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Short-term toxicity to fish

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Reference
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Justification for type of information:
Experimental test result performed using standard test guidelines
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 203 (Fish, Acute Toxicity Test)
GLP compliance:
no
Specific details on test material used for the study:
- Name of test material (as cited in study report): Piperazine citrate / tripiperazine dicitrate- Molecular formula: C12H30N6•Cl2H16O14 - Molecular weight: 642.76 g/mole - Substance type: Organic - Physical state: Solid
Analytical monitoring:
not specified
Details on sampling:
not specified
Vehicle:
yes
Details on test solutions:
The test substance was soluble in water. Therefore, the test solution was prepared by dissolving 400 mg of the test substance in 1 liters of potable water (passed through reverse osmosis system) with continuous stirring. This test solution was then added to the remaining three liters of water for achieving test concentrations of 100 mg/L.
Test organisms (species):
Danio rerio (previous name: Brachydanio rerio)
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM- Common name:Zebra Fish - Strain:Danio rerio- Source: Unique Aqua Fish Corner- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD):not specified- Length at study initiation (length definition, mean, range and SD): average 0.180 g- Weight at study initiation (mean and range, SD): average 0.180 g- Method of breeding: not specified- Feeding during test: Once in a day up to sixth day of acclimatization- Food type:Standard brand feed,- Amount: not specified- Frequency: once daily
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
yes
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Hardness:
not specified
Test temperature:
23 °C
pH:
7.98
Dissolved oxygen:
7.4 mg/L
Salinity:
not specified
Conductivity:
not specified
Nominal and measured concentrations:
100 mg/L
Details on test conditions:
Photoperiod: 12 hours light and 12-hour darknessVolume of water: 2 litersNo. of animals: 8 fishesTest temperature: 23 °CAdaptation: Test conditions corresponded to housing conditionsTest datesTest started at : 05/03/2016Test Exposure date: 14/03/2016Date of experimental termination: 18/03/2016Withdrawal of food: 1 day before and during exposureAeration: Aeration in test vessels was provided 1 day before the start of experiment
Reference substance (positive control):
not specified
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
> 100 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality

Observations:

Mortality and symptoms

NominalConcentration

(mg/l)

Number of fish

Mortality (cumulated) after

3 h

6 h

24h

48h

72h

96h

V1

V2

V1

V2

V1

V2

V1

V2

V1

V2

V1

V2

0 (control)

4

4

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

100

4

4

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

100

4

4

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Visible Symptoms:

NominalConcentration

(mg/l)

Number of fish

Symptoms after

3 h

6 h

24h

48h

72h

96h

V1

V2

V1

V2

V1

V2

V1

V2

V1

V2

V1

V2

0 (control)

4

4

NS4

NS4

NS4

NS4

NS4

NS4

NS4

NS4

NS4

NS4

NS4

NS4

100

4

4

NS4

NS4

NS4

NS4

NS4

NS4

NS4

NS4

NS4

NS4

NS4

NS4

100

4

4

NS4

NS4

NS4

NS4

NS4

NS4

NS4

NS4

NS4

NS4

NS4

NS4

Explanation of symptoms:

A:apathy

N:Narcotic-like state

C:Swimming near water surface

M: Slow movements compared to control

NS:No abnormal symptoms 

S:Surfacing behaviour

L:Loss of equilibrium

SM:Shimming movement

H1:Hyperactivity

H2:Hypo activity

B:Bending behavior

F:Fin rot

IS:Invert Swimming

SB:Swimming behaviour

RF:Respiratory Function

P:Pigmentation

pH and oxygen content:

NominalConcentration

(mg/l)

Number of fish

pH readings after

24h

48h

72h

96h

V1

V2

V1

V2

V1

V2

V1

V2

0 (control)

4

4

8.11

8.12

8.12

8.13

8.12

8.14

8.17

8.18

100

4

4

8.24

8.25

8.41

8.42

8.17

8.21

8.24

8.25

100

4

4

8.17

8.19

8.51

8.52

8.19

8.22

8.51

8.51

NominalConcentration

(mg/l)

Number of fish

Oxygen content (mg/L) after

24h

48h

72h

96h

V1

V2

V1

V2

V1

V2

V1

V2

0 (control)

4

4

6.9

6.9

7.1

7.1

7.1

7.1

7.1

7.1

100

4

4

7.2

7.1

7.2

7.2

7.3

7.3

7.3

7.3

100

4

4

7.4

7.4

7.4

7.4

7.1

7.1

7.3

7.3

Test temperature

NominalConcentration

(mg/l)

Number of fish

Temperature (°C) after

24h

48h

72h

96h

V1

V2

V1

V2

V1

V2

V1

V2

0 (control)

4

4

23

23

27

27

26

26

25

25

100

4

4

25

25

26

26

25

26

25

25

100

4

4

25

25

26

26

26

26

25

25

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Based on nominal concentration, experimental median lethal Concentrations [LC-50 (96 h)] for CAS No. -144-29-6 on Zebra fish (Danio rerio) was determined to be >100mg/L.
Executive summary:

Fish Acute Toxicity test according to OECD Guideline 203 was conducted for the test substance Tripiperazine dicitrate (CAS 144 -29 -6). The nominal concentration selected for the experiment was 100mg/L and Zebra Fish (Danio rerio) were exposed to thisconcentration for 96 hours.

The lethal concentrations LC50 was found to be >100mg/L.

Description of key information

Based on nominal concentration, experimental median lethal Concentrations [LC-50 (96 h)] for CAS No. -144-29-6 on Zebra fish (Danio rerio) was determined to be >100 mg/L. Based on this result it is concluded that the substance Piperazine citrate (CAS no. 144-29-6) does not qualify for the aquatic classification as per the CLP criteria.

For chemical safety assessment key value is considered to be 101 mg/L.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

LC50 for freshwater fish:
101 mg/L

Additional information

Short term toxicity to fish was assessed for the target compound Piperazine citrate (CAS no. 144-29-6) and its related read- across by reviewing a number of studies. The summary of the results are presented below:

In key study, Fish Acute Toxicity test according to OECD Guideline 203 was conducted for the test substanceTripiperazine dicitrate (CAS 144 -29 -6). The nominal concentration selected for the experiment was 100mg/L and Zebra Fish (Danio rerio) were exposed to thisconcentration for 96 hours.

The lethal concentrations LC50 was found to be >100mg/L.

Supporting study from reviewed journal DISEASES OF AQUATIC ORGANISMS, Vol. 10: 39-43, 1991 indicate that the in – vivo toxicity study, Gyrodactylus sp. infecting rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss treated with Piperazine citrate in the concentration of 0 and 200 mg/l. No effect were observed on Percentage of reduction and number of dead (immobile) rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss fish. Therefore, EC0 was considered to be 200 mg/l when Gyrodactylus sp. infecting rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss treated with Piperazine citrate.

 

Whereas read across substance Piperazine (Cas no. 110-85-0) from Data bank of Environmental Properties of Chemicals (EnviChem), 2016 indicate that Fish toxicity study was conducted for 48 hrs for evaluating the lethal concentration (LC50)of test substance Piperazine on fish Oryzias latipes on the basis of mortality effect. During experiment the lethal concentration (LC50) for test substance Piperazine was found to be >1000 mg/l.

Same read across from European Union Risk Assessment Report – PIPERAZINE, 3rd Priority List Volume: 56;Final Report, 2005 the test chemical Piperazine (Cas no. 110-85-0) indicate semi-static test according to OECD Guidelines 203 (Balk and Meuwsen, 1989b). The test medium was renewed after 48 hours. The nominal test concentrations were 180, 320, 560,1,000 and 1,800 mg/L. Test temperature was 22.3-23°C, pH of the test medium was neutralised to 7.0-7.3. Observations of mortality and sublethal effects among the fish (10 per test concentration) were performed at daily intervals during the test. LC50 could be determined to be>1, 800 mg/L.

 

Based on above results for target chemical and its read across it is concluded that the substance Piperazine citrate (CAS no. 144-29-6) does not qualify for the aquatic classification as per the CLP criteria.