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Short description of key information:
Gluconate is an oxidative metabolite of glucose best known to occur in microorganisms, but also occurring in mammals (Rezzi et al., 2009). Glucose is oxidized to gluconate by glucose 1-dehydrogenase, which occurs in mammalian tissues (Harrison, 1931, 1932). Gluconate enters the pentose phosphate pathway via conversion to 6-phosphogluconate, a metabolic route of glucose catabolism. The formation of 6-phosphogluconate from exogenous gluconate has been demonstrated in mammals, demonstrating mammalian enzymatic capabilities for metabolizing gluconate (Stetten and Topper, 1953; Leder, 1957; Hakim and Moss, 1971; Casazza and Veech, 1986). Gluconokinase is the enzyme responsible for catalyzing the phosphorylation of gluconate to 6-phosphogluconate and has been identified in mammalian tissues, such as the brain and kidneys ( Hakim and Moss, 1972). Thus, gluconate occurs endogenously from the oxidative metabolism of glucose and is utilized in a well-known biochemical pathway (the pentose phosphate pathway) of glucose catabolsim via the action of gluconokinase. Considering that gluconate is an endogenously occurring compound that is utilized by the body in a normal physiological process, studies addressing the mutagenicity/genotoxicity of gluconate are not deemed necessary as it is expected that the compound is not mutagenic/genotoxic.

Reference List:

Casazza JP, Veech RL (1986). The Interdependence of Glycolytic and Pentose Cycle Intermediates in ad Libitum Fed Rats. J Biol Chem 261(2):690-698.

Gumaa KA, Greenslade KR, McLean P (1968). Enzymes and intermediates of the pentose phosphate pathway in liver hepatomas. Biochim Biophys Acta 158(2):300-302.

Hakim AM, Moss G (1971). The Effect of Ether Anesthesia on Cerebral Glucose Metabolism – The Pentose Phosphate Pathway. Anesthesiology 34(3):261-267.

Hakim AM, Moss G, Gollomp SM (1976). The effect of hypoxia on the pentose phosphate pathway in brain. J Neurochem 26(4):683-688.

Harrison DC (1931). Glucose dehydrogenase...

Endpoint Conclusion: No adverse effect observed (negative)

Justification for classification or non-classification

The substance does not meet the criteria for classification and labelling for this endpoint, as set out in Regulation (EC) NO. 1272/2008.