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Toxicological information

Acute Toxicity: dermal

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
acute toxicity: dermal
Type of information:
other: published data
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
data from handbook or collection of data
Justification for type of information:
The S-allyl O-pentyl dithiocarbonate (CAS No. 2956-12-9), the subject of this dossier) is expected to exhibit very similar toxicity to Sodium ethyl xanthate (CAS No. 140-90-9)), which is also xanthate compound. Comparable metabolism would occur.

Data source

Referenceopen allclose all

Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Sodium ethyl xanthate: Acute Oral, Eye and Dermal Toxicity Report
Author:
Hazleton Laboratories
Year:
1951
Bibliographic source:
Virginia, USA, 1951.
Reference Type:
review article or handbook
Title:
Priority existing chemical Report No. 5
Author:
Dep. of Health and Ageing, Australian Government
Year:
1995
Bibliographic source:
National Industrial Chemicals Notification and Assessment Scheme

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
This study was conducted in 1951 and was repeated later in the same year. Exposure in both studies was for 18 hrs and was not according to the OECD Guidelines for acute dermal irritation (4 hrs) or for dermal toxicity (24 hrs). The initial study was performed to assess dermal irritation but deaths during the study led to further studies. Sodium ethyl xanthate was administered by occlusive application to the shaved abdomen of the rabbits either as 1.0 ml/kg of a 10% aqueous solution or as 1 gm/kg of the 100% dry material in a paste formed with water. The animals were observed for 12 days.
GLP compliance:
no
Test type:
other: LD50
Limit test:
no

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Test material form:
other: paste and 10% aqueous solution
Details on test material:
- Name of test material (as cited in study report):sodium ethyl xanthate
The S-allyl O-pentyl dithiocarbonate (CAS No. 2956-12-9), the subject of this dossier) is expected to exhibit very similar toxicity to Sodium ethyl xanthate (CAS No. 140-90-9)), which is also xanthate compound. Comparable metabolism would occur.

Test animals

Species:
rabbit
Strain:
not specified
Sex:
male

Administration / exposure

Type of coverage:
occlusive
Vehicle:
water
Details on dermal exposure:
Sodium ethyl xanthate was administered by occlusive application to the shaved abdomen of the rabbits either as 1.0 ml/kg of a 10% aqueous solution or as 1 gm/kg of the 100% dry material in a paste formed with water. The animals were observed for 12 days.
Duration of exposure:
The animals were observed for 12 days.
Doses:
1.0 ml/kg of a 10% aqueous solution or as 1 gm/kg
No. of animals per sex per dose:
12
Control animals:
yes
Details on study design:
This study was conducted in 1951 and was repeated later in the same year. Exposure in both studies was for 18 hrs and was not according to the OECD Guidelines for acute dermal irritation (4 hrs)or for dermal toxicity (24 hrs).The initial study was performed to assess dermal irritation but deaths during the study led to further studies. Sodium ethyl xanthate was administered by occlusive application to the shaved abdomen of the rabbits either as 1.0 ml/kg of a 10% aqueous solution or as 1 gm/kg of the 100% dry material in a paste formed with water. The animals were observed for 12 days.

Results and discussion

Effect levels
Sex:
male
Dose descriptor:
LD50
Effect level:
< 1 000 mg/kg bw
Based on:
test mat.
Remarks on result:
other: The dermal irritation/toxicity study in rabbits indicates that sodium ethyl xanthate powder has an LD50 of <1000 mg/kg and is a moderate irritant while the 10% solution is non irritating to the skin.
Mortality:
Application of 1 gm/kg of sodium ethyl xanthate in the form of a paste resulted in the death of ten out of twelve animals within 24 hrs. The surviving animals developed irritant effects including oedema and pigmentation of the skin.
Clinical signs:

Clinical Observations :surviving animal had moderate irritation with oedema and pigmentation of the skin.
Gross pathology:
Moderate amount of peritoneal fluid, visceral organs were normal.
Haemorrhagic lungs and peritoneal and pleural fluid. Other changes were markedly cyanotic ears (2/5), haemorrhagic conditions (2/5) and evidence of diarrhoea (3/5).
The liver appeared darkand mottled and the kidneys showed spotty haemorrhages

Any other information on results incl. tables

The dermal irritation/toxicity study in rabbits indicates that sodium ethyl xanthate powder has an LD50 of <1000 mg/kg and is a moderate irritant while the10% solution is non irritating to the skin.

Table 4:

Effects of sodium ethyl xanthate following dermal application

Animals

Dose

Clinical Observations

Gross pathology

3 rabbits

1 ml/kg, as 10%

solution

 

No skin irritation.

No substance related

changes.

 

3 rabbits

1 gm/kg, as a paste

2/3 died; surviving animalhad moderate irritationwith oedema andpigmentation of the skin.

 

Moderate amount of

peritoneal fluid, visceral

organs were normal.

 

5 male

rabbits

 

1 gm/kg, as a paste

5/5 died following

overnight exposure; oedemaof the skin with

pigmentation.

 

Haemorrhagic lungs andperitoneal and pleural fluid.

Other changes were

markedly cyanotic ears

(2/5), haemorrhagic

conditions (2/5) and

evidence of diarrhoea (3/5).

 

1 male

rabbit

 

1 gm/kg, as a more

liquid paste than

above

 

Moderate oedema and

pigmentation of the skin.

 

No substance related

changes.

 

3 rabbits

1 gm/kg as a paste

All 3 animals died within24 hrs; retropulsion,salivation, loss of rightingreflex and haemorrhagicand oedematous areas of the

skin were noted.

 

The liver appeared dark

and mottled and the kidneysshowed spotty

haemorrhages.

 

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Interpretation of results:
other: moderately toxic
Remarks:
Criteria used for interpretation of results: EU
Conclusions:
Acute Dermal Toxicity: An LD50 value of < 1000 mg/kg was obtained. Application of 1 gm/kg of sodium ethyl xanthate in the form of a paste resulted in the death of ten out of twelve animals within 24 hrs. The surviving animals developed irritant effects including oedema and pigmentation of the skin. The sulphide odour noted during the study suggests that decomposition of sodium ethyl xanthate occurred. The dermal LD50 was < 1000 mg/kg .
This show that S-allyl O-pentyl dithiocarbonate (the result was read across from sodium ethyl xanthate) is of a moderately order of acute Dermal toxicity .
Executive summary:

Under the conditions of the study of Hazleton Laboratories, application of 10% solution of sodium ethyl xanthate (pH 10.5 to 11) for 18 hrs did not cause skin irritation in rabbits.

Similar application of 1 gm/kg of sodium ethyl xanthate in the form of a paste resulted in the death of ten out of twelve animals within 24 hrs. The surviving animals developed irritant effects including oedema and pigmentation of the skin. The sulphide odour noted during the study suggests that decomposition of sodium ethyl xanthate occurred. The dermal LD50 was < 1000 mg/kg.

This show  that S-allyl O-pentyl dithiocarbonate  (the result was read across from sodium ethyl xanthate)  is of a moderately order of acute Dermal toxicity .