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Administrative data

Description of key information

Oral: OECD 408, rat, NOAEL ≥ 1000 mg/kg bw/day
Inhalation: OECD 408, rat, NOAEC 0.56 mg/L (nominal concentration)
Dermal: OECD 408, rat, NOAEL ≥ 2000 mg/kg bw/day

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Repeated dose toxicity: via oral route - systemic effects

Link to relevant study records
Reference
Endpoint:
sub-chronic toxicity: oral
Type of information:
migrated information: read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
17 Nov 1997 - 16 Mar 1998
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: According to the ECHA guidance document “Practical guide 6: How to report read-across and categories (March 2010)”, the reliability was changed from RL1 to RL2 to reflect the fact that this study was conducted on a read-across substance.
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 408 (Repeated Dose 90-Day Oral Toxicity Study in Rodents)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. QA statement)
Remarks:
ToxLabs Prüflabor GmbH, Greppin, Germany
Limit test:
no
Species:
rat
Strain:
Wistar
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals or test system and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: Charles River Wiga GmbH
- Age at study initiation: 32-38 d
- Weight at study initiation: 148.5 g (mean value males), 136.7 g (mean value females)
- Housing: one or two animals in cages (Makrolon Type 3)
- Diet: Altromin 1326, ad libitum
- Water: tap water, ad libitum
- Acclimation period: 6-8 days


ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature (°C): 20-23
- Humidity (%): 30-60
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): 12/12
Route of administration:
oral: gavage
Vehicle:
other: distilled water containing 1% Tween 80
Details on oral exposure:
VEHICLE
- Concentration in vehicle: 1%
- Lot/batch no. (if required): S23350 739
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
yes
Details on analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
Duplicate 2 mL samples of each formulation were taken and stored in the frozen state until measurement
Duration of treatment / exposure:
90 d
Frequency of treatment:
once daily, 7 days/week
Remarks:
Doses / Concentrations:
100, 300, 1000 mg/kg bw/d
Basis:
actual ingested
No. of animals per sex per dose:
10 (control, test and satellite groups)
Control animals:
yes, concurrent vehicle
Details on study design:
- Rationale for selecting satellite groups: 10 animals each from the high dose and the vehicle group were used to investigate reversibility of possible effects
- Post-exposure recovery period in satellite groups: 28 d
Positive control:
No
Observations and examinations performed and frequency:
CAGE SIDE OBSERVATIONS: Yes, autonomic activity, presence of clonic or tonic movements, stereotypies, bizarre behavior
- Time schedule: Daily

DETAILED CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS: Yes, changes in skin, fur, eyes, mucous membranes, gait, posture: response to handling; occurrence of secretions and excretions
- Time schedule: Daily

BODY WEIGHT: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: Weekly from the start to the end of the study

FOOD CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE (if feeding study):
- Food consumption for each animal determined and mean daily diet consumption calculated as g food/kg body weight/day: Yes

OPHTHALMOSCOPIC EXAMINATION: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: prior to the administration and at the end of the study
- Dose groups that were examined: All (surviving) animals

HAEMATOLOGY: Yes
- Time schedule for collection of blood: Just prior to killing at the end of the study
- Anesthetic used for blood collection: Yes (Ether)
- Animals fasted: Yes, over night
- How many animals: All animals
- Parameters examined: erythrocyte count, hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, platelet count, total leukocyte count, leukocyte differential count, prothrombine time, fibrinogen concentration

CLINICAL CHEMISTRY: Yes
- Time schedule for collection of blood: Just prior to killing at the end of the study (including the satellite groups)
- Animals fasted: Yes
- How many animals: all animals
- Parameters examined: alkaline aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, calcium, creatinine, fasting glucose, phosphorus, total cholesterol, total protein, albumin, chloride, potassium, sodium

NEUROBEHAVIOURAL EXAMINATION: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: Prior to administration, at monthly intervals and in the last week of dosing and in the last week of the recovery period.
- Dose groups that were examined: all
- Battery of functions tested: sensory activity (auditory, visual and proprioceptive stimuli) / grip strength / motor activity
Sacrifice and pathology:
GROSS PATHOLOGY: cranial, thoracic and abdominal cavities were opened and examined macroscopically
HISTOPATHOLOGY: adrenals, aorta, brain (3 sections), epididymides, eye, femur, heart, kidney, liver, lungs (incl. mainstem bronchi), mesenteric lymph node, muscle incl. sciatic nerve, oesophagus, ovaries, pancreas, pituitary, prostate, seminal vesicle, skin incl. mammary glands, small and large intestine (including peyer´s patches), spinal chord (3 levels), spleen, sternum with bone marrow, stomach, submandibular lymph node, testes, thymus, thyroid (incl. parathyroids), trachea, urinary bladder, uterus
Other examinations:
Organ weights of adrenals, brain, epididymides, testes, heart, kidneys, liver, ovaries, spleen, testes and thymus
Statistics:
Body weights, food consumption: Welch t-test

Haematology, coagulation, clinical biochemistry and absolute and relative organ weights: Dunnett´s test

Differential leukocyte count: Mean, range and standard deviation
Clinical signs:
no effects observed
Mortality:
no mortality observed
Body weight and weight changes:
no effects observed
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
no effects observed
Food efficiency:
no effects observed
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
not examined
Ophthalmological findings:
no effects observed
Haematological findings:
no effects observed
Clinical biochemistry findings:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
high dose group (female): fibrinogen concentration of plasma and creatinine content increased, high dose group (male/female): alkaline phosphatase increased, middle and high dose groups (male/female): sreum urea nitrogen increased, all non-adverse
Urinalysis findings:
not examined
Behaviour (functional findings):
no effects observed
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
increased kidney weights for high dose males and females, non-adverse
Gross pathological findings:
no effects observed
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
intracellular fat and low-grade fatty degenerations of hepatocytes in all male animals, female control, middle dose and high dose groups, non-adverse
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
no effects observed
Details on results:
CLINICAL SIGNS AND MORTALITY
Two animals died shortly after administration due to incorrect gavage shown by lungs filled with blood. None of the animals showed any alterations of their general state of well-being and behaviour at any observation period (few observations were made substance independent and for a short period of time).

BODY WEIGHT AND WEIGHT GAIN
Not affected by the test compound.

FOOD CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE (if feeding study)
Not dose-dependently influenced.

OPHTHALMOSCOPIC EXAMINATION
No alterations.

HAEMATOLOGY
Not influenced.

CLINICAL CHEMISTRY
The fibrinogen concentration of the plasma was increased in the female animals of the high dose group, this was no longer apparent at the end of the treatment-free period.
The activity of alkaline phosphatase of the serum significantly increased in the high dose group, males and femals. This indicates damage to liver cells and/or an increased function rate. This finding was no longer apparent at the end of the treatment-free period.
The serum urea nitrogen was significantly increased in the middle and high dose group of the males and in the high dose group of female animals. The creatinine content was significantly increased in all male and in the high dose group of the female animals. The phosphorus content was significantly increased dose-dependently in all female animals and the sodium content was dose-dependently decreased in the male animals, significantly in the animals of the middle and high dose groups. These effects were no longer apparent at the end of the treatment-free period.

NEUROBEHAVIOUR
No changes in grip strength, motor activity and sensory response.

ORGAN WEIGHTS
Absolute and relative kidney weights were increased in all male animals in the high dose group which was still present after the recovery period. Absolute and relative liver weights were increased in both sexes but this was no longer apparent after the recovery period in females. Other significant differences seem to be incidental.

GROSS PATHOLOGY
No substance-dependent changes.

HISTOPATHOLOGY: NON-NEOPLASTIC
Intracellular lipid droplets in hepatocytes of the female animals in the high and mid dose group (5-90% of the observed area) with cell lesions were clearly caused dose-dependently by the test article. There was no special localization of the changes of hepatocytes in the liver lobules. In most cases only low grade intracellular lipopexia occurred in the male animals.
Stomach: Oesophagal part and cardia with multilayered squamous epithelium, leukocyte infiltration in the submucosa and fibrous repair, fibrotic regions in the submucosa of the glandular stomach
Lungs: Atelectactic and emphysemic areas
Thymus: Partial substitution of the parenchyma by fibrinogenesis
Skin: Benign fibrous proliferation
Sciatic nerve: Thickening of the perineurium and thickening of the adventitia of the vessels


Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
>= 1 000 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: The NOAEL corresponds to the highest dose level tested.
Critical effects observed:
not specified
Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed
Quality of whole database:
The available information comprises adequate, reliable (Klimisch score 2 due to read-across) and consistent studies from reference substances with similar structure and intrinsic properties. Read-across is justified based on common precursors and breakdown products of hydrolysis and consistent trends in environmental fate, ecotoxicological and toxicological profile (refer to the endpoint discussion for further details).
The selected study is thus sufficient to fulfil the standard information requirements set out in Annex VIII, 8.6, in accordance with Annex XI, 1.5, of Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006.

Repeated dose toxicity: inhalation - systemic effects

Link to relevant study records
Reference
Endpoint:
sub-chronic toxicity: inhalation
Type of information:
migrated information: read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Comparable to guideline study with acceptable restrictions (limited parameters examined, no daily observation, no data on test substance purity)
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 413 (Subchronic Inhalation Toxicity: 90-Day Study)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
(limited parameters examined, no daily observation)
GLP compliance:
no
Species:
rat
Strain:
Sprague-Dawley
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals or test system and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: Taconic, Germantown, NY, USA
- Weight at study initiation: males: 379-388 g ; females: 234-239 g
- Housing: animals were housed in the exposure chambers (feed and water was removed during exposure)
Route of administration:
inhalation: aerosol
Type of inhalation exposure:
whole body
Vehicle:
air
Remarks on MMAD:
MMAD / GSD: 1.0 µm/ approx. 1.8
Details on inhalation exposure:
GENERATION OF TEST ATMOSPHERE / CHAMBER DESCRIPTION
- Exposure apparatus: 1000 L stainless steel and glass exposure chambers; chambers contained catch pans between each of three leveles of cages.
- System of generating particulates/aerosols: The test material was aerosolized directly from the liquid by a modified Lakin nebulizer on each chamber. The test material was in a straight-walled glass flask and the barrels of the nebulizer were immersed under the level of the liquid in order to maximize the amount of material generated. The distance from the nebulizer to the walls of the flask was approx. 3 cm. After exiting the flask, the aerosol passed through a glass impactor to remove most of the larger particles. The remaining aerosol was mixed with the main air stream for each chamber before entering the chamber.
- Temperature and humidity in air chamber (by a Taylor wet/dry bulb hydrometer approx. every 30 min during each exposure): approx. 23 °C, 56 - 64%
- Air flow rate: approx. 300 L/min (mean chamber flow per group: 297, 308, 342, and 243 L/min, respectively)

TEST ATMOSPHERE
- Brief description of analytical method used: gravimetric sampling on glass fiber filters (3 times during each exposure); some filters were additionally analyzed by GC/MS
- Samples taken from breathing zone: yes
Nominal concentrations were determined as the loss of weight of fluid from the generator divided by total air flow through the chamber.
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
yes
Duration of treatment / exposure:
13 weeks
Frequency of treatment:
6 hours/day
5 days/week
Remarks:
Doses / Concentrations:
0.00 ± 0.00, 0.05 ± 0.01, 0.17 ± 0.01, and 0.56 ± 0.02 mg/L
Basis:
analytical conc.
Remarks:
Doses / Concentrations:
0.05, 0.15, and 0.5 mg/L
Basis:
nominal conc.
No. of animals per sex per dose:
15
(Additional 10 male rats per group were included for examination of pulmonary function tests and analysis of pulmonary hydroxyproline following exposure.)
Control animals:
yes, concurrent no treatment
yes, sham-exposed
Details on study design:
- Dose selection rationale: The highest dose was expected to result in abnormal accumulation of test material in the lung and possible impairment of normal clearance mechanisms. The low dose is a factor of 10 above the TLV (treshold limit value) for mineral oil mistes, no untoward effects were expected at this level.
Observations and examinations performed and frequency:
CAGE SIDE OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: daily (except weekends)

DETAILED CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS: No

BODY WEIGHT: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: weekly

FOOD CONSUMPTION:
- Food consumption for each animal determined and mean daily diet consumption calculated as g food/kg body weight/day: No

FOOD EFFICIENCY:
- Body weight gain in kg/food consumption in kg per unit time X 100 calculated as time-weighted averages from the consumption and body weight gain data:No

WATER CONSUMPTION: No

OPHTHALMOSCOPIC EXAMINATION: No

HAEMATOLOGY: Yes
- Time schedule for collection of blood: at study termination
- Animals fasted: Yes
- How many animals: all core animals
- Parameters examined: complete blood count (CBC) (white blood cell count (WBC), red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), and platelets) and differential count.

CLINICAL CHEMISTRY: Yes
- Time schedule for collection of blood: at study termination
- Animals fasted: Yes
- How many animals: all core animals
- Parameters examined: glucose, urea nitrogen, total protein, albumin (A), globulin (G), A/G, sorbitol dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, creatinine colesterol, triglycerides, uric acid, Cl, Ca, Na, K, and P

URINALYSIS: No

NEUROBEHAVIOURAL EXAMINATION: No

OTHER:
Lung function: The animals were anaesthetized and pulmonray function tests were performed (deflation quasistatic pressure-volume cureved, functional residual capactiy, and maximal forced exhalation maneuver). After the pulmonray function tests, the lungs were removed and all lobes were weighed. Lobes were frozen for analysis of hydroxyproline content and analysis of test material remaining in the lung.
Sacrifice and pathology:
GROSS PATHOLOGY: Yes; organ weights (adrenals, kidney, spleen, brain, liver, testes, epididymides, ovaries, thymus, heart, prostate, uterus, right middle lung lobe
HISTOPATHOLOGY: Yes (untreated and high-dose): adrenals, ovaries, sternum, pancreas, brain, salivary gland, eye, spleen heart, stomach, colon, testes, duodenum, thymus, kidneys, thyroid, liver, tracheobronchial lymph nodes, lung, nasal turbinates, thigh muscle, urinary bladder, sciatic nerve, and any gross lesions. Only the lungs and tracheobronchial lymph nodes of the untreated controls were processed. 10 males of group 1, 2 and 5 (untreated, sham-exposed, and high-dose) were evaluated for morphology, number of sperm and number of testicular spermatids.
Statistics:
ANOVA and Tukey´s multiple range test: body weighs, male reproductive endpoints, haematology, and serum chemistry
ANOVA and Duncan´s multiple range test: organ weights, pulmonary function, and pulmonary hydroxyproline
Clinical signs:
no effects observed
Mortality:
no mortality observed
Body weight and weight changes:
no effects observed
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
not examined
Food efficiency:
not examined
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
not examined
Ophthalmological findings:
not examined
Haematological findings:
no effects observed
Clinical biochemistry findings:
no effects observed
Urinalysis findings:
not examined
Behaviour (functional findings):
not examined
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
increased total weight of the lung lobes (high-dose)
Gross pathological findings:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
mild macrophage accumulation in the lung (high-dose). Non adverse.
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
mild macrophage accumulation in the lung (high-dose): Non adverse.
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
no effects observed
Details on results:
CLINICAL SIGNS AND MORTALITY
No treatment-related clinical signs were and no mortalities observed.

BODY WEIGHT AND WEIGHT GAIN
Increased body weights were observed in treated males. The difference compared to control was statistically significant, but as no clear dose-response was seen and the difference was lower than 7%, it was not considered to be of toxicological relevance.

HAEMATOLOGY
No treatment-related changes were observed.

CLINICAL CHEMISTRY
No treatment-related changes were observed.

ORGAN WEIGHTS
The lungs had a minimal increase in weight after exposure to 0.50 mg/L. Other organ weights were not affected by exposure to the test substance.

GROSS PATHOLOGY
The number of macrophages in the pulmonary alveoli increased slightly. This increase was small considering the high (500 mg/nr) aerosol concentration.

HISTOPATHOLOGY: NON-NEOPLASTIC
Microscopic examination of the lungs of animals in the high-dose group revealed one to two plump macrophages with sparse cytoplasmic vacuoles in less than 1.0% of the aveoli (in controls less than 0.1% would be expected).

OTHER FINDINGS
- Sperm morphology: No treatment-related effects were noted in sperm morophology or in sperm and spermatid counts.
- Lung function: There were no significant differences between any groups for any of the pulmonary function parameters. The only parameter affected by exposure was the total weight of the five lung lobes. Weight for the high-dose group was significantly greater than the other groups.
Dose descriptor:
NOAEC
Effect level:
0.5 mg/L air (analytical)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: no adverse effects
Critical effects observed:
not specified
Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed
Quality of whole database:
The available information comprises an adequate and reliable study (Klimisch score 2) from a reference substance with similar structure and intrinsic properties. Read-across is justified based on common precursors and breakdown products of hydrolysis and consistent trends in environmental fate, ecotoxicological and toxicological profile (refer to the endpoint discussion for further details).
The selected study is thus sufficient to fulfil the standard information requirements set out in Annex VIII, 8.6, in accordance with Annex XI, 1.5, of Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006.

Repeated dose toxicity: inhalation - local effects

Link to relevant study records
Reference
Endpoint:
sub-chronic toxicity: inhalation
Type of information:
migrated information: read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Comparable to guideline study with acceptable restrictions (limited parameters examined, no daily observation, no data on test substance purity)
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 413 (Subchronic Inhalation Toxicity: 90-Day Study)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
(limited parameters examined, no daily observation)
GLP compliance:
no
Species:
rat
Strain:
Sprague-Dawley
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals or test system and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: Taconic, Germantown, NY, USA
- Weight at study initiation: males: 379-388 g ; females: 234-239 g
- Housing: animals were housed in the exposure chambers (feed and water was removed during exposure)
Route of administration:
inhalation: aerosol
Type of inhalation exposure:
whole body
Vehicle:
air
Remarks on MMAD:
MMAD / GSD: 1.0 µm/ approx. 1.8
Details on inhalation exposure:
GENERATION OF TEST ATMOSPHERE / CHAMBER DESCRIPTION
- Exposure apparatus: 1000 L stainless steel and glass exposure chambers; chambers contained catch pans between each of three leveles of cages.
- System of generating particulates/aerosols: The test material was aerosolized directly from the liquid by a modified Lakin nebulizer on each chamber. The test material was in a straight-walled glass flask and the barrels of the nebulizer were immersed under the level of the liquid in order to maximize the amount of material generated. The distance from the nebulizer to the walls of the flask was approx. 3 cm. After exiting the flask, the aerosol passed through a glass impactor to remove most of the larger particles. The remaining aerosol was mixed with the main air stream for each chamber before entering the chamber.
- Temperature and humidity in air chamber (by a Taylor wet/dry bulb hydrometer approx. every 30 min during each exposure): approx. 23 °C, 56 - 64%
- Air flow rate: approx. 300 L/min (mean chamber flow per group: 297, 308, 342, and 243 L/min, respectively)

TEST ATMOSPHERE
- Brief description of analytical method used: gravimetric sampling on glass fiber filters (3 times during each exposure); some filters were additionally analyzed by GC/MS
- Samples taken from breathing zone: yes
Nominal concentrations were determined as the loss of weight of fluid from the generator divided by total air flow through the chamber.
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
yes
Duration of treatment / exposure:
13 weeks
Frequency of treatment:
6 hours/day
5 days/week
Remarks:
Doses / Concentrations:
0.00 ± 0.00, 0.05 ± 0.01, 0.17 ± 0.01, and 0.56 ± 0.02 mg/L
Basis:
analytical conc.
Remarks:
Doses / Concentrations:
0.05, 0.15, and 0.5 mg/L
Basis:
nominal conc.
No. of animals per sex per dose:
15
(Additional 10 male rats per group were included for examination of pulmonary function tests and analysis of pulmonary hydroxyproline following exposure.)
Control animals:
yes, concurrent no treatment
yes, sham-exposed
Details on study design:
- Dose selection rationale: The highest dose was expected to result in abnormal accumulation of test material in the lung and possible impairment of normal clearance mechanisms. The low dose is a factor of 10 above the TLV (treshold limit value) for mineral oil mistes, no untoward effects were expected at this level.
Observations and examinations performed and frequency:
CAGE SIDE OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: daily (except weekends)

DETAILED CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS: No

BODY WEIGHT: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: weekly

FOOD CONSUMPTION:
- Food consumption for each animal determined and mean daily diet consumption calculated as g food/kg body weight/day: No

FOOD EFFICIENCY:
- Body weight gain in kg/food consumption in kg per unit time X 100 calculated as time-weighted averages from the consumption and body weight gain data:No

WATER CONSUMPTION: No

OPHTHALMOSCOPIC EXAMINATION: No

HAEMATOLOGY: Yes
- Time schedule for collection of blood: at study termination
- Animals fasted: Yes
- How many animals: all core animals
- Parameters examined: complete blood count (CBC) (white blood cell count (WBC), red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), and platelets) and differential count.

CLINICAL CHEMISTRY: Yes
- Time schedule for collection of blood: at study termination
- Animals fasted: Yes
- How many animals: all core animals
- Parameters examined: glucose, urea nitrogen, total protein, albumin (A), globulin (G), A/G, sorbitol dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, creatinine colesterol, triglycerides, uric acid, Cl, Ca, Na, K, and P

URINALYSIS: No

NEUROBEHAVIOURAL EXAMINATION: No

OTHER:
Lung function: The animals were anaesthetized and pulmonray function tests were performed (deflation quasistatic pressure-volume cureved, functional residual capactiy, and maximal forced exhalation maneuver). After the pulmonray function tests, the lungs were removed and all lobes were weighed. Lobes were frozen for analysis of hydroxyproline content and analysis of test material remaining in the lung.
Sacrifice and pathology:
GROSS PATHOLOGY: Yes; organ weights (adrenals, kidney, spleen, brain, liver, testes, epididymides, ovaries, thymus, heart, prostate, uterus, right middle lung lobe
HISTOPATHOLOGY: Yes (untreated and high-dose): adrenals, ovaries, sternum, pancreas, brain, salivary gland, eye, spleen heart, stomach, colon, testes, duodenum, thymus, kidneys, thyroid, liver, tracheobronchial lymph nodes, lung, nasal turbinates, thigh muscle, urinary bladder, sciatic nerve, and any gross lesions. Only the lungs and tracheobronchial lymph nodes of the untreated controls were processed. 10 males of group 1, 2 and 5 (untreated, sham-exposed, and high-dose) were evaluated for morphology, number of sperm and number of testicular spermatids.
Statistics:
ANOVA and Tukey´s multiple range test: body weighs, male reproductive endpoints, haematology, and serum chemistry
ANOVA and Duncan´s multiple range test: organ weights, pulmonary function, and pulmonary hydroxyproline
Clinical signs:
no effects observed
Mortality:
no mortality observed
Body weight and weight changes:
no effects observed
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
not examined
Food efficiency:
not examined
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
not examined
Ophthalmological findings:
not examined
Haematological findings:
no effects observed
Clinical biochemistry findings:
no effects observed
Urinalysis findings:
not examined
Behaviour (functional findings):
not examined
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
increased total weight of the lung lobes (high-dose)
Gross pathological findings:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
mild macrophage accumulation in the lung (high-dose). Non adverse.
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
mild macrophage accumulation in the lung (high-dose): Non adverse.
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
no effects observed
Details on results:
CLINICAL SIGNS AND MORTALITY
No treatment-related clinical signs were and no mortalities observed.

BODY WEIGHT AND WEIGHT GAIN
Increased body weights were observed in treated males. The difference compared to control was statistically significant, but as no clear dose-response was seen and the difference was lower than 7%, it was not considered to be of toxicological relevance.

HAEMATOLOGY
No treatment-related changes were observed.

CLINICAL CHEMISTRY
No treatment-related changes were observed.

ORGAN WEIGHTS
The lungs had a minimal increase in weight after exposure to 0.50 mg/L. Other organ weights were not affected by exposure to the test substance.

GROSS PATHOLOGY
The number of macrophages in the pulmonary alveoli increased slightly. This increase was small considering the high (500 mg/nr) aerosol concentration.

HISTOPATHOLOGY: NON-NEOPLASTIC
Microscopic examination of the lungs of animals in the high-dose group revealed one to two plump macrophages with sparse cytoplasmic vacuoles in less than 1.0% of the aveoli (in controls less than 0.1% would be expected).

OTHER FINDINGS
- Sperm morphology: No treatment-related effects were noted in sperm morophology or in sperm and spermatid counts.
- Lung function: There were no significant differences between any groups for any of the pulmonary function parameters. The only parameter affected by exposure was the total weight of the five lung lobes. Weight for the high-dose group was significantly greater than the other groups.
Dose descriptor:
NOAEC
Effect level:
0.5 mg/L air (analytical)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: no adverse effects
Critical effects observed:
not specified
Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed
Quality of whole database:
The available information comprises an adequate and reliable study (Klimisch score 2) from a reference substance with similar structure and intrinsic properties. Read-across is justified based on common precursors and breakdown products of hydrolysis and consistent trends in environmental fate, ecotoxicological and toxicological profile (refer to the endpoint discussion for further details).
The selected study is thus sufficient to fulfil the standard information requirements set out in Annex VIII, 8.6, in accordance with Annex XI, 1.5, of Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006.

Repeated dose toxicity: dermal - systemic effects

Link to relevant study records
Reference
Endpoint:
sub-chronic toxicity: dermal
Type of information:
migrated information: read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
09 Jul - 10 Oct 1986
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Comparable to guideline study with acceptable restrictions (no data on test substance purity; only 2 dose groups, open application, limited parameters examined)
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 411 (Subchronic Dermal Toxicity: 90-Day Study)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
(no data on test substance purity, only 2 dose groups, open application, limited parameters examined)
GLP compliance:
no
Limit test:
no
Species:
rat
Strain:
Sprague-Dawley
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals or test system and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: Charles River, Lakeview, NJ, USA
- Age at study initiation: approx. 7 weeks
- Housing: individually in hanging, stainless steel cages with wire bottoms and fronts
- Diet: Purina Certified Lab Chow ' 5002 in pellet form; ad libitum
- Water: tap water; ad libitum
- Acclimation period: at least 14 days

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature (°C): 20-22
- Humidity (%): 40-60
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): 12/12
Type of coverage:
open
Vehicle:
unchanged (no vehicle)
Details on exposure:
TEST SITE
- Area of exposure: no data
- Type of wrap if used: no wrap used, open
- Time intervals for shavings or clipplings: 24 h before the first treatment; at least weekly afterwards
- Application site: back (shaved)

REMOVAL OF TEST SUBSTANCE
- Washing (if done): no washing; wiping off with a gauze pads every saturday (applications on working days)

TEST MATERIAL
- Amount(s) applied (volume or weight with unit): no data
- Concentration (if solution): undiluted
- Constant volume or concentration used: no

USE OF RESTRAINERS FOR PREVENTING INGESTION: yes (collars), removal during the weekend
Duration of treatment / exposure:
13 weeks
Frequency of treatment:
5 days per week (65 exposures), 24 hours/day, removal of substance on saturdays (once a week)
Remarks:
Doses / Concentrations:
800 and 2000 mg/kg bw/day
Basis:
nominal per unit body weight
No. of animals per sex per dose:
10
(5 additional animals of the control and the high dose group were included for dermal bioavailability experiments only.)
Control animals:
yes, concurrent no treatment
Details on study design:
The test substance was dispensed by volume from a syringe and left uncovered on the shaved skin. The rats were fitted with cardboard Elizabethan collars to minimze ingestion of the test material.
The controls were treated in the same manner except that no material was applied to their skin.
Observations and examinations performed and frequency:
CAGE SIDE OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: daily
- Cage side observations included: appearance, behaviour, secretory function and discharges

DETAILED CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS: No

DERMAL IRRITATION (if dermal study): Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: weekly
- Parameters evaluated: erythema and edema according to Draize, chronic deterioration: flaking, thickening, stiffening, cracking and slouthing

BODY WEIGHT: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: weekly

FOOD CONSUMPTION:
- Food consumption for each animal determined and mean daily diet consumption calculated as g food/kg body weight/day: No

FOOD EFFICIENCY:
- Body weight gain in kg/food consumption in kg per unit time X 100 calculated as time-weighted averages from the consumption and body weight gain data: No

WATER CONSUMPTION: No

OPHTHALMOSCOPIC EXAMINATION: No

HAEMATOLOGY: Yes
- Time schedule for collection of blood: at study termination
- Animals fasted: No data
- How many animals: all animals
- Parameters examined: red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets

CLINICAL CHEMISTRY: Yes
- Time schedule for collection of blood: at study termination
- Animals fasted: No data
- How many animals: all animals
- Parameters examined: glucose, urea nitrogen, alanine aminotransferase, albumin, phosphorus; only females: lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase

URINALYSIS: Yes
- Time schedule for collection of urine: weeks 5 and 13
- Metabolism cages used for collection of urine: No
- Parameters examined: pH, bilirubin, specific gravity, urobilinogen, blood, protein, glucose, ketones

NEUROBEHAVIOURAL EXAMINATION: No

OTHER: sperm morphology: at termination
- Parameters: percentage normal sperm, abnormal heads, headless, tailless, and curled tail
Sacrifice and pathology:
GROSS PATHOLOGY: Yes; organ weights: kidneys, liver; only males: brain, spleen; only females: thyroids
HISTOPATHOLOGY: Yes (no further information available)
Statistics:
The level of statistical significance was P < 0.05.
Clinical signs:
no effects observed
Dermal irritation:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
slight erythemal and flaking; slight epidermal hyperplasia and chronic inflammation (both treatment groups)
Mortality:
no mortality observed
Body weight and weight changes:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
reduced body weight gain in males (800 mg/kg: 7% and 2000 mg/kg: 10%)
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
not examined
Food efficiency:
not examined
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
not examined
Ophthalmological findings:
not examined
Haematological findings:
no effects observed
Clinical biochemistry findings:
no effects observed
Urinalysis findings:
no effects observed
Behaviour (functional findings):
not examined
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
no effects observed
Gross pathological findings:
no effects observed
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
no effects observed
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
no effects observed
Details on results:
CLINICAL SIGNS AND MORTALITY
No treatment-related effects were observed.

BODY WEIGHT AND WEIGHT GAIN
Treated males gained slightly less weight than the controls (800 mg/kg bw: 7%, 2000 mg/kg bw: 10%). As the difference is low, the decrease in body weight was not interpreted as a sign for systemic toxicity.

HAEMATOLOGY
No adverse effects on any haematologic parameters measured were observed.

CLINICAL CHEMISTRY
A few of the serum paramters of the high-dose animals were statistically different from the controls, but the differences were small, not consistent between males and females, and did not present any pattern suggestive of effects on any specific organ (no corresponding histological findings). Thus, the effects were considered not to be of toxicological relevance.
- high-dose males (compared to controls): glucose: -14%, albumin: -3%, and phoshorus: +16%
- high-dose females (compared to controls): lactate dehydrogenase: +45% (low-dose: +22%), and aspartate aminotransferase: +22%

URINALYSIS
No additional data given on Urinalysis in study report.

ORGAN WEIGHTS
Increased thyroid weight in the low-dose (+ 25%) females and decreased spleen weight (- 10%) in the low-dose males were not considered to be toxicologically relevant, as these effects were not observed in the high-dose groups.

GROSS PATHOLOGY
No abnormalities were detected.

HISTOPATHOLOGY:
No abnormalities were detected.

OTHER FINDINGS
- Sperm morphology: No effects on sperm morphology were detected.
- Local effects: Slight erythema and flaking of the skin were observed in the treated groups during the dosing phase. Microscopic examination of the skin indicated trace to slight epidermal hyperplasia and chronic inflammation of the superficial dermis.

SKIN PENETRATION
Skin penetration values of 2 - 6% were obtained.
The results of the in vivo skin penetration study indicate that the 13-week treatment with the test substance does not increase the skin penetration of the test substance (only the value for females was statistically different from the penetration in untreated animals). The skin penetration of untreated rats was less than 2% and the mean value for treated rats was approx. 6%. The recovery of radioactivity was measuered in the urine and faeces as well as the remaining radioactivity in tissue samples.
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
>= 2 000 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: highest dose tested
Critical effects observed:
not specified
Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed
Quality of whole database:
The available information comprises an adequate and reliable study (Klimisch score 2) from a reference substance with similar structure and intrinsic properties. Read-across is justified based on common precursors and breakdown products of hydrolysis and consistent trends in environmental fate, ecotoxicological and toxicological profile (refer to the endpoint discussion for further details).
The selected study is thus sufficient to fulfil the standard information requirements set out in Annex VIII, 8.6, in accordance with Annex XI, 1.5, of Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006.

Repeated dose toxicity: dermal - local effects

Link to relevant study records
Reference
Endpoint:
sub-chronic toxicity: dermal
Type of information:
migrated information: read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
09 Jul - 10 Oct 1986
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Comparable to guideline study with acceptable restrictions (no data on test substance purity; only 2 dose groups, open application, limited parameters examined)
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 411 (Subchronic Dermal Toxicity: 90-Day Study)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
(no data on test substance purity, only 2 dose groups, open application, limited parameters examined)
GLP compliance:
no
Limit test:
no
Species:
rat
Strain:
Sprague-Dawley
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals or test system and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: Charles River, Lakeview, NJ, USA
- Age at study initiation: approx. 7 weeks
- Housing: individually in hanging, stainless steel cages with wire bottoms and fronts
- Diet: Purina Certified Lab Chow ' 5002 in pellet form; ad libitum
- Water: tap water; ad libitum
- Acclimation period: at least 14 days

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature (°C): 20-22
- Humidity (%): 40-60
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): 12/12
Type of coverage:
open
Vehicle:
unchanged (no vehicle)
Details on exposure:
TEST SITE
- Area of exposure: no data
- Type of wrap if used: no wrap used, open
- Time intervals for shavings or clipplings: 24 h before the first treatment; at least weekly afterwards
- Application site: back (shaved)

REMOVAL OF TEST SUBSTANCE
- Washing (if done): no washing; wiping off with a gauze pads every saturday (applications on working days)

TEST MATERIAL
- Amount(s) applied (volume or weight with unit): no data
- Concentration (if solution): undiluted
- Constant volume or concentration used: no

USE OF RESTRAINERS FOR PREVENTING INGESTION: yes (collars), removal during the weekend
Duration of treatment / exposure:
13 weeks
Frequency of treatment:
5 days per week (65 exposures), 24 hours/day, removal of substance on saturdays (once a week)
Remarks:
Doses / Concentrations:
800 and 2000 mg/kg bw/day
Basis:
nominal per unit body weight
No. of animals per sex per dose:
10
(5 additional animals of the control and the high dose group were included for dermal bioavailability experiments only.)
Control animals:
yes, concurrent no treatment
Details on study design:
The test substance was dispensed by volume from a syringe and left uncovered on the shaved skin. The rats were fitted with cardboard Elizabethan collars to minimze ingestion of the test material.
The controls were treated in the same manner except that no material was applied to their skin.
Observations and examinations performed and frequency:
CAGE SIDE OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: daily
- Cage side observations included: appearance, behaviour, secretory function and discharges

DETAILED CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS: No

DERMAL IRRITATION (if dermal study): Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: weekly
- Parameters evaluated: erythema and edema according to Draize, chronic deterioration: flaking, thickening, stiffening, cracking and slouthing

BODY WEIGHT: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: weekly

FOOD CONSUMPTION:
- Food consumption for each animal determined and mean daily diet consumption calculated as g food/kg body weight/day: No

FOOD EFFICIENCY:
- Body weight gain in kg/food consumption in kg per unit time X 100 calculated as time-weighted averages from the consumption and body weight gain data: No

WATER CONSUMPTION: No

OPHTHALMOSCOPIC EXAMINATION: No

HAEMATOLOGY: Yes
- Time schedule for collection of blood: at study termination
- Animals fasted: No data
- How many animals: all animals
- Parameters examined: red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets

CLINICAL CHEMISTRY: Yes
- Time schedule for collection of blood: at study termination
- Animals fasted: No data
- How many animals: all animals
- Parameters examined: glucose, urea nitrogen, alanine aminotransferase, albumin, phosphorus; only females: lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase

URINALYSIS: Yes
- Time schedule for collection of urine: weeks 5 and 13
- Metabolism cages used for collection of urine: No
- Parameters examined: pH, bilirubin, specific gravity, urobilinogen, blood, protein, glucose, ketones

NEUROBEHAVIOURAL EXAMINATION: No

OTHER: sperm morphology: at termination
- Parameters: percentage normal sperm, abnormal heads, headless, tailless, and curled tail
Sacrifice and pathology:
GROSS PATHOLOGY: Yes; organ weights: kidneys, liver; only males: brain, spleen; only females: thyroids
HISTOPATHOLOGY: Yes (no further information available)
Statistics:
The level of statistical significance was P < 0.05.
Clinical signs:
no effects observed
Dermal irritation:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
slight erythemal and flaking; slight epidermal hyperplasia and chronic inflammation (both treatment groups)
Mortality:
no mortality observed
Body weight and weight changes:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
reduced body weight gain in males (800 mg/kg: 7% and 2000 mg/kg: 10%)
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
not examined
Food efficiency:
not examined
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
not examined
Ophthalmological findings:
not examined
Haematological findings:
no effects observed
Clinical biochemistry findings:
no effects observed
Urinalysis findings:
no effects observed
Behaviour (functional findings):
not examined
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
no effects observed
Gross pathological findings:
no effects observed
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
no effects observed
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
no effects observed
Details on results:
CLINICAL SIGNS AND MORTALITY
No treatment-related effects were observed.

BODY WEIGHT AND WEIGHT GAIN
Treated males gained slightly less weight than the controls (800 mg/kg bw: 7%, 2000 mg/kg bw: 10%). As the difference is low, the decrease in body weight was not interpreted as a sign for systemic toxicity.

HAEMATOLOGY
No adverse effects on any haematologic parameters measured were observed.

CLINICAL CHEMISTRY
A few of the serum paramters of the high-dose animals were statistically different from the controls, but the differences were small, not consistent between males and females, and did not present any pattern suggestive of effects on any specific organ (no corresponding histological findings). Thus, the effects were considered not to be of toxicological relevance.
- high-dose males (compared to controls): glucose: -14%, albumin: -3%, and phoshorus: +16%
- high-dose females (compared to controls): lactate dehydrogenase: +45% (low-dose: +22%), and aspartate aminotransferase: +22%

URINALYSIS
No additional data given on Urinalysis in study report.

ORGAN WEIGHTS
Increased thyroid weight in the low-dose (+ 25%) females and decreased spleen weight (- 10%) in the low-dose males were not considered to be toxicologically relevant, as these effects were not observed in the high-dose groups.

GROSS PATHOLOGY
No abnormalities were detected.

HISTOPATHOLOGY:
No abnormalities were detected.

OTHER FINDINGS
- Sperm morphology: No effects on sperm morphology were detected.
- Local effects: Slight erythema and flaking of the skin were observed in the treated groups during the dosing phase. Microscopic examination of the skin indicated trace to slight epidermal hyperplasia and chronic inflammation of the superficial dermis.

SKIN PENETRATION
Skin penetration values of 2 - 6% were obtained.
The results of the in vivo skin penetration study indicate that the 13-week treatment with the test substance does not increase the skin penetration of the test substance (only the value for females was statistically different from the penetration in untreated animals). The skin penetration of untreated rats was less than 2% and the mean value for treated rats was approx. 6%. The recovery of radioactivity was measuered in the urine and faeces as well as the remaining radioactivity in tissue samples.
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
>= 2 000 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: highest dose tested
Critical effects observed:
not specified
Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
adverse effect observed
Dose descriptor:
LOAEL
800
Study duration:
subchronic
Species:
rat
Quality of whole database:
The available information comprises an adequate and reliable study (Klimisch score 2) from a reference substance with similar structure and intrinsic properties. Read-across is justified based on common precursors and breakdown products of hydrolysis and consistent trends in environmental fate, ecotoxicological and toxicological profile (refer to the endpoint discussion for further details).
The selected study is thus sufficient to fulfil the standard information requirements set out in Annex VIII, 8.6, in accordance with Annex XI, 1.5, of Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006.

Additional information

Justification for analogue read-across

There are no data on the repeated dose toxicity of Tetraesters of pentaerythritol with 2-ethylhexanoic acid, heptanoic acid and nonanoic acid (EC 806-879-4). The assessment was therefore based on studies conducted with analogue substances as part of a read across approach, which is in accordance with Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006, Annex XI, 1.5. For each specific endpoint the source substance(s) structurally closest to the target substance is/are chosen for read-across, with due regard to the requirements of adequacy and reliability of the available data. Structural similarities and similarities in properties and/or activities of the source and target substance are the basis of read-across. A detailed justification for the analogue read-across approach is provided in the technical dossier (see IUCLID Section 13).

Repeated dose toxicity, oral, subacute

CAS 68424-31-7

A 28-day study was conducted with Fatty acids, C5-10, esters with pentraerythritol according to OECD guideline 407 and under GLP conditions (Brammer, 1993). The test substance was administered in concentrations of 1000 ppm, 5000 ppm and 12500 ppm (corresponding to 112, 562 and 1450 mg/kg bw/day for male and 119, 586 and 1613 mg/kg bw/day for female rats) to 5 Alpk:APfSD rats/sex/dose for 28 consecutive days. Control animals received the plain diet. There was no mortality and no toxicologically relevant clinical signs were observed during the study period. No significant differences in body weight, body weight gain and food consumption between the control group and treatment groups were noted. There were statistically significant reductions in haemoglobin and haematocrit at 12.500 ppm in male rats. Statistically significant reductions in haemoglobin and haematocrit were seen in females at 1000 and 5000 ppm and in white blood cell count at 1000 ppm. These effect were considered incidental as they were only observed in one sex and not dose-related. There were minor reductions in plasma cholesterol, triglyceride and total protein levels and plasma alanine transferase activities in males at 12500 ppm compared to control males. As these effects were not dose-related and only observed in one sex they are not considered to be toxicologically relevant. The relative kidney weights significantly increased in males at 5000 and 12500 ppm, which is considered to be related to the histopathological changes observed. The relative liver weights were significantly increased in both sexes at 12500 ppm and in males at 5000 ppm. This is considered to be an adaptive response to the high doses of fatty ester. A slightly reduced splay reflex was observed in one female of the 1000 ppm group (on days 29 and 30), in one male of the 5000 ppm group (on day 29) and in one male of the 12.500 ppm group (on day 29). As there were only isolated observations, these were considered to be incidental. The statistically significant increase in time to response observed on day 22 for males (5000 ppm) and day 8 for females (1000 ppm) were considered to be incidental to treatment in the absence of similar changes at higher dose levels. Treatment-related findings were present in the kidney of male rats from all dose groups. In the 5000 and 12500 ppm dose group these comprised of increased tubular hyaline droplet formation and tubular basophilia in all animals, and granular cast formation in 4/5 of the 5000 ppm animals and 5/5 of the 12500 ppm animals. In the 1000 ppm group, increased renal hyaline droplet formation and/or tubular basophilia were seen, but not granular cast formation. Hyaline droplet formation (the main constituent of which is alpha-2µ-globulin) in the kidney of male rats is widely accepted to be species- and sex specific, and as such is considered to have no relevance to man. In the liver, there was minimal hepatocyte hypertrophy in 4/5 male rats in the 12500 ppm group, which is considered to be an adaptive response to the high intake of fatty ester. Based on the results of the study, the NOAEL was considered to be ≥ 12500 ppm (equivalent to 1450 mg/kg bw/day for male rats and 1613 mg/kg bw/day for female rats).

 

CAS 7299-99-2

A combined repeated dose toxicity and reproduction/developmental toxicity screening study (according to OECD guideline 422 and in compliance with GLP) was performed with Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, 2,2-bis [ [(2-ethyl-1-oxohexyl)oxy] methyl] -1,3-propanediyl ester (Ohta, 2005). Rats were administered 0, 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg bw/day of the test substance once daily for 42 days (males) and up to 54 days (females) via gavage. All groups had 12 females, while there were 7 males in the control, low-dose and high-dose groups, and 12 males in the mid-dose group. The application started two weeks before mating on test day one and ended on the day of or one day before sacrifice. Day of sacrifice was on test day 42 for the male rats and on lactation day 4 or shortly thereafter for the female rats. A satellite group of 5 rats/sex/dose with a 14-day recovery period was included for the control and high-dose group. There was no mortality during the study period. No toxicologically relevant clinical signs were observed. The body weight and body weight gain was comparable between the control and treatment groups. The food consumption in high-dose satellite females was significantly increased, but is not considered to be treatment-related as no effect on body weight was noted. At the end of recovery period, a significant increase in relative liver weight in females of the 1000 mg/kg group was noted, while no differences in males were found. The change was not considered as compound-related, as no corresponding biochemical or histopathological changes were observed. The statistically significant differences in haematological parameters between control and treated animals (increase in hematocrit and hemoglobin levels in females of the 100 mg/kg group, increased prothrombin time in females of the 300 mg/kg group) were of low magnitude and/or not dose-related, and therefore considered incidental. The concentration of blood urea nitrogen was increased in satellite females of the 1000 mg/kg group at the end of recovery period. As it was only observed in one sex, and due to the absence of relevant histopathological findings, this change is not considered to be toxicologically relevant. There was no significant difference between control and treatment groups during the observational and neurological screenings. The macroscopic inspection at autopsy and subsequent histopathological examination did not show any toxicologically relevant changes. The NOAEL for systemic toxicity was considered to be ≥ 1000 mg/kg bw/day.

 

Repeated dose toxicity, oral, subchronic

CAS 146289-36-3

A 90-day oral repeated dose toxicity study was performed according to OECD guideline 408 and under GLP conditions, with Pentaerythritol ester of pentanoic acids and isononanoic acid (Müller, 1998). 10 Wistar rats/sex/dose were adminstered 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg bw/day by gavage, for 90 consecutive days. Satellite control and high dose groups of 10 animals/sex/dose were observed for 28 days after test substance administration ended. While no toxicologically relevant mortality was observed, two animals died shortly after administration due to an incorrect gavage procedure. No clinical signs were observed during the study period. No significant differences in body weight, body weight gain and food consumption between the control group and treatment groups were noted. The ophthalmoscopic examination did not show any treatment-related changes in any group. The hematology results were comparable in the control and treatment groups. No significant effects were observed in the neurobehavioural assessment. The alkaline phosphatase level was significantly increased in the high dose group, in males and females. This increase in a liver enzyme may be caused by an increase in the liver metabolism due to the test substance. Furthermore, the absolute and relative liver weights were increased in both sexes in the main group. However, no other effects on hepatic functions were seen on clinical chemistry parameters or in the histopathological results, and the effect on AST levels (males and females) and liver weight (males) were reversible. Therefore the effect is considered to be adaptive. The serum urea nitrogen was significantly increased in the mid- and high dose group of the males and in the high dose group of female animals. The creatinine content was significantly increased in all male and in the high dose group of the female animals. These effects were no longer observed at the end of the treatment-free period. Due to the reversibility and due to the absence of other relevant findings, these changes are not considered to be toxicologically relevant. The absolute and relative kidney weights were increased in all male animals in the high dose main group and satellite group. This is most likely correlated to the formation of hyaline droplets, which is a well-known effect specific to the male rat and as such considered to have no relevance to humans. Intracellular lipid droplets in hepatocytes of females in the high and mid dose group (5-90% of the observed area) with cell lesions were apparently caused dose-dependently by the test substance. There was no special localization of the changes of hepatocytes in the liver lobules. In most cases only low grade intracellular lipopexia occurred in the male animals. The effect is treatment-related but not toxicologically relevant. The macroscopic inspection at autopsy and subsequent histopathological examination of remaining organs and tissues did not reveal any treatment-related changes. The NOAEL for systemic toxicity was considered to be ≥ 1000 mg/kg bw/day.

Repeated dose toxicity, inhalation, subchronic

CAS 67762-53-2

A 90-day subchronic inhalation toxicity study was performed with Fatty acids, C5-9, tetraesters with pentaerythritol, following a protocol similar to OECD guideline 413 (Dulbey, 1992). 15 rats/sex/dose were exposed whole-body to the test substance aerosol for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week at concentrations of 0.05, 0.15 and 0.5 mg/L (0.05, 0.16 and 0.56 mg/L nominal concentration). The sham-control group (15 animals/sex) was treated with clean air under the same conditions, while a second control group remained untreated. 10 additional male animals were included in every group for pulmonary function tests (deflation quasistatic pressure-volume cureved, functional residual capactiy, and maximal forced exhalation manoeuvre) and histopathological examination (analysis of hydroxyproline content and analysis of test material remaining in the lung).

There was no mortality during the study period. No toxicologically relevant clinical signs were observed. The body weight of treated animals was increased significantly compared with the control group. As the difference was less than 10% this is considered to be an incidental occurrence. The body weight and body weight gain of females was comparable between the control and treatment groups. No substance-related adverse effects were observed clinical biochemistry and haematological parameters. The lungs of the high-dose animals had a minimal increase in weight which correlated with slightly increased numbers of macrophages in the pulmonary alveoli. Microscopic examination of the lungs of animals in the high-dose group revealed one to two plump macrophages with sparse cytoplasmic vacuoles in less than 1.0% of the alveoli (in controls less than 0.1% would be expected). However, as the changes observed in the lungs were minor, they were not considered to be toxicologically relevant. No treatment-related effects were noted in sperm morphology or in sperm and spermatid counts. There were no significant differences between any groups for any of the pulmonary function parameters. The total weight of the five lung lobes of the high-dose group was significantly higher than for the sham-exposed controls and other exposed groups, but not greater than the untreated controls. This effect is not seen as toxicologically relevant. Therefore, the NOAEC was considered to be ≥ 0.56 mg/L (nominal concentration).

 

Repeated dose toxicity, dermal, subchronic

CAS 67762-53-2

A 90-day dermal toxicity study with Fatty acids, C5-9, tetraesters with pentaerythritol was performed following a protocol similar to OECD guideline 411 (Cruzan, 1988). 10 Sprague-Dawley rats/sex/dose were exposed to 800 and 2000 mg/kg bw/day of the test substance via open application for 90 days (5 days/week). The application was continuous (24 hours/day), and the application site was washed clean once per week. The animals wore collars to reduce the possibility of ingestion through grooming. 5 additional rats/sex were included in the control and high-dose group to assess the dermal bioavailability of the test substance. The penetration rate was measured as recovery of radioactivity in the urine and faeces as well as the remaining radioactivity in tissue samples. There was no mortality during the study period. No toxicologically relevant clinical signs were observed. The body weight gain was 7% lower in the low-dose group, and 10% lower in the high-dose group, compared with the control males. As the difference was relatively low, the decrease in body weight gain was not considered to be toxicologically relevant. The body weight and body weight gain of females was comparable between the control and treatment groups. The aspartate aminotransferase level in high-dose females was significantly increased. The increased activity of hepatic enzymes indicates an adaptive increase in hepatic metabolism caused by the treatment, but is not considered to be toxicologically relevant as no other effects were noted in the liver. Other changes observed in clinical chemistry parameters in the low-dose group only or in one sex only are considered to be incidental. No toxicologically relevant changes were seen on organ weights. No effects on sperm morphology were observed. Both treated groups showed minimal erythema and flaking of the skin at the application site. Microscopic examination showed very minor epidermal hyperplasia and chronic inflammation of the superficial dermis. The macroscopic inspection at autopsy and subsequent histopathological examination of remaining organs and tissues did not reveal any treatment-related changes.

The results of the in vivo skin penetration study performed as part of the repeated dose toxicity study indicate that the 90-day treatment did not increase the skin penetration of the test substance significantly overall, as only the value for females was statistically different from the penetration in untreated animals. The skin penetration of untreated rats was less than 2% and the mean value for rats treated for 90 days was approximately 6%. As no effects of systemic toxicity were identified up to the highest dose tested, the 90 day dermal NOAEL was found to be ≥ 2000 mg/kg bw/day for rats.

Overall conclusion for repeated dose toxicity

The data for the source substances showed that no effects were observed up to and including the recommended limit values in studies conducted via the oral, inhalation and dermal routes. Therefore, as the available data did not identify any hazard for repeated dose toxicity, Tetraesters of pentaerythritol with 2-ethylhexanoic acid, heptanoic acid and nonanoic acid is not expected to be hazardous following repeated exposure.


Justification for selection of repeated dose toxicity via oral route - systemic effects endpoint:
Hazard assessment is conducted by means of read-across from a structural analogue. The selected study is the most adequate and reliable study based on the identified similarities in structure and intrinsic properties between the source and target substance and overall assessment of quality, duration and dose descriptor level (refer to the endpoint discussion for further details).

Justification for selection of repeated dose toxicity inhalation - systemic effects endpoint:
Hazard assessment is conducted by means of read-across from a structural analogue. The selected study is the most adequate and reliable study based on the identified similarities in structure and intrinsic properties between the source and target substance and overall assessment of quality, duration and dose descriptor level (refer to the endpoint discussion for further details).

Justification for selection of repeated dose toxicity inhalation - local effects endpoint:
Hazard assessment is conducted by means of read-across from a structural analogue. The selected study is the most adequate and reliable study based on the identified similarities in structure and intrinsic properties between the source and target substance and overall assessment of quality, duration and dose descriptor level (refer to the endpoint discussion for further details).

Justification for selection of repeated dose toxicity dermal - systemic effects endpoint:
Hazard assessment is conducted by means of read-across from a structural analogue. The selected study is the most adequate and reliable study based on the identified similarities in structure and intrinsic properties between the source and target substance and overall assessment of quality, duration and dose descriptor level (refer to the endpoint discussion for further details).

Justification for selection of repeated dose toxicity dermal - local effects endpoint:
Hazard assessment is conducted by means of read-across from a structural analogue. The selected study is the most adequate and reliable study based on the identified similarities in structure and intrinsic properties between the source and target substance and overall assessment of quality, duration and dose descriptor level (refer to the endpoint discussion for further details).

Justification for classification or non-classification

According to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006 "General Requirements for Generation of Information on Intrinsic Properties of substances", information on intrinsic properties of substances may be generated by means other than tests e.g. from information from structurally related substances (grouping or read-across), provided that conditions set out in Annex XI are met. Annex XI, "General rules for adaptation of this standard testing regime set out in Annexes VII to X” states that “substances whose physicochemical, toxicological and ecotoxicological properties are likely to be similar or follow a regular pattern as a result of structural similarity may be considered as a group, or ‘category’ of substances. This avoids the need to test every substance for every endpoint". Since the analogue concept is applied to Tetraesters of pentaerythritol with 2-ethylhexanoic acid, heptanoic acid and nonanoic acid (EC 806-879-4), data will be generated from data for reference source substance(s) to avoid unnecessary animal testing. Additionally, once the analogue read-across concept is applied, substances will be classified and labelled on this basis.

Therefore, based on the analogue read-across approach, the available data on repeated dose toxicity do not meet the classification criteria according to Regulation (EC) 1272/2008, and are therefore conclusive but not sufficient for classification.

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