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Environmental fate & pathways

Monitoring data

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monitoring data
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
study period not reported, but investigations took place in 2008 and 2009.
Reason / purpose:
reference to other study

Data source

Reference Type:
Titanium nanomaterial removal and release from wastewater treatment plants
Kiser, M.A., Westerhoff, P., Benn, T., Wang, Y., Perez-Rivera, J., Hristovski,K.
Bibliographic source:
Environ. Sci. Technol., 43, 6757-6763

Materials and methods

Principles of method if other than guideline:
Samples of effluent and solids from each stage of a wastewater reclamation facility were collected on a small number of days, and the amount of titanium quantified in each matrix. This enabled a removal rate for Titanium to be calculated.
GLP compliance:
Type of measurement:
other: concentrations at different stages within a waste water treatment plant
other: effluent and waste solids

Study design

Details on sampling:
Samples taken at a wastewater reclamation facility in central Arizona (U.S.A.); plant used an activated sludge process and tertiary filtration treatment. At four different times (7:00, 11:00, 15:00 and 18:00) on each day in June 2008, effluent samples from each unit process, wasted solids and finished biosolids were collected. In addition, samples were also collected once around noon on a day in January 2009. 15% of the June samples were collected in duplicate. Field and trip blanks of ultrapure water were included in the sampling. Samples were stored on ice (<4°C) until arrival at the laboratory. Portions of each water sample were used for suspended solids analysis, nonfiltered and filtered (GF/F-grade glass microfibre filter; 0.7 µ). Settled solids from the primary and secondary clarifiers were also collected and analysed.

Results and discussion

Details on results:
The average overall removal of Ti for the four different sampling times in June 2008 was 79% (+/- 23%). While total Ti removal was 79%, removal of filterable Ti (<0.7 µ) was only 42% (+/- 22%). The removal rate for the January 2009 samplings was 95%. The average overall removal of Ti for the June 2008 and January 2009 samplings was 82% (+/_ 21%).

Applicant's summary and conclusion

This investigation strongly suggests that removal rates for environmental Titanium, in WWTP, are likely to be high, especially for larger (> 0.7µ) Titanium. The removal rates are likely to be at the 80% level.