No alert found by DNA binding by OASIS v.1.3

Domain logical expression index: "n"

Referential boundary:The target chemical should be classified as AN2 OR AN2 >>  Michael-type addition, quinoid structures OR AN2 >>  Michael-type addition, quinoid structures >> Flavonoids OR AN2 >>  Michael-type addition, quinoid structures >> Quinoneimines OR AN2 >>  Michael-type addition, quinoid structures >> Quinones OR AN2 >> Carbamoylation after isocyanate formation OR AN2 >> Carbamoylation after isocyanate formation >> Hydroxamic Acids OR AN2 >> Carbamoylation after isocyanate formation >> N-Hydroxylamines OR AN2 >> Michael-type addition on alpha, beta-unsaturated carbonyl compounds OR AN2 >> Michael-type addition on alpha, beta-unsaturated carbonyl compounds >> Four- and Five-Membered Lactones OR AN2 >> Schiff base formation OR AN2 >> Schiff base formation >> Polarized Haloalkene Derivatives OR AN2 >> Schiff base formation by aldehyde formed after metabolic activation OR AN2 >> Schiff base formation by aldehyde formed after metabolic activation >> Geminal Polyhaloalkane Derivatives OR AN2 >> Schiff base formation by aldehyde formed after metabolic activation >> N-methylol derivatives OR AN2 >> Shiff base formation after aldehyde release OR AN2 >> Shiff base formation after aldehyde release >> Specific Acetate Esters OR AN2 >> Shiff base formation for aldehydes OR AN2 >> Shiff base formation for aldehydes >> Geminal Polyhaloalkane Derivatives OR AN2 >> Shiff base formation for aldehydes >> Haloalkane Derivatives with Labile Halogen OR AN2 >> Thioacylation via nucleophilic addition after cysteine-mediated thioketene formation OR AN2 >> Thioacylation via nucleophilic addition after cysteine-mediated thioketene formation >> Haloalkenes with Electron-Withdrawing Groups OR AN2 >> Thioacylation via nucleophilic addition after cysteine-mediated thioketene formation >> Polarized Haloalkene Derivatives OR Non-covalent interaction OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation >> Aminoacridine DNA Intercalators OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation >> Coumarins OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation >> DNA Intercalators with Carboxamide Side Chain OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation >> Fused-Ring Primary Aromatic Amines OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation >> Quinones OR Radical OR Radical >> Generation of reactive oxygen species OR Radical >> Generation of reactive oxygen species >> Thiols OR Radical >> Generation of ROS by glutathione depletion (indirect) OR Radical >> Generation of ROS by glutathione depletion (indirect) >> Haloalkanes Containing Heteroatom OR Radical >> Radical mechanism by ROS formation (indirect) or direct radical attack on DNA OR Radical >> Radical mechanism by ROS formation (indirect) or direct radical attack on DNA >> Organic Peroxy Compounds OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Anthrones OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Conjugated Nitro Compounds OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Coumarins OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Flavonoids OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Fused-Ring Primary Aromatic Amines OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Geminal Polyhaloalkane Derivatives OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Haloalcohols OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Hydrazine Derivatives OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> N-Hydroxylamines OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Nitroaniline Derivatives OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Nitroarenes with Other Active Groups OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Nitrophenols, Nitrophenyl Ethers and Nitrobenzoic Acids OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> p-Substituted Mononitrobenzenes OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Quinones OR Radical >> ROS formation after GSH depletion (indirect) OR Radical >> ROS formation after GSH depletion (indirect) >> Quinoneimines OR SN1 OR SN1 >> Alkylation after metabolically formed carbenium ion species OR SN1 >> Alkylation after metabolically formed carbenium ion species >> Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Derivatives OR SN1 >> DNA bases alkylation by carbenium ion formed OR SN1 >> DNA bases alkylation by carbenium ion formed >> Diazoalkanes OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after carbenium ion formation OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after carbenium ion formation >> N-Nitroso Compounds OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after carbenium ion formation >> Specific Acetate Esters OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after diazonium or carbenium ion formation OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after diazonium or carbenium ion formation >> Nitroarenes with Other Active Groups OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after metabolic nitrenium ion formation OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after metabolic nitrenium ion formation >> Fused-Ring Primary Aromatic Amines OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after metabolic nitrenium ion formation >> N-Hydroxylamines OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after nitrenium and/or carbenium ion formation OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after nitrenium and/or carbenium ion formation >> N-Nitroso Compounds OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after reduction and nitrenium ion formation OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after reduction and nitrenium ion formation >> Conjugated Nitro Compounds OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after reduction and nitrenium ion formation >> Nitroaniline Derivatives OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after reduction and nitrenium ion formation >> Nitroarenes with Other Active Groups OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after reduction and nitrenium ion formation >> Nitrophenols, Nitrophenyl Ethers and Nitrobenzoic Acids OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after reduction and nitrenium ion formation >> p-Substituted Mononitrobenzenes OR SN2 OR SN2 >> Acylation OR SN2 >> Acylation >> Hydroxamic Acids OR SN2 >> Acylation >> Specific Acetate Esters OR SN2 >> Acylation involving a leaving group  OR SN2 >> Acylation involving a leaving group  >> Geminal Polyhaloalkane Derivatives OR SN2 >> Acylation involving a leaving group  >> Haloalkane Derivatives with Labile Halogen OR SN2 >> Acylation involving a leaving group after metabolic activation OR SN2 >> Acylation involving a leaving group after metabolic activation >> Geminal Polyhaloalkane Derivatives OR SN2 >> Alkylation by epoxide metabolically formed after E2 reaction OR SN2 >> Alkylation by epoxide metabolically formed after E2 reaction >> Haloalcohols OR SN2 >> Alkylation, direct acting epoxides and related OR SN2 >> Alkylation, direct acting epoxides and related >> Epoxides and Aziridines OR SN2 >> Alkylation, direct acting epoxides and related after cyclization OR SN2 >> Alkylation, direct acting epoxides and related after cyclization >> Nitrogen Mustards OR SN2 >> Alkylation, direct acting epoxides and related after P450-mediated metabolic activation OR SN2 >> Alkylation, direct acting epoxides and related after P450-mediated metabolic activation >> Haloalkenes with Electron-Withdrawing Groups OR SN2 >> Alkylation, direct acting epoxides and related after P450-mediated metabolic activation >> Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Derivatives OR SN2 >> Alkylation, nucleophilic substitution at sp3-carbon atom OR SN2 >> Alkylation, nucleophilic substitution at sp3-carbon atom >> Haloalkane Derivatives with Labile Halogen OR SN2 >> Alkylation, nucleophilic substitution at sp3-carbon atom >> Sulfonates and Sulfates OR SN2 >> Alkylation, ring opening SN2 reaction OR SN2 >> Alkylation, ring opening SN2 reaction >> Four- and Five-Membered Lactones OR SN2 >> Direct acting epoxides formed after metabolic activation OR SN2 >> Direct acting epoxides formed after metabolic activation >> Coumarins OR SN2 >> Direct acting epoxides formed after metabolic activation >> Quinoline Derivatives OR SN2 >> Direct acylation involving a leaving group OR SN2 >> Direct acylation involving a leaving group >> Acyl Halides OR SN2 >> DNA alkylation OR SN2 >> DNA alkylation >> Alkylphosphates, Alkylthiophosphates and Alkylphosphonates OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 Carbon atom OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 Carbon atom >> Haloalkanes Containing Heteroatom OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 Carbon atom >> Specific Acetate Esters OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 carbon atom after thiol (glutathione) conjugation OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 carbon atom after thiol (glutathione) conjugation >> Geminal Polyhaloalkane Derivatives OR SN2 >> SN2 at an activated carbon atom OR SN2 >> SN2 at an activated carbon atom >> Quinoline Derivatives OR SN2 >> SN2 at sp3 and activated sp2 carbon atom OR SN2 >> SN2 at sp3 and activated sp2 carbon atom >> Polarized Haloalkene Derivatives OR SN2 >> SN2 attack on activated carbon Csp3 or Csp2 OR SN2 >> SN2 attack on activated carbon Csp3 or Csp2 >> Nitroarenes with Other Active Groups by DNA binding by OASIS v.1.3



<i>-1M) Metabolism:</i>In boundaries [13], [14] profiling scheme "DNA binding by OASIS v.1.3" was combined with "Observed Mammalian metabolism"

Domain logical expression index: "o"

Referential boundary:The target chemical should be classified as Aliphatic Amines AND Not categorized by US-EPA New Chemical Categories

Domain logical expression index: "p"

Referential boundary:The target chemical should be classified as Not categorized AND Secondary amines by OECD HPV Chemical Categories

Domain logical expression index: "q"

Referential boundary:The target chemical should be classified as Alcohol AND Carboxylic acid by Organic Functional groups

Domain logical expression index: "r"

Referential boundary:The target chemical should be classified as Acid, aliphatic attach [-COOH] AND Alcohol, olefinic attach [-OH] AND Alcohol-acid Carbon [HO-C-COOH] AND Aliphatic Carbon [C] AND Aliphatic Carbon [CH] AND Aliphatic Carbon [-CH2-] AND Carbonyl, aliphatic attach [-C(=O)-] AND Hydroxy, aliphatic attach [-OH] AND Miscellaneous sulfide (=S) or oxide (=O) AND Multi alcohol  AND Olefinic carbon [=CH- or =C<] AND Tertiary Carbon by Organic functional groups (US EPA)

Domain logical expression index: "s"

Referential boundary:The target chemical should be classified as Alcohol AND Alpha-hydroxyacid AND Carbonic acid derivative AND Carboxylic acid AND Carboxylic acid derivative AND Hydroxy compound by Organic functional groups, Norbert Haider (checkmol)

Domain logical expression index: "t"

Referential boundary:The target chemical should be classified as No alert found by Protein binding by OASIS v1.3

Domain logical expression index: "u"

Referential boundary:The target chemical should be classified as Acylation OR Acylation >> Direct acylation involving a leaving group OR Acylation >> Direct acylation involving a leaving group >> (Thio)Acyl and (thio)carbamoyl halides and cyanides  OR Acylation >> Direct acylation involving a leaving group >> Azlactones and unsaturated lactone derivatives  OR Acylation >> Direct acylation involving a leaving group >> Carbamates  OR Acylation >> Direct acylation involving a leaving group >> N-Acylsulfonamides  OR Acylation >> Ester aminolysis OR Acylation >> Ester aminolysis >> Amides OR Acylation >> Ester aminolysis >> Dithiocarbamates OR Acylation >> Ester aminolysis or thiolysis OR Acylation >> Ester aminolysis or thiolysis >> Activated aryl esters  OR Acylation >> Ring opening acylation OR Acylation >> Ring opening acylation >> beta-Lactams  OR Ionic interaction OR Ionic interaction >> Electrostatic interaction of tetraalkylamonium ion with protein carboxylates OR Ionic interaction >> Electrostatic interaction of tetraalkylamonium ion with protein carboxylates >> Tetraalkylammonium ions OR Ionic interaction >> Substituted guanidines OR Ionic interaction >> Substituted guanidines >> Guanidines OR Michael Addition OR Michael Addition >> Michael addition on conjugated systems with electron withdrawing group OR Michael Addition >> Michael addition on conjugated systems with electron withdrawing group >> alpha,beta-Carbonyl compounds with polarized double bonds  OR Michael Addition >> Michael addition on conjugated systems with electron withdrawing group >> Conjugated systems with electron withdrawing groups  OR Michael Addition >> Michael addition on conjugated systems with electron withdrawing group >> Nitroalkenes OR Michael Addition >> Polarised Alkenes OR Michael Addition >> Polarised Alkenes >> Polarised Alkene - alkenyl pyridines, pyrazines, pyrimidines or triazines  OR Michael Addition >> Quinoide type compounds OR Michael Addition >> Quinoide type compounds >> Quinone methide(s)/imines; Quinoide oxime structure; Nitroquinones, Naphthoquinone(s)/imines  OR Nucleophilic addition OR Nucleophilic addition >> Addition to carbon-hetero double bonds OR Nucleophilic addition >> Addition to carbon-hetero double bonds >> Ketones OR Radical reactions OR Radical reactions >> Free radical formation OR Radical reactions >> Free radical formation >> Organic peroxy compounds OR Schiff base formation OR Schiff base formation >> Schiff base formation with carbonyl compounds OR Schiff base formation >> Schiff base formation with carbonyl compounds >> Aldehydes OR SN1 OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic substitution (SN1) on alkyl (aryl) mercury cations OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic substitution (SN1) on alkyl (aryl) mercury cations >> Mercury compounds  OR SN2 OR SN2 >> Interchange reaction with sulphur containing compounds OR SN2 >> Interchange reaction with sulphur containing compounds >> Thiols and disulfide compounds  OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at a Nitrogen atom OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at a Nitrogen atom >> N-Nitroso compounds  OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 carbon atom OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 carbon atom >> (Thio)Phosphates  OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 carbon atom >> Alkyl halides  OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 carbon atom >> alpha-Activated haloalkanes  OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 carbon atom >> N-Nitroso compounds  OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 carbon atom >> Sulfonates OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at the central carbon atom of N-nitroso compounds OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at the central carbon atom of N-nitroso compounds >> N-Nitroso_compounds  OR SN2 >> Ring opening SN2 reaction OR SN2 >> Ring opening SN2 reaction >> Epoxides, Aziridines and Sulfuranes  OR SN2 >> SN2 Reaction at a sp3 carbon atom OR SN2 >> SN2 Reaction at a sp3 carbon atom >> Activated alkyl esters and thioesters  OR SNAr OR SNAr >> Nucleophilic aromatic substitution on activated aryl and heteroaryl compounds OR SNAr >> Nucleophilic aromatic substitution on activated aryl and heteroaryl compounds >> Activated aryl and heteroaryl compounds by Protein binding by OASIS v1.3



<i>-1M) Metabolism:</i>In boundaries [20], [21] profiling scheme "Protein binding by OASIS v1.3" was combined with "Observed Mammalian metabolism"

Domain logical expression index: "v"

Referential boundary:The target chemical should be classified as Aliphatic Amines AND Not categorized by US-EPA New Chemical Categories

Domain logical expression index: "w"

Referential boundary:The target chemical should be classified as Not categorized AND Secondary amines by OECD HPV Chemical Categories

Domain logical expression index: "x"

Referential boundary:The target chemical should be classified as Piperazine AND Saturated heterocyclic amine AND Saturated heterocyclic fragment by Organic Functional groups

Domain logical expression index: "y"

Referential boundary:The target chemical should be classified as Aliphatic Carbon [CH] AND Aliphatic Carbon [-CH2-] AND Amino, aliphatic attach [-N<] AND Amino, aliphatic attach [-NH-] by Organic functional groups (US EPA)

Domain logical expression index: "z"

Referential boundary:The target chemical should be classified as Aliphatic amines (Mucous membrane irritation) Rank C by Repeated dose (HESS)

Domain logical expression index: "aa"

Referential boundary:The target chemical should be classified as No alert found by DNA binding by OASIS v.1.3

Domain logical expression index: "ab"

Referential boundary:The target chemical should be classified as AN2 OR AN2 >>  Michael-type addition, quinoid structures OR AN2 >>  Michael-type addition, quinoid structures >> Flavonoids OR AN2 >>  Michael-type addition, quinoid structures >> Quinoneimines OR AN2 >>  Michael-type addition, quinoid structures >> Quinones OR AN2 >> Carbamoylation after isocyanate formation OR AN2 >> Carbamoylation after isocyanate formation >> Hydroxamic Acids OR AN2 >> Carbamoylation after isocyanate formation >> N-Hydroxylamines OR AN2 >> Schiff base formation by aldehyde formed after metabolic activation OR AN2 >> Schiff base formation by aldehyde formed after metabolic activation >> Geminal Polyhaloalkane Derivatives OR AN2 >> Schiff base formation by aldehyde formed after metabolic activation >> N-methylol derivatives OR AN2 >> Shiff base formation after aldehyde release OR AN2 >> Shiff base formation after aldehyde release >> Specific Acetate Esters OR AN2 >> Shiff base formation for aldehydes OR AN2 >> Shiff base formation for aldehydes >> Geminal Polyhaloalkane Derivatives OR AN2 >> Thioacylation via nucleophilic addition after cysteine-mediated thioketene formation OR AN2 >> Thioacylation via nucleophilic addition after cysteine-mediated thioketene formation >> Haloalkenes with Electron-Withdrawing Groups OR Non-covalent interaction OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation >> Acridone, Thioxanthone, Xanthone and Phenazine Derivatives OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation >> Aminoacridine DNA Intercalators OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation >> Coumarins OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation >> DNA Intercalators with Carboxamide Side Chain OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation >> Fused-Ring Nitroaromatics OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation >> Fused-Ring Primary Aromatic Amines OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation >> Quinones OR Non-specific OR Non-specific >> Incorporation into DNA/RNA, due to structural analogy with  nucleoside bases    OR Non-specific >> Incorporation into DNA/RNA, due to structural analogy with  nucleoside bases    >> Specific Imine and Thione Derivatives OR Radical OR Radical >> Generation of reactive oxygen species OR Radical >> Generation of reactive oxygen species >> Thiols OR Radical >> Generation of ROS by glutathione depletion (indirect) OR Radical >> Generation of ROS by glutathione depletion (indirect) >> Haloalkanes Containing Heteroatom OR Radical >> Radical mechanism by ROS formation OR Radical >> Radical mechanism by ROS formation (indirect) or direct radical attack on DNA OR Radical >> Radical mechanism by ROS formation (indirect) or direct radical attack on DNA >> Organic Peroxy Compounds OR Radical >> Radical mechanism by ROS formation >> Acridone, Thioxanthone, Xanthone and Phenazine Derivatives OR Radical >> Radical mechanism by ROS formation >> Polynitroarenes OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Conjugated Nitro Compounds OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Coumarins OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Diazenes OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Flavonoids OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Fused-Ring Nitroaromatics OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Fused-Ring Primary Aromatic Amines OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Geminal Polyhaloalkane Derivatives OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Hydrazine Derivatives OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> N-Hydroxylamines OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Nitro Azoarenes OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Nitroaniline Derivatives OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Nitroarenes with Other Active Groups OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Nitrophenols, Nitrophenyl Ethers and Nitrobenzoic Acids OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> p-Substituted Mononitrobenzenes OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Quinones OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Single-Ring Substituted Primary Aromatic Amines OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Specific Imine and Thione Derivatives OR Radical >> ROS formation after GSH depletion (indirect) OR Radical >> ROS formation after GSH depletion (indirect) >> Quinoneimines OR SN1 OR SN1 >> Alkylation after metabolically formed carbenium ion species OR SN1 >> Alkylation after metabolically formed carbenium ion species >> Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Derivatives OR SN1 >> DNA bases alkylation by carbenium ion formed OR SN1 >> DNA bases alkylation by carbenium ion formed >> Diazoalkanes OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after carbenium ion formation OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after carbenium ion formation >> Acyclic Triazenes OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after carbenium ion formation >> N-Nitroso Compounds OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after carbenium ion formation >> Pyrrolizidine Derivatives OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after carbenium ion formation >> Specific Acetate Esters OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after diazonium or carbenium ion formation OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after diazonium or carbenium ion formation >> Nitroarenes with Other Active Groups OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after metabolic nitrenium ion formation OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after metabolic nitrenium ion formation >> Fused-Ring Primary Aromatic Amines OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after metabolic nitrenium ion formation >> N-Hydroxylamines OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after metabolic nitrenium ion formation >> Single-Ring Substituted Primary Aromatic Amines OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after nitrenium and/or carbenium ion formation OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after nitrenium and/or carbenium ion formation >> N-Nitroso Compounds OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after reduction and nitrenium ion formation OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after reduction and nitrenium ion formation >> Conjugated Nitro Compounds OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after reduction and nitrenium ion formation >> Fused-Ring Nitroaromatics OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after reduction and nitrenium ion formation >> Nitro Azoarenes OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after reduction and nitrenium ion formation >> Nitroaniline Derivatives OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after reduction and nitrenium ion formation >> Nitroarenes with Other Active Groups OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after reduction and nitrenium ion formation >> Nitrophenols, Nitrophenyl Ethers and Nitrobenzoic Acids OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after reduction and nitrenium ion formation >> Polynitroarenes OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after reduction and nitrenium ion formation >> p-Substituted Mononitrobenzenes OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic substitution on diazonium ions OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic substitution on diazonium ions >> Specific Imine and Thione Derivatives OR SN2 OR SN2 >> Acylation OR SN2 >> Acylation >> Hydroxamic Acids OR SN2 >> Acylation >> Specific Acetate Esters OR SN2 >> Acylation involving a leaving group  OR SN2 >> Acylation involving a leaving group  >> Geminal Polyhaloalkane Derivatives OR SN2 >> Acylation involving a leaving group after metabolic activation OR SN2 >> Acylation involving a leaving group after metabolic activation >> Geminal Polyhaloalkane Derivatives OR SN2 >> Alkylation, direct acting epoxides and related OR SN2 >> Alkylation, direct acting epoxides and related >> Epoxides and Aziridines OR SN2 >> Alkylation, direct acting epoxides and related after cyclization OR SN2 >> Alkylation, direct acting epoxides and related after cyclization >> Nitrogen Mustards OR SN2 >> Alkylation, direct acting epoxides and related after P450-mediated metabolic activation OR SN2 >> Alkylation, direct acting epoxides and related after P450-mediated metabolic activation >> Haloalkenes with Electron-Withdrawing Groups OR SN2 >> Alkylation, direct acting epoxides and related after P450-mediated metabolic activation >> Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Derivatives OR SN2 >> Alkylation, nucleophilic substitution at sp3-carbon atom OR SN2 >> Alkylation, nucleophilic substitution at sp3-carbon atom >> Sulfonates and Sulfates OR SN2 >> Direct acting epoxides formed after metabolic activation OR SN2 >> Direct acting epoxides formed after metabolic activation >> Coumarins OR SN2 >> Direct acting epoxides formed after metabolic activation >> Quinoline Derivatives OR SN2 >> Direct acylation involving a leaving group OR SN2 >> Direct acylation involving a leaving group >> Acyl Halides OR SN2 >> DNA alkylation OR SN2 >> DNA alkylation >> Alkylphosphates, Alkylthiophosphates and Alkylphosphonates OR SN2 >> DNA alkylation >> Vicinal Dihaloalkanes OR SN2 >> Internal SN2 reaction with aziridinium and/or cyclic sulfonium ion formation (enzymatic) OR SN2 >> Internal SN2 reaction with aziridinium and/or cyclic sulfonium ion formation (enzymatic) >> Vicinal Dihaloalkanes OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 Carbon atom OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 Carbon atom >> Haloalkanes Containing Heteroatom OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 Carbon atom >> Specific Acetate Esters OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 carbon atom after thiol (glutathione) conjugation OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 carbon atom after thiol (glutathione) conjugation >> Geminal Polyhaloalkane Derivatives OR SN2 >> SN2 at an activated carbon atom OR SN2 >> SN2 at an activated carbon atom >> Quinoline Derivatives OR SN2 >> SN2 attack on activated carbon Csp3 or Csp2 OR SN2 >> SN2 attack on activated carbon Csp3 or Csp2 >> Nitroarenes with Other Active Groups by DNA binding by OASIS v.1.3



<i>-1M) Metabolism:</i>In boundaries [27], [28] profiling scheme "DNA binding by OASIS v.1.3" was combined with "Observed Mammalian metabolism"

Domain logical expression index: "ac"

Referential boundary:The target chemical should be classified as Aliphatic Amines AND Not categorized by US-EPA New Chemical Categories

Domain logical expression index: "ad"

Referential boundary:The target chemical should be classified as Not categorized AND Secondary amines by OECD HPV Chemical Categories

Domain logical expression index: "ae"

Referential boundary:The target chemical should be classified as Piperazine AND Saturated heterocyclic amine AND Saturated heterocyclic fragment by Organic Functional groups

Domain logical expression index: "af"

Referential boundary:The target chemical should be classified as Aliphatic Carbon [CH] AND Aliphatic Carbon [-CH2-] AND Amino, aliphatic attach [-N<] AND Amino, aliphatic attach [-NH-] by Organic functional groups (US EPA)

Domain logical expression index: "ag"

Referential boundary:The target chemical should be classified as Aliphatic amines (Mucous membrane irritation) Rank C by Repeated dose (HESS)

Domain logical expression index: "ah"

Referential boundary:The target chemical should be classified as Non binder, non cyclic structure AND Non binder, without OH or NH2 group by Estrogen Receptor Binding

Domain logical expression index: "ai"

Referential boundary:The target chemical should be classified as Moderate binder, NH2 group OR Moderate binder, OH grooup OR Non binder, impaired OH or NH2 group OR Non binder, MW>500 OR Strong binder, NH2 group OR Strong binder, OH group OR Weak binder, NH2 group OR Weak binder, OH group OR Very strong binder, OH group by Estrogen Receptor Binding



<i>-1M) Metabolism:</i>In boundaries [34], [35] profiling scheme "Estrogen Receptor Binding" was combined with "Observed Mammalian metabolism"

Domain logical expression index: "aj"

Referential boundary:The target chemical should be classified as Aliphatic Amines AND Not categorized by US-EPA New Chemical Categories

Domain logical expression index: "ak"

Referential boundary:The target chemical should be classified as Not categorized AND Secondary amines by OECD HPV Chemical Categories

Domain logical expression index: "al"

Referential boundary:The target chemical should be classified as Piperazine AND Saturated heterocyclic amine AND Saturated heterocyclic fragment by Organic Functional groups

Domain logical expression index: "am"

Referential boundary:The target chemical should be classified as Aliphatic Carbon [CH] AND Aliphatic Carbon [-CH2-] AND Amino, aliphatic attach [-N<] AND Amino, aliphatic attach [-NH-] by Organic functional groups (US EPA)

Domain logical expression index: "an"

Referential boundary:The target chemical should be classified as Aliphatic amines (Mucous membrane irritation) Rank C by Repeated dose (HESS)

Domain logical expression index: "ao"

Referential boundary:The target chemical should be classified as No alert found by Protein binding by OASIS v1.3

Domain logical expression index: "ap"

Referential boundary:The target chemical should be classified as Acylation OR Acylation >> Direct acylation involving a leaving group OR Acylation >> Direct acylation involving a leaving group >> (Thio)Acyl and (thio)carbamoyl halides and cyanides  OR Acylation >> Direct acylation involving a leaving group >> Azlactones and unsaturated lactone derivatives  OR Acylation >> Direct acylation involving a leaving group >> Carbamates  OR Acylation >> Direct acylation involving a leaving group >> N-Acylsulfonamides  OR Acylation >> Direct acylation involving a leaving group >> Thiosulfinates OR Acylation >> Direct acylation involving a leaving group >> Thiosulfonates OR Acylation >> Ester aminolysis OR Acylation >> Ester aminolysis >> Amides OR Acylation >> Ester aminolysis >> Dithiocarbamates OR Acylation >> Ester aminolysis or thiolysis OR Acylation >> Ester aminolysis or thiolysis >> Activated aryl esters  OR Acylation >> Ring opening acylation OR Acylation >> Ring opening acylation >> beta-Lactams  OR Ionic interaction OR Ionic interaction >> Electrostatic interaction of tetraalkylamonium ion with protein carboxylates OR Ionic interaction >> Electrostatic interaction of tetraalkylamonium ion with protein carboxylates >> Tetraalkylammonium ions OR Ionic interaction >> Substituted guanidines OR Ionic interaction >> Substituted guanidines >> Guanidines OR Michael Addition OR Michael Addition >> Michael addition on conjugated systems with electron withdrawing group OR Michael Addition >> Michael addition on conjugated systems with electron withdrawing group >> alpha,beta-Carbonyl compounds with polarized double bonds  OR Michael Addition >> Michael addition on conjugated systems with electron withdrawing group >> Conjugated systems with electron withdrawing groups  OR Michael Addition >> Michael addition on conjugated systems with electron withdrawing group >> Nitroalkenes OR Michael Addition >> Polarised Alkenes OR Michael Addition >> Polarised Alkenes >> Polarised Alkene - alkenyl pyridines, pyrazines, pyrimidines or triazines  OR Michael Addition >> Polarised Alkenes >> Polarised Alkenes - sulfones  OR Michael Addition >> Quinoide type compounds OR Michael Addition >> Quinoide type compounds >> Quinone methide(s)/imines; Quinoide oxime structure; Nitroquinones, Naphthoquinone(s)/imines  OR Michael Addition >> Quinone type chemicals OR Michael Addition >> Quinone type chemicals >> Pyranones, Pyridones (and related nitrogen chemicals)  OR Nucleophilic addition OR Nucleophilic addition >> Addition to carbon-hetero double bonds OR Nucleophilic addition >> Addition to carbon-hetero double bonds >> Ketones OR Radical reactions OR Radical reactions >> Free radical formation OR Radical reactions >> Free radical formation >> Organic peroxy compounds OR Schiff base formation OR Schiff base formation >> Pyrazolones and Pyrazolidinones derivatives OR Schiff base formation >> Pyrazolones and Pyrazolidinones derivatives >> Pyrazolones and Pyrazolidinones  OR Schiff base formation >> Schiff base formation with carbonyl compounds OR Schiff base formation >> Schiff base formation with carbonyl compounds >> Aldehydes OR SN2 OR SN2 >> Interchange reaction with sulphur containing compounds OR SN2 >> Interchange reaction with sulphur containing compounds >> Thiols and disulfide compounds  OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at a Nitrogen atom OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at a Nitrogen atom >> N-Nitroso compounds  OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 carbon atom OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 carbon atom >> (Thio)Phosphates  OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 carbon atom >> Alkyl halides  OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 carbon atom >> N-Nitroso compounds  OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 carbon atom >> Phosphonates OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 carbon atom >> Sulfonates OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at the central carbon atom of N-nitroso compounds OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at the central carbon atom of N-nitroso compounds >> N-Nitroso_compounds  OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution on benzilyc carbon atom OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution on benzilyc carbon atom >> alpha-Activated benzyls  OR SN2 >> Ring opening SN2 reaction OR SN2 >> Ring opening SN2 reaction >> Epoxides, Aziridines and Sulfuranes  OR SN2 >> SN2 Reaction at a sp3 carbon atom OR SN2 >> SN2 Reaction at a sp3 carbon atom >> Activated alkyl esters and thioesters  OR SNAr OR SNAr >> Nucleophilic aromatic substitution on activated aryl and heteroaryl compounds OR SNAr >> Nucleophilic aromatic substitution on activated aryl and heteroaryl compounds >> Activated aryl and heteroaryl compounds by Protein binding by OASIS v1.3



<i>-1M) Metabolism:</i>In boundaries [41], [42] profiling scheme "Protein binding by OASIS v1.3" was combined with "Observed Mammalian metabolism"

Domain logical expression index: "aq"

Similarity boundary:Target: C1CNCCN1_C1CNCCN1_C1CNCCN1_OC(=O)CC(O)(CC(O)=O)C(O)=O_OC(=O)CC(O)(CC(O)=O)C(O)=O
Threshold=10%,
Dice(Atom centered fragments)
Atom type; Count H attached; Hybridization

Domain logical expression index: "ar"

Parametric boundary:The target chemical should have a value of log Kow which is >= -2.13

Domain logical expression index: "as"

Parametric boundary:The target chemical should have a value of log Kow which is <= 1.68

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
Since no compound related effects were observed for reproduction, the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for test material Piperazine citrate in rats is estimated to be 150 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received).
Executive summary:

The reproductive toxicity of Piperazine citrate to rats was estimated using QSAR Toolboox version 3.3. Since no compound related effects were observed for reproduction, the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for test material Piperazine citrate in rats is estimated to be 150 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received). Thus the substance is not likely to classify as Toxic to reproduction as per CLP classification criteria.