Registration Dossier

Environmental fate & pathways

Endpoint summary

Administrative data

Description of key information

Hydrolysis

HYDROWIN v2.00 program of Estimation Programs Interface (EPI Suite, 2017) prediction model was used to predict the hydrolysis half-life of test compound

1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione (CAS No. 2295 -31 -0). The estimated half-life of 1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione was estimated to be > 100 days (at 25 deg C), indicating that it not hydrolysable.

Biodegradation in water

Biodegradability of 1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione (CAS no. 2295 -31 -0) is predicted using OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.3 (2017) with logKow as the primary descriptor. Test substance undergoes 22.89% degradation by BOD in 28 days.Thus, based on percentage degradation, the test chemical 1,3-thiazolidine- 2,4-dione was estimated to be not readily biodegradable in water.

Biodegradation in water and sediment

Estimation Programs Interface (EPI Suite, 2017) prediction model was run to predict the half-life in water and sediment for the test compound 1,3 -thiazolidine-2,4 -dione (CAS No. 2295 -31 -0). If released in to the environment, 44.8% of the chemical will partition into water according to the Mackay fugacity model level III and the half-life period of 1,3 -thiazolidine-2,4 -dione in water is estimated to be 15 days (360 hrs). The half-life (15 days estimated by EPI suite) indicates that the chemical is not persistent in water and the exposure risk to aquatic animals is moderate to low whereas the half-life period of 1,3 -thiazolidine-2,4 -dione in sediment is estimated to be 135 days (3240 hrs). However, as the percentage release of test chemical into the sediment is less than 1% (i.e, reported as 0.0859%), indicates that 1,3 -thiazolidine-2,4 -dione is not persistent in sediment.

 

Biodegradation in soil

The half-life period of 1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione (CAS No. 2295 -31 -0) in soil was estimated using Level III Fugacity Model by EPI Suite version 4.1 estimation database (EPI suite, 2017). If released into the environment, 53.2% of the chemical will partition into soil according to the Mackay fugacity model level III. The half-life period of 1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione in soil is estimated to be 30 days (720 hrs). Based on this half-life value of 1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione

, it is concluded that the chemical is not persistent in the soil environment and the exposure risk to soil dwelling animals is moderate to low.

Bioaccumulation: aquatic/sediment

BCFBAF model (v3.01) of Estimation Programs Interface (EPI Suite, 2017) prediction program was used to predict the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of test chemical 1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione (CAS No. 2295 -31 -0). The bioconcentration factor (BCF) of 1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione was estimated to be 3.162 L/kg whole body w.w (at 25 deg C) which does not exceed the bioconcentration threshold of 2000, indicating that the chemical 1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione

is not expected to bioaccumulate in the food chain.

Adsorption/desorption

KOCWIN model (v2.00) of Estimation Programs Interface (EPI Suite, 2017) was used to predict the soil adsorption coefficient i.e Koc value of test chemical

1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione (CAS No. 2295 -31 -0). The soil adsorption coefficient i.e Koc value of 1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione was estimated to be 2.117 L/kg (log Koc= 0.3258)  by means of MCI method (at 25 deg C). This Koc value indicates that the substance 1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione has a negligible sorption to soil and sediment, rapid migration to ground water.

Henry's law constant

HENRYWIN v3.20 program of Estimation Programs Interface (EPI Suite, 2017) prediction model was used to predict the Henry's Law constant of test compound 2, 4-Thiazolidinedione (CAS No. 2295 -31 -0). Henry's Law constant of test substance 2, 4-Thiazolidinedione was estimated to be 0.134 Pa m³/mol at 25 deg.C

Additional information

Hydrolysis

HYDROWIN v2.00 program of Estimation Programs Interface (EPI Suite, 2017) prediction model was used to predict the hydrolysis half-life of test compound

1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione (CAS No. 2295 -31 -0). The estimated half-life of 1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione was estimated to be > 100 days (at 25 deg C), indicating that it not hydrolysable.

Biodegradation in water

Various predicted data for the target compound1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione(CAS No. 2295-31-0) and various supporting weight of evidence studies for its closest read across substance with logKow as the primary descriptor were reviewed for the biodegradation end point which are summarized as below:

 

In a prediction done by SSS (2017) using OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.3 with logKow as the primary descriptor, percentage biodegradability of test chemical 1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione(CAS No. 2295-31-0) was estimated.Test substance undergoes 22.89% degradation by BOD in 28 days.Thus, based on percentage degradation, the test chemical 1,3-thiazolidine- 2,4-dione was estimated to be not readily biodegradable in water.

 

In another prediction using the Estimation Programs Interface Suite (EPI suite, 2017), the biodegradation potential of the test compound 1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione(CAS No. 2295-31-0) in the presence of mixed populations of environmental microorganisms was estimated.The biodegradability of the substance was calculated using seven different models such as Linear Model, Non-Linear Model, Ultimate Biodegradation Timeframe, Primary Biodegradation Timeframe, MITI Linear Model, MITI Non-Linear Model and Anaerobic Model (called as Biowin 1-7, respectively) of the BIOWIN v4.10 software. The results indicate that chemical 1,3 -thiazolidine-2,4 -dione is expected to be not readily biodegradable.

 

In a supporting weight of evidence study from authoritative database (J-CHECK, 2017) for the read across chemical 1,2,3,6-tetrahydrophthalimide (CAS no. 85-40-5), the read across chemical 1,2,3,6-tetrahydrophthalimide was tested for biodegradation by taking sludge as a inoculums at concentration 30 mg/L for 4 weeks. The initial concentration of chemical taken was 100 mg/L. The study design was of standard type. After 4 weeks percent degradation obtained by taking different parameters in consideration such as BOD, TOC and HPLC were 0%, 3 % and 8% respectively. So it is concluded that the chemical 1,2,3,6-tetrahydro phthalimide of CAS no. 85-40-5 is not readily biodegradable.

 

For the another read across chemical 1,2-dihydropyridazine-3,6-dione (CAS no. 123-33-1) from authoritative database (J-CHECK, 2017), the read across chemical 1,2 -dihydropyridazine-3,6 -dione was tested for biodegradation by taking activated sludge as a inoculums at concentration 30 mg/L for 4 weeks (28 days). The initial concentration of chemical taken was 100 mg/L. The study design was of standard type. After 4 weeks (28 days) percent degradation obtained by taking different parameters  in consideration such as BOD, TOC and HPLC are 6 % , 1% and 1 % respectively. So it is concluded that this test chemical 1,2-dihydropyridazine-3,6-dione ( CAS no. 123-33-1) is not readily biodegradable.

 

On the basis of above results for target chemical1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione(from OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.3 and EPI suite, 2017) and for its read across substance (from authoritative database J-CHECK, 2017), it can be concluded that the test substance1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dionecan be expected to be not readily biodegradable in nature.

Biodegradation in water and sediment

Estimation Programs Interface (EPI Suite, 2017) prediction model was run to predict the half-life in water and sediment for the test compound 1,3 -thiazolidine-2,4 -dione (CAS No. 2295 -31 -0). If released in to the environment, 44.8% of the chemical will partition into water according to the Mackay fugacity model level III and the half-life period of 1,3 -thiazolidine-2,4 -dione in water is estimated to be 15 days (360 hrs). The half-life (15 days estimated by EPI suite) indicates that the chemical is not persistent in water and the exposure risk to aquatic animals is moderate to low whereas the half-life period of 1,3 -thiazolidine-2,4 -dione in sediment is estimated to be 135 days (3240 hrs). However, as the percentage release of test chemical into the sediment is less than 1% (i.e, reported as 0.0859%), indicates that 1,3 -thiazolidine-2,4 -dione is not persistent in sediment.

 

Biodegradation in soil

The half-life period of 1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione (CAS No. 2295 -31 -0) in soil was estimated using Level III Fugacity Model by EPI Suite version 4.1 estimation database (EPI suite, 2017). If released into the environment, 53.2% of the chemical will partition into soil according to the Mackay fugacity model level III. The half-life period of 1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione in soil is estimated to be 30 days (720 hrs). Based on this half-life value of 1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione

, it is concluded that the chemical is not persistent in the soil environment and the exposure risk to soil dwelling animals is moderate to low.

On the basis of available information, the test substance 1,3 -thiazolidine-2,4 -dione can be considered to be not readily biodegradable in nature.

Bioaccumulation: aquatic/sediment

Various predicted data for the target compound1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione(CAS No. 2295-31-0) and the experimental study for its read across substance were reviewed for the bioaccumulation end point which are summarized as below:

 

In aprediction done using theBCFBAF Program(v3.01) of Estimation Programs Interface (EPI Suite, 2017), the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of test chemical 1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione (CAS No. 2295 -31 -0) was estimated. The bioconcentration factor (BCF) of 1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione was estimated to be 3.162 L/kg whole body w.w (at 25 deg C).

 

In an another prediction done by using Bio-concentration Factor (v12.1.0.50374) module(ACD (Advanced Chemistry Development)/I-Lab predictive module, 2017), the BCF over the entire pH scale (pH 0 - 14) of the test substance 1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione (CAS no. 2295 -31 -0) was estimated to be 1.

 

Bioaccumulation test was conducted for estimating the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of test chemical 1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione (CAS no. 2295 -31 -0)(ChemSpider, 2017).The estimated bioconcentration factor (BCF) of 1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione was estimated to be 1.00 at pH 5.5 and 7.4, respectively.

 

Another predicted data was estimated usingSciFinder database (American Chemical Society (ACS), 2017) in which the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of test chemical 1,3 -thiazolidine-2,4 -dione (CAS No. 295 -31 -0) was predicted. The estimated bioconcentration factor (BCF) of 1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione was estimated to be 1 (at 25 deg C).

 

From CompTox Chemistry Dashboard using OPERA (OPEn (quantitative) structure-activity Relationship Application)  V1.02 model in which calculation based on PaDEL descriptors (calculate molecular descriptors and fingerprints of chemical)  the bioaccumulation i.e BCF for test substance 1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione was estimated to be 1.47 dimensionless . The predicted BCF result based on the 5 OECD principles. Thus based on the result it is concluded that the test substance 1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione is non-bioaccumulative in nature.

 

In a supporting weight of evidence study from authoritative database (J-CHECK, 2017) for the read across chemical 1,2-dihydropyridazine-3,6-dione (CAS no. 123-33-1), bioaccumulation test was conducted for 6 weeks for determination the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of read across chemical 1,2-dihydropyridazine-3,6-dioneon test organism Cyprinus carpio. Recovery ratio : Fish : 97.6 %, ­ Limit of quantitation : Test water : 1st concentration area : 0.040 mg/L, 2nd concentration area : 0.0040 mg/L, Fish : 0.40 microg/g. And nominal concentrations used in the study as - 1st Concentration area: 2 mg/L, 2nd Concentration area : 0.2 mg/L and Range finding study was carried out on Rice fish (Oryzias latipes) and the 48 hr LC 50 was 1000mg/L. Thus according to this Test the BCF value for read across substance1,2-dihydropyridazine-3,6-dione obtained was ≤0.2 L/kg at dose concentration 2 mg/L) and ≤ 2 L/kg at dose concentration 0.2 mg/L) on test organism Cyprinus carpio during 6 weeks period. These BCF values are far less than 2000 and indicate that the substance1,2-dihydropyridazine-3,6-dione is not bioaccumulative in fish and food chain.

 

On the basis of above results for target chemical1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione(from EPI suite, ACD labs,ChemSpider, SciFinder database and CompTox Chemistry Dashboard,  2017) and for its read across substance (from authoritative database J-CHECK, 2017), it can be concluded that the BCF value of test substance1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione ranges from 1 – 3.162 which does not exceed the bioconcentration threshold of 2000, indicating that the chemical 1-(3-aminophenyl)urea is not expected to bioaccumulate in the food chain.

Adsorption/desorption

Various predicted data for the target compound 1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione(CAS No. 2295-31-0) and experimental study for its read across substance were reviewed for the adsorption end point which are summarized as below:

 

In aprediction done using theKOCWIN Program(v2.00) of Estimation Programs Interface (EPI Suite, 2017) was used to predict the soil adsorption coefficient i.e Koc value of test chemical 1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione (CAS No. 2295 -31 -0). The soil adsorption coefficient i.e Koc value of 1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione was estimated to be 2.117 L/kg (log Koc= 0.3258)  by means of MCI method (at 25 deg C). This Koc value indicates that the substance 1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione has a negligible sorption to soil and sediment, rapid migration to ground water.

 

The Soil Adsorption Coefficient i.e Koc value of test substance 1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione was estimated using Adsorption Coefficient module (v12.1.0.50374) program at pH range 1-4 as Koc 12.1, at pH 5, 6, 7 was estimated to be 11.8, 9.24 and 3.01 and at pH range 8-14 as Koc approx. 1 (Log Koc ranges from 0.5 ± 1.0 to 1.1 ± 1.0) (ACD (Advanced Chemistry Development)/I-Lab predictive module, 2017). This Koc value indicates that the test substance has a negligible sorption to soil and therefore have a rapid migration potential to groundwater.

 

In an another prediction done by using ChemSpider Database (2017), the Soil Adsorption Coefficient i.e Koc value of test substance 1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione (CAS no. 2295 -31 -0) was estimated. The adsorption coefficient (Koc) value of test substance 1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione was estimated to be 14.59 (log Koc = 1.164) at pH 5.5 and 1.94 (log Koc = 0.287) at pH 7.4, respectively. This Koc value indicates that the test substance 1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione has a negligible sorption to soil and sediment and therefore has a rapid migration to ground water.

 

Additional soil adsorption coefficient i.e Koc value of test chemical1,3 -thiazolidine-2,4 -dione (CAS No. 2295 -31 -0)was estimated using the SciFinder database (American Chemical Society (ACS), 2017). The estimated soil adsorption coefficient i.e Koc value of 1,3 -thiazolidine-2,4 -dione was estimated to be 21.8, 21.2, 16.6, 5.41 and 1.0 at pH 1-4, 5, 6, 7 and 8-10 (at 25 deg C), respectively. This Koc value indicates that the test substance 1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione has a negligible sorption to soil and sediment and therefore have a rapid migration potential to groundwater.

 

From CompTox Chemistry Dashboard using OPERA (OPEn (quantitative) structure-activity Relationship Application)  V1.02 model in which calculation based on PaDEL descriptors (calculate molecular descriptors and fingerprints of chemical)  the adsorption coefficient i.e KOC for test substance 1,3 -thiazolidine-2,4 -dione was estimated to be 7.57 L/kg (Log Koc = 0.879) .The predicted KOC result based on the 5 OECD principles. Thus based on the result it is concluded that the test substance 1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione is mobile in soil.

 

In a supporting weight of evidence study from authoritative database (HSDB, 2017) for the read across chemical 1,2,3,6-tetrahydrophthalimide (CAS no. 85-40-5), read across chemical ­1, 2, 3, 6 ­tetrahydrophthalimide was subjected to estimation of Koc value. Based on a classification scheme, an estimated Koc value of 20, determined from a structure estimation method so log Koc value obtained was 1.3010. So it is concluded that test chemical, 1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydrophthalimide (CAS no. 85-40-5) is not expected to adsorb to suspended solids and sediment and shows rapid migration to ground water. 

 

For the another read across chemical 1,2-dihydropyridazine-3,6-dione (CAS no. 123-33-1) from authoritative database (HSDB, 2017),the koc value of read across substance 1,2-dihydropyridazine-3,6-dione was obtained  by using sand is 23 log Koc is 1.3617. These Koc value suggest that 1,2 -dihydropyridazine-3,6 -dione has negligible sorption to soil and rapid migration to ground water.

 

On the basis of above results for target chemical1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione(from EPI suite, ACD labs,ChemSpider, SciFinder database and CompTox Chemistry Dashboard,2017) and for its read across substance (from authoritative database HSDB, 2017), it can be concluded that the Koc value of test substance 1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione ranges from 1 – 21.8 indicating that the test chemical 1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione has a negligible sorption to soil and sediment and therefore have a rapid migration potential to groundwater.

Henry's law constant

HENRYWIN v3.20 program of Estimation Programs Interface (EPI Suite, 2017) prediction model was used to predict the Henry's Law constant of test compound 2, 4-Thiazolidinedione (CAS No. 2295 -31 -0). Henry's Law constant of test substance 2, 4-Thiazolidinedione was estimated to be 0.134 Pa m³/mol at 25 deg.C