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in vivo mammalian somatic cell study: cytogenicity / erythrocyte micronucleus
Type of genotoxicity: DNA damage and/or repair
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Standard guideline study according to GLP

Data source

Reference Type:
study report
Report Date:

Materials and methods

Test guideline
according to
OECD Guideline 474 (Mammalian Erythrocyte Micronucleus Test)
GLP compliance:
Type of assay:
micronucleus assay

Test material

Test material form:
solid: particulate/powder
migrated information: powder

Test animals

Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
- Source: Harlan Winkelmann GmbH Gartenstrasse 27, 33178 Borchen
- Age at study initiation: ca. 7 weeks
- Weight at study initiation: m: 37,7 g; f: 28,7 g
- Assigned to test groups randomly: yes

- Housing: groups of 5
- Diet (e.g. ad libitum): ad libitum
- Water (e.g. ad libitum): ad libitum
- Acclimation period: 5 d

- Temperature (°C): 22+/-3
- Humidity (%): 50+/-20

- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): 12/12

Administration / exposure

Route of administration:
oral: gavage
- Vehicle used: Sesame oil

- Concentration of test material in vehicle: 200mg/mL (~20%)
- Amount of vehicle (gavagel): ca. 8 mL/kg

Duration of treatment / exposure:
48 h
Frequency of treatment:
twice at an interval of 24 h
Post exposure period:
24 h
Doses / concentrations
Doses / Concentrations:
2000 mg/kg
actual ingested
No. of animals per sex per dose:
Control animals:
yes, concurrent vehicle
other: concurrent, positive control: cyclophosphamide in water
Positive control(s):
- Route of administration: gavage
- Doses / concentrations: 50 mg/kg in 10 mL/kg water


Tissues and cell types examined:
bone marrow from femur
Details of tissue and slide preparation:
Animals were killed by carbon dioxide asphyxiation 24 hours after dosing. For each animal, about 3 ml fetal bovine serum was poured into a centrifuge tube. Both femora were removed and the bones freed of muscle tissue. The proximal ends of the femora were opened and the bone marrow flushed into the centrifuge tube. A suspension was formed. The mixture was then centrifuged for 5 minutes at approx. 1200 rpm, after which almost all the supernatant was discarded. One drop of the thoroughly mixed sediment was smeared onto a cleaned slide, identified by project code and animal number and air-dried for about 12 hours.

Staining was performed as follows:
- 5 minutes in methanol
- 5 minutes in May-GrOnwald·s solution
- brief rinsing twice in distilled water
- 10 minutes staining in 1 part Giemsa solution to 6 parts buffer solution, pH 7.2 (Weise)
- rinsing in distilled water
- drying
- coating with Entellan
Evaluation criteria:
2000 polychromatic erythrocytes were counted for each animal. The number of cells with micronuclei was recorded, not the number of individual micronuclei. In addition, the ratio of polychromatic erythrocytes to 200 total erythrocytes was determined. Main parameter for the statistical analysis, i.e. validity assessment of the study and mutagenicity of the test substance, was the proportion of polychromatic erythrocytes with micronuclei out of the 2000 counted erythrocytes. All bone marrow smears for evaluation were coded to ensure that the group from which they were taken remained unknown to the investigator.

A one-sided Wilcoxon-Test [4, 5] was evaluated to check the validity of the study. The study was considered as valid in case the proportion of polychromatic erythrocytes with micronuclei in the positive control was significantly higher than in the negative control (p=0.05).

If the validity of the study had been shown the following sequential test procedure for the examination of the mutagenicity was applied: Based on a monotone-dose-relationship one-sided Wilcoxon tests were performed starting with the highest dose group. These test were performed with a multiple level of significance of 5% .

Criteria for a positive response
Both biological and statistical significances were considered together for evaluation purposes.
A substance is considered positive if there is a significant increase in the number of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes compared with the concurrent negative control group. A test substance producing no significant increase in the number of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes is considered non-mutagenic in this system.

Results and discussion

Test results
not specified
Vehicle controls validity:
Negative controls validity:
Positive controls validity:

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Interpretation of results (migrated information): negative
The results lead to the conclusion that the test item did not lead to a substantial increase of the numbers of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes and is not mutagenic in the mouse micronucleus test under the conditions described.
Executive summary:

The mouse micronucleus test was carried out with The test item. The test compound was suspended in sesame oil and was given twice at an interval of 24 hours as an orally dose of 2000 mg per kg body weight to male and female mice, based on the results of a previous dose range finding assay.

According to the test procedure the animals were killed 24 hours after administration. Endoxan was used as positive control substance and was administered once orally at a dose of 50 mg per kg body weight.

The number of polychromatic erythrocytes containing micronuclei was not increased. The ratio of polychromatic erythrocytes to total erythrocytes in both male and female animals remained unaffected by the treatment with the test item and was not less than 20% of the control value.

The positive control substance induced a marked statistically significant increase in the number of polychromatic cells with micronuclei, indicating the sensitivity of the test system.

The ratio of polychromatic erythrocytes to total erythrocytes was not changed to a significant extent.

Under the conditions of the present study the results indicate that the test item is not mutagenic in the micronucleus test.