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Sediment toxicity

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In accordance with section 1 of REACH Annex XI, the study does not need to be conducted for iron oxides. Iron is amongst the most common elements in the earth's crust and can be found in great abundance in both the terrestrial as sediment environment. The relative contributions of anthropogenic iron to the existing natural pools of iron in soils and sediments is therefore not relevant either in terms of added amounts and in terms of toxicity (ARCHE 2010b and c, EPA 2001). Based on these exposure considerations additional sediment and/or soil testing is not warranted. For LEAD:The high quality chronic freshwater sediment database contains toxicity data towards lead for 7 different sediment dwelling species (Tubifex tubifex, Ephoron virgo, Hyalella azteca, Gammarus pulex, Lumbriculus variegatus, Hexagenia limbata, Chironomus tentans). Selected no-effect levels for lead were situated between 573 mg Pb/kg (Tubifex tubifex; endpoint: reproduction) and 3390 mg Pb/kg (Chironomus tentans; endpoint: survival). The chronic toxicity database for marine sediment dwelling organisms contains toxicity data for 2 marine species (Neanthes arenaceodentata and Leptocheirus plumulosus). Selected no-effect levels for lead were situated between 680 mg Pb/kg (Neanthes arenaceodentata; endpoint: growth) and 1291 mg Pb/kg (Leptocheirus plumulosus; endpoint: growth).

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