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Ecotoxicological information

Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Description of key information

Acute very toxic to aquatic invertebrates.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information

Three guideline studies on the toxicity of glutaraldehyde 50% on daphnids are available. The results indicate moderate toxicity of glutaraldehyde on daphnids, which is consistent with the moderate toxicity of glutaraldehyde observed on marine crustacean.

The acute toxicity of glutaraldehyde to the waterflea Daphnia magna was determined according to Directive 79/831/EEC, C.2 (BASF AG 1/0011/2/88-0011/88). The test was performed under static conditions for 48 hours testing the immobility of daphnids at following nominal concentrations of glutaraldehyde: 0, 3.125, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/L. The testing of the acute toxicity of glutaraldehyde 50% to the freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna resulted in an EC50 value (48 h) of 14.87 mg a.i./L.

The study is based on the nominal concentration and hence deviation of more than 20% from the nominal concentration cannot be excluded. Therefore, the endpoint was recalculated according to TWA concept assuming a DT50dis of 10.6 hours. The resulting EC50 value is 4.6 mg/L.

A further test was performed according to the methods for “Acute toxicity tests with fish, macro-invertebrates, and amphibians”, U.S. EPA, 1975 at nominal concentrations of 0, 4.0, 6.6, 11, 18, 30 and 50 mg/L of glutaraldehyde 50% (EG & G, Bionomics BW-81-11-1046). The testing of the acute toxicity of glutaraldehyde 50% to the freshwater crustacea Daphnia magna resulted in an EC50 value (48 h) of 14 mg a.i./L under static conditions. The resulting EC50 based on the TWA concept was calculated to be 2.1 mg/L.

The acute toxicity of Protectol GA 50 to Acartia tonsa (marine Copepoda, Crustacea) was investigated (BASF SE 99E0674/05X034); testing was based on ISO 14669 (1999). The test item was tested as WAF, and the nominal test concentrations were: 0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.6, 1.4, 3.2, 7 and 16 mg/L of test item. The test concentrations were stable during the test.

The LC50 after 48 h was 5.8 mg/L of test item, corresponding to 3 mg a.i./L of the active ingredient glutaraldehyde based on nominal concentrations. The result corresponded well to results from other tested invertebrates (Daphnia magna, Mysidopsis bahia) with EC50/LC50 values of 2.1-7.1 mg a.s./L.

The acute toxicity of glutaraldehyde 50% to marine shrimp Mysidopsis bahia was tested under flow-through conditions according to FIFRA Guideline No: 72-3 (Springborn Laboratories Inc. 94-12-5603). The shrimps were exposed to following concentrations for 96 hours: 0, 0.78, 1.3, 2.2, 3.6, 6.0 and 10 mg a.i./L. The measured concentrations were 0, 0.38, 0.71, 1.10, 2.40, 4.50 and 7.60 mg a.i./L. Mortality was neither observed in the control group, nor in the 0.38, 0.71, 1.1 and the 2.4 mg a.i./L test concentrations. The EC50 value obtained after exposure duration of 96 h was determined to be 5.5 mg a.i/L.

The acute toxicity to the mussel Crassostera virginica was tested under flow-through conditions according to FIFRA Giudeline No:72-3 (Springborn Laboratories Inc. 94-11-5551). The mussels were exposed to following concentrations for 96 hours: 0.32, 0.54, 0.90, 1.5 and 2.5 mg a.i./L. The test parameter was shell growth. Glutaraldehyde showed a clear effect on the growth rate of shells resulting in a EC50 value of 0.78 mg a.i./L.

The EC50 values mentioned above indicate a consistent moderate toxicity of glutaraldehyde to freshwater invertebrates. The EC50 value of 5.5 mg a.i./l reported for the marine species Mysidopsis bahia was based on measured concentrations and is comparable to the lowest toxicity values obtained for the freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna. However, the most sensitive marine invertebrate was the mussel Crassostera virginica showing a EC50 value of 0.78 mg a.i./L.