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Toxicological information

Genetic toxicity: in vitro

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
in vitro gene mutation study in bacteria
Remarks:
Type of genotoxicity: gene mutation
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
9 February-10 April 1995
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Guideline study, to GLP, on closely-related surrogate. Astrain capable of detecting certain oxidising mutagens and/or cross-linking agents, for example TA102, was not included.

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
study report
Title:
Unnamed
Year:
1997
Report date:
1997

Materials and methods

Test guidelineopen allclose all
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 471 (Bacterial Reverse Mutation Assay)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
Astrain capable of detecting certain oxidising mutagens and/or cross-linking agents, for example TA102, was not included.
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
EU Method B.13/14 (Mutagenicity - Reverse Mutation Test Using Bacteria)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
Astrain capable of detecting certain oxidising mutagens and/or cross-linking agents, for example TA102, was not included.
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. QA statement)
Type of assay:
bacterial reverse mutation assay

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Type:
Constituent
Test material form:
solid: particulate/powder
Remarks:
migrated information: powder
Details on test material:
- Name of test material (as cited in study report): Tetrammine palladium hydrogen carbonate
- Substance type: No data
- Physical state: pale yellow powder
- Analytical purity: No data
- Impurities (identity and concentrations): No data
- Composition of test material, percentage of components: No data
- Isomers composition: No data
- Purity test date: No data
- Lot/batch No.: DD0247
- Expiration date of the lot/batch: No data
- Stability under test conditions: No data
- Storage condition of test material: room temperature

Method

Target gene:
Histidine
Species / strainopen allclose all
Species / strain / cell type:
S. typhimurium TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98 and TA 100
Details on mammalian cell type (if applicable):
Not applicable
Additional strain / cell type characteristics:
not specified
Species / strain / cell type:
S. typhimurium TA 1538
Details on mammalian cell type (if applicable):
Not applicable
Additional strain / cell type characteristics:
not specified
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Metabolic activation system:
Rat liver homogenate metabolising system (S9)
Test concentrations with justification for top dose:
0, 50, 150, 500, 1500 and 5000 µg/plate in preliminary cytotoxicity test
0, 0.15 (Expt 1 only), 0.5, 1.5, 5, 15, 50 (-S9)
0, 1.5, 5, 15, 50, 150, 500 (Expt 1 only) (+S9)
Vehicle / solvent:
- Vehicle(s)/solvent(s) used: Sterile distilled water
- Justification for choice of solvent/vehicle: Test guideline recommends use of aqueous solvent wherever possible
Controlsopen allclose all
Untreated negative controls:
no
Negative solvent / vehicle controls:
yes
True negative controls:
no
Positive controls:
yes
Positive control substance:
9-aminoacridine
Remarks:
80 µg/plate for TA 1537 without S9
Untreated negative controls:
no
Negative solvent / vehicle controls:
yes
True negative controls:
no
Positive controls:
yes
Positive control substance:
4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide
Remarks:
0.2 µg/plate for TA 98 without S9
Untreated negative controls:
no
Negative solvent / vehicle controls:
yes
True negative controls:
no
Positive controls:
yes
Positive control substance:
other: 4-nitro-o-phenyl enediamine
Remarks:
5 µg/plate for TA 1538 without S9
Untreated negative controls:
no
Negative solvent / vehicle controls:
yes
True negative controls:
no
Positive controls:
yes
Positive control substance:
N-ethyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine
Remarks:
3 and 5 µg/plate for TA 100 and 1535 respectively (both without S9)
Untreated negative controls:
no
Negative solvent / vehicle controls:
yes
True negative controls:
no
Positive controls:
yes
Positive control substance:
other: 2-aminoanthracene
Remarks:
1, 2, 0.5, 0.5 and 2 µg/plate for TA 100, 1535, 1538, 98 and 1537 strains respectively (all with S9)
Details on test system and experimental conditions:
METHOD OF APPLICATION: in agar (plate incorporation)

DURATION
- Preincubation period: Not applicable
- Exposure duration: 48 hours
- Expression time (cells in growth medium): Not applicable
- Selection time (if incubation with a selection agent): Not applicable
- Fixation time (start of exposure up to fixation or harvest of cells): Not applicable

SELECTION AGENT (mutation assays): Not applicable
SPINDLE INHIBITOR (cytogenetic assays): Not applicable
STAIN (for cytogenetic assays): Not applicable

NUMBER OF REPLICATIONS: 3 (Experiment carried out twice)

NUMBER OF CELLS EVALUATED: Not applicable

DETERMINATION OF CYTOTOXICITY
- Method: Reduction in no. of revertant colonies/thining of background lawn

OTHER EXAMINATIONS:
- Determination of polyploidy: Not applicable
- Determination of endoreplication: Not applicable
Evaluation criteria:
Positive results should have a dose-related and statistically significant increase in mutation rate in one or more bacterial strains with or without S9. To be considered negative, the number of induced revertants should be less than twofold compared to spontaneous revertants (controls).
Statistics:
No data

Results and discussion

Test resultsopen allclose all
Species / strain:
S. typhimurium TA 100
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
cytotoxicity
Remarks:
The test material caused a visible reduction in the growth of the bacterial lawn at 50 and 150 µg/plate and above for tester strains without and with metabolic activation respectively
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Untreated negative controls validity:
not applicable
Positive controls validity:
valid
Species / strain:
S. typhimurium TA 1535
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
cytotoxicity
Remarks:
The test material caused a visible reduction in the growth of the bacterial lawn at 50 and 150 µg/plate and above for tester strains without and with metabolic activation respectively
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Untreated negative controls validity:
not applicable
Positive controls validity:
valid
Species / strain:
S. typhimurium TA 1538
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
cytotoxicity
Remarks:
The test material caused a visible reduction in the growth of the bacterial lawn at 50 and 150 µg/plate and above for tester strains without and with metabolic activation respectively
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Untreated negative controls validity:
not applicable
Positive controls validity:
valid
Species / strain:
S. typhimurium TA 98
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
cytotoxicity
Remarks:
The test material caused a visible reduction in the growth of the bacterial lawn at 50 and 150 µg/plate and above for tester strains without and with metabolic activation respectively
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Untreated negative controls validity:
not applicable
Positive controls validity:
valid
Species / strain:
S. typhimurium TA 1537
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
cytotoxicity
Remarks:
The test material caused a visible reduction in the growth of the bacterial lawn at 50 and 150 µg/plate and above for tester strains without and with metabolic activation respectively
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Untreated negative controls validity:
not applicable
Positive controls validity:
valid
Additional information on results:
TEST-SPECIFIC CONFOUNDING FACTORS
- Effects of pH: No data
- Effects of osmolality: No data
- Evaporation from medium: No data
- Water solubility: No data
- Precipitation: No data
- Other confounding effects: No data

RANGE-FINDING/SCREENING STUDIES: The dose range used was 0, 50, 150, 500, 1500 and 5000 µg/plate

COMPARISON WITH HISTORICAL CONTROL DATA: No data

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ON CYTOTOXICITY: The test material caused a visible reduction in the growth of the bacterial lawn at 50 and 150 µg/plate and above for tester strains without and with metabolic activation respectively
Remarks on result:
other: strain/cell type: TA 100
Remarks:
Migrated from field 'Test system'.

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
Interpretation of results (migrated information):
negative with and without metabolic activation

In a guideline study, to GLP, tetraamminepalladium hydrogen carbonate was not mutagenic in a bacterial reverse mutation (Ames) assay using five Salmonella typhimurium strains (TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537 and TA1538), when tested at up to cytotoxic concentrations in the presence and absence of a rat liver metabolic activation (S9) system
Executive summary:

Tetraamminepalladium hydrogen carbonate was assessed for potential mutagenic activity in a bacterial reverse mutation (Ames) assay, conducted according to OECD Test Guideline 471, and to GLP. The test compound was tested in five strains of Salmonella typhimurium (TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537 and TA1538). (However, a strain capable of detecting certain oxidising mutagens and/or cross-linking agents, for example TA102, was not included.)

 

The dose ranges were determined in a preliminary assay for cytotoxicity and were 0.15-50 and 1.5-500 µg/plate with and without the addition of a rat liver homogenate metabolising (S9) system. All assays were carried out in triplicate, at up to 50 and 500 µg/plate in the absence and presence of S9, respectively. The experiment was repeated.

 

Tetraamminepalladium hydrogen carbonate showed no evidence of a dose-related increase in revertant frequency at any dose levels in any each strain, either in the presence or absence of S9.