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Bioaccumulation: aquatic / sediment

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Endpoint:
bioaccumulation in aquatic species: fish
Type of information:
(Q)SAR
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
results derived from a valid (Q)SAR model, but not (completely) falling into its applicability domain, with adequate and reliable documentation / justification
Remarks:
Validated QSAR model. However, the component is outside of the domain of the training set (log Kow of the training set: 0.31-8.70; log Kow of the substance: 10.01). Nevertheless, the value of the prediction will be used for risk assessment purposes, since a) there is currently no universally accepted definition of model domain, and b) since further measurements/testing would not result in additional knowledge for this substance.
Justification for type of information:
QSAR prediction: migrated from IUCLID 5.6
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Calculation based on BCFBAF v3.01, Estimation Programs Interface Suite™ for Microsoft® Windows v 4.11. US EPA, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, USA.
GLP compliance:
no
Test organisms (species):
other: Fish
Route of exposure:
other: aqueous and dietary
Test type:
other: calculation
Water / sediment media type:
natural water: freshwater
Details on test conditions:
For further detailed description on the model and its applicability, see "Any other information on materials and methods incl. tables" and attached model background information in "Overall remarks, attachments".
Details on estimation of bioconcentration:
BASIS FOR CALCULATION OF BCF
- Estimation software: BCFBAF v3.01
- Result based on calculated log Pow of: 10.10 (estimated, KOWWIN v.1.68)
Type:
BCF
Value:
0.931 L/kg
Basis:
whole body w.w.
Remarks on result:
other: Arnot-Gobas including biotransformation, upper trophic
Type:
BAF
Value:
0.936 L/kg
Basis:
whole body w.w.
Remarks on result:
other: Arnot-Gobas including biotransformation, upper trophic
Details on results:
For detailed description on the model and its applicability, see "Any other information on materials and methods incl. tables".

BCFBAF Program (v3.01) Results:

==============================

SMILES : O=C(CCCCCCCCCCCCCCC)OCC(O)COC(=O)CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCO=C(O)C(O)(CC(=O)O)CC(=O)O

CHEM  :

MOL FOR: C41 H75 O12

MOL WT : 760.05

--------------------------------- BCFBAF v3.01 --------------------------------

Summary Results:

 Log BCF (regression-based estimate): 0.50 (BCF = 3.16 L/kg wet-wt)

 Biotransformation Half-Life (days) : 0.242 (normalized to 10 g fish)

 Log BAF (Arnot-Gobas upper trophic): -0.03 (BAF = 0.936 L/kg wet-wt)

 

Log Kow (experimental): not available from database

Log Kow used by BCF estimates: 10.10

 

Equation Used to Make BCF estimate:

  Log BCF = 0.50 (Ionic; Log Kow dependent)

 

 

  Estimated Log BCF = 0.500 (BCF = 3.162 L/kg wet-wt)

 

===========================================================

Whole Body Primary Biotransformation Rate Estimate for Fish:

===========================================================

------+-----+--------------------------------------------+---------+---------

 TYPE | NUM | LOG BIOTRANSFORMATION FRAGMENT DESCRIPTION | COEFF | VALUE 

------+-----+--------------------------------------------+---------+---------

 Frag | 1 | Linear C4 terminal chain [CCC-CH3]      | 0.0341 | 0.0341

 Frag | 1 | Aliphatic alcohol [-OH]                 | -0.0616 | -0.0616

 Frag | 2 | Aliphatic acid  [-C(=O)-OH]             | 0.3803 | 0.7606

 Frag | 2 | Ester  [-C(=O)-O-C]                     | -0.7605 | -1.5211

 Frag | 1 | Carbon with 4 single bonds & no hydrogens | -0.2984 | -0.2984

 Frag | 1 | Methyl [-CH3]                           | 0.2451 | 0.2451

 Frag | 33 | -CH2- [linear]                          | 0.0242 | 0.7982

 Frag | 1 | -CH-  [linear]                          | -0.1912 | -0.1912

 L Kow| * | Log Kow = 10.10 (KowWin estimate)       | 0.3073 | 3.1035

 MolWt| * | Molecular Weight Parameter               |        | -1.9490

 Const| * | Equation Constant                        |        | -1.5371

============+============================================+=========+=========

  RESULT  |       LOG Bio Half-Life (days)           |        | -0.6168

  RESULT  |           Bio Half-Life (days)           |        | 0.2417

  NOTE    | Bio Half-Life Normalized to 10 g fish at 15 deg C  |

============+============================================+=========+=========

 

Biotransformation Rate Constant:

 kM (Rate Constant): 2.868 /day (10 gram fish)

 kM (Rate Constant): 1.613 /day (100 gram fish)

 kM (Rate Constant): 0.9071 /day (1 kg fish)

 kM (Rate Constant): 0.5101 /day (10 kg fish)

 

Arnot-Gobas BCF & BAF Methods (including biotransformation rate estimates):

  Estimated Log BCF (upper trophic) = -0.031 (BCF = 0.9314 L/kg wet-wt)

  Estimated Log BAF (upper trophic) = -0.029 (BAF = 0.9363 L/kg wet-wt)

  Estimated Log BCF (mid trophic)  = -0.007 (BCF = 0.9842 L/kg wet-wt)

  Estimated Log BAF (mid trophic)  = 0.124 (BAF = 1.329 L/kg wet-wt)

  Estimated Log BCF (lower trophic) = -0.001 (BCF = 0.9983 L/kg wet-wt)

  Estimated Log BAF (lower trophic) = 0.637 (BAF = 4.335 L/kg wet-wt)

 

Arnot-Gobas BCF & BAF Methods (assuming a biotransformation rate of zero):

  Estimated Log BCF (upper trophic) = 1.831 (BCF = 67.78 L/kg wet-wt)

  Estimated Log BAF (upper trophic) = 5.530 (BAF = 3.389e+005 L/kg wet-wt)

Endpoint:
bioaccumulation in aquatic species: fish
Type of information:
(Q)SAR
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
results derived from a valid (Q)SAR model, but not (completely) falling into its applicability domain, with adequate and reliable documentation / justification
Remarks:
Validated QSAR model. However, the component is outside of the domain of the training set (log Kow of the training set: 0.31-8.70; log Kow of the substance: 29.44). Nevertheless, the value of the prediction will be used for risk assessment purposes, since a) there is currently no universally accepted definition of model domain, and b) since further measurements/testing would not result in additional knowledge for this substance.
Justification for type of information:
QSAR prediction: migrated from IUCLID 5.6
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Calculation based on BCFBAF v3.01, Estimation Programs Interface Suite™ for Microsoft® Windows v 4.11. US EPA, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, USA.
GLP compliance:
no
Test organisms (species):
other: Fish
Route of exposure:
other: aqueous and dietary
Test type:
other: calculation
Water / sediment media type:
natural water: freshwater
Details on test conditions:
For further detailed description on the model and its applicability, see "Any other information on materials and methods incl. tables" and attached model background information in "Overall remarks, attachments".
Details on estimation of bioconcentration:
BASIS FOR CALCULATION OF BCF
- Estimation software: BCFBAF v3.01
- Result based on calculated log Pow of: 29.44 (estimated, KOWWIN v.1.68)
Type:
BCF
Value:
0.893 L/kg
Basis:
whole body w.w.
Remarks on result:
other: Arnot-Gobas including biotransformation, upper trophic
Type:
BAF
Value:
0.893 L/kg
Basis:
whole body w.w.
Remarks on result:
other: Arnot-Gobas including biotransformation, upper trophic
Details on results:
For detailed description on the model and its applicability, see "Any other information on materials and methods incl. tables".

BCFBAF Program (v3.01) Results:

==============================

SMILES : CCCCCC=CCC=CCCCCCCCC(=O)OCC(O)COC(=O)CC(O)(CC(=O)OCC(O)COC(=O)CCCCCCCC=CCC=CCCCCC)C(=O)OCC(O)COC(=O)CCCCCCCC=CCC=CCCCCC

CHEM  :

MOL FOR: C69 H116 O16

MOL WT : 1201.68

--------------------------------- BCFBAF v3.01 --------------------------------

Summary Results:

 Log BCF (regression-based estimate): 0.50 (BCF = 3.16 L/kg wet-wt)

 Biotransformation Half-Life (days) : 0.0344 (normalized to 10 g fish)

 Log BAF (Arnot-Gobas upper trophic): -0.05 (BAF = 0.893 L/kg wet-wt)

 

Log Kow (experimental): not available from database

Log Kow used by BCF estimates: 18.50

 

Equation Used to Make BCF estimate:

  Log BCF = -0.49 log Kow + 7.554 + Correction

 

     Correction(s):                   Value

      No Applicable Correction Factors

      Minimum Log BCF of 0.50 applied when Log Kow > 7

 

  Estimated Log BCF = 0.500 (BCF = 3.162 L/kg wet-wt)

 

===========================================================

Whole Body Primary Biotransformation Rate Estimate for Fish:

===========================================================

------+-----+--------------------------------------------+---------+---------

 TYPE | NUM | LOG BIOTRANSFORMATION FRAGMENT DESCRIPTION | COEFF | VALUE 

------+-----+--------------------------------------------+---------+---------

 Frag | 3 | Linear C4 terminal chain [CCC-CH3]      | 0.0341 | 0.1024

 Frag | 3 | Aliphatic alcohol [-OH]                 | -0.0616 | -0.1847

 Frag | 6 | Ester  [-C(=O)-O-C]                     | -0.7605 | -4.5632

 Frag | 1 | Carbon with 4 single bonds & no hydrogens | -0.2984 | -0.2984

 Frag | 3 | Methyl [-CH3]                           | 0.2451 | 0.7353

 Frag | 44 | -CH2- [linear]                          | 0.0242 | 1.0642

 Frag | 3 | -CH-  [linear]                          | -0.1912 | -0.5737

 Frag | 12 | -C=CH [alkenyl hydrogen]                | 0.0988 | 1.1862

 Frag | 12 | -C=CH [alkenyl hydrogen]                | 0.0000 | 0.0000

 L Kow| * | Log Kow = 18.50 (KowWin estimate)       | 0.3073 | 5.6868

 MolWt| * | Molecular Weight Parameter               |        | -3.0815

 Const| * | Equation Constant                        |        | -1.5371

============+============================================+=========+=========

  RESULT  |       LOG Bio Half-Life (days)           |        | -1.4636

  RESULT  |           Bio Half-Life (days)           |        | 0.03439

  NOTE    | Bio Half-Life Normalized to 10 g fish at 15 deg C  |

============+============================================+=========+=========

 

Biotransformation Rate Constant:

 kM (Rate Constant): 20.16 /day (10 gram fish)

 kM (Rate Constant): 11.34 /day (100 gram fish)

 kM (Rate Constant): 6.375 /day (1 kg fish)

 kM (Rate Constant): 3.585 /day (10 kg fish)

 

Arnot-Gobas BCF & BAF Methods (including biotransformation rate estimates):

  Estimated Log BCF (upper trophic) = -0.049 (BCF = 0.893 L/kg wet-wt)

  Estimated Log BAF (upper trophic) = -0.049 (BAF = 0.893 L/kg wet-wt)

  Estimated Log BCF (mid trophic)  = -0.031 (BCF = 0.9315 L/kg wet-wt)

  Estimated Log BAF (mid trophic)  = -0.031 (BAF = 0.9315 L/kg wet-wt)

  Estimated Log BCF (lower trophic) = -0.027 (BCF = 0.9402 L/kg wet-wt)

  Estimated Log BAF (lower trophic) = -0.027 (BAF = 0.9402 L/kg wet-wt)

 

Arnot-Gobas BCF & BAF Methods (assuming a biotransformation rate of zero):

  Estimated Log BCF (upper trophic) = -0.049 (BCF = 0.893 L/kg wet-wt)

  Estimated Log BAF (upper trophic) = -0.048 (BAF = 0.8944 L/kg wet-wt)

Endpoint:
bioaccumulation in aquatic species: fish
Type of information:
(Q)SAR
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
results derived from a valid (Q)SAR model, but not (completely) falling into its applicability domain, with adequate and reliable documentation / justification
Remarks:
Validated QSAR model. However, the component is outside of the domain of the training set (log Kow of the training set: 0.31-8.70; log Kow of the substance: 36.44). Nevertheless, the value of the prediction will be used for risk assessment purposes, since a) there is currently no universally accepted definition of model domain, and b) since further measurements/testing would not result in additional knowledge for this substance.
Justification for type of information:
QSAR prediction: migrated from IUCLID 5.6
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Calculation based on BCFBAF v3.01, Estimation Programs Interface Suite™ for Microsoft® Windows v 4.11. US EPA, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, USA.
GLP compliance:
no
Test organisms (species):
other: Fish
Route of exposure:
other: aqueous and dietary
Test type:
other: calculation
Water / sediment media type:
natural water: freshwater
Details on test conditions:
For further detailed description on the model and its applicability, see "Any other information on materials and methods incl. tables" and attached model background information in "Overall remarks, attachments".
Details on estimation of bioconcentration:
BASIS FOR CALCULATION OF BCF
- Estimation software: BCFBAF v3.01
- Result based on calculated log Pow of: 36.44 (estimated, KOWWIN v.1.68)
Type:
BCF
Value:
0.893 L/kg
Basis:
whole body w.w.
Remarks on result:
other: Arnot-Gobas including biotransformation, upper trophic
Type:
BAF
Value:
0.893 L/kg
Basis:
whole body w.w.
Remarks on result:
other: Arnot-Gobas including biotransformation, upper trophic
Details on results:
For detailed description on the model and its applicability, see "Any other information on materials and methods incl. tables".

BCFBAF Program (v3.01) Results:

==============================

SMILES : O=C(OCC(O)COC(=O)C(O)(CC(=O)OCC(COC(=O)CCCCCCCC=CCCCCCCCC)OC(=O)CCCCCCCC=CCCCCCCCC)CC(=O)OCC(COC(=O)CCCCCCCC=CCCCCCCCC)OC(=O)CCCCCCCC=CCCCCCCCC)CCCCCCCC=CCCCCCCCC

CHEM  :

MOL FOR: C105 H186 O18

MOL WT : 1736.64

--------------------------------- BCFBAF v3.01 --------------------------------

Summary Results:

 Log BCF (regression-based estimate): 0.50 (BCF = 3.16 L/kg wet-wt)

 Biotransformation Half-Life (days) : 291 (normalized to 10 g fish)

 Log BAF (Arnot-Gobas upper trophic): -0.05 (BAF = 0.893 L/kg wet-wt)

 

Log Kow (experimental): not available from database

Log Kow used by BCF estimates: 36.44

 

Equation Used to Make BCF estimate:

  Log BCF = -0.49 log Kow + 7.554 + Correction

 

     Correction(s):                   Value

      No Applicable Correction Factors

      Minimum Log BCF of 0.50 applied when Log Kow > 7

 

  Estimated Log BCF = 0.500 (BCF = 3.162 L/kg wet-wt)

 

===========================================================

Whole Body Primary Biotransformation Rate Estimate for Fish:

===========================================================

------+-----+--------------------------------------------+---------+---------

 TYPE | NUM | LOG BIOTRANSFORMATION FRAGMENT DESCRIPTION | COEFF | VALUE 

------+-----+--------------------------------------------+---------+---------

 Frag | 5 | Linear C4 terminal chain [CCC-CH3]      | 0.0341 | 0.1706

 Frag | 1 | Aliphatic alcohol [-OH]                 | -0.0616 | -0.0616

 Frag | 8 | Ester  [-C(=O)-O-C]                     | -0.7605 | -6.0842

 Frag | 1 | Carbon with 4 single bonds & no hydrogens | -0.2984 | -0.2984

 Frag | 5 | Methyl [-CH3]                           | 0.2451 | 1.2255

 Frag | 78 | -CH2- [linear]                          | 0.0242 | 1.8866

 Frag | 3 | -CH-  [linear]                          | -0.1912 | -0.5737

 Frag | 10 | -C=CH [alkenyl hydrogen]                | 0.0988 | 0.9885

 Frag | 10 | -C=CH [alkenyl hydrogen]                | 0.0000 | 0.0000

 L Kow| * | Log Kow = 36.44 (KowWin estimate)       | 0.3073 | 11.2009

 MolWt| * | Molecular Weight Parameter               |        | -4.4533

 Const| * | Equation Constant                        |        | -1.5371

============+============================================+=========+=========

  RESULT  |       LOG Bio Half-Life (days)           |        | 2.4638

  RESULT  |           Bio Half-Life (days)           |        |  290.9

  NOTE    | Bio Half-Life Normalized to 10 g fish at 15 deg C  |

============+============================================+=========+=========

 

Biotransformation Rate Constant:

 kM (Rate Constant): 0.002383 /day (10 gram fish)

 kM (Rate Constant): 0.00134 /day (100 gram fish)

 kM (Rate Constant): 0.0007534 /day (1 kg fish)

 kM (Rate Constant): 0.0004237 /day (10 kg fish)

 

Arnot-Gobas BCF & BAF Methods (including biotransformation rate estimates):

  Estimated Log BCF (upper trophic) = -0.049 (BCF = 0.893 L/kg wet-wt)

  Estimated Log BAF (upper trophic) = -0.049 (BAF = 0.893 L/kg wet-wt)

  Estimated Log BCF (mid trophic)  = -0.031 (BCF = 0.9315 L/kg wet-wt)

  Estimated Log BAF (mid trophic)  = -0.031 (BAF = 0.9315 L/kg wet-wt)

  Estimated Log BCF (lower trophic) = -0.027 (BCF = 0.9402 L/kg wet-wt)

  Estimated Log BAF (lower trophic) = -0.027 (BAF = 0.9402 L/kg wet-wt)

 

Arnot-Gobas BCF & BAF Methods (assuming a biotransformation rate of zero):

  Estimated Log BCF (upper trophic) = -0.049 (BCF = 0.893 L/kg wet-wt)

  Estimated Log BAF (upper trophic) = -0.049 (BAF = 0.893 L/kg wet-wt)

Endpoint:
bioaccumulation in aquatic species: fish
Type of information:
(Q)SAR
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
results derived from a valid (Q)SAR model and falling into its applicability domain, with adequate and reliable documentation / justification
Justification for type of information:
QSAR prediction: migrated from IUCLID 5.6
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Calculation based on BCFBAF v3.01, Estimation Programs Interface Suite™ for Microsoft® Windows v 4.11. US EPA, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, USA.
GLP compliance:
no
Test organisms (species):
other: Fish
Route of exposure:
other: aqueous and dietary
Test type:
other: calculation
Water / sediment media type:
natural water: freshwater
Details on test conditions:
For further detailed description on the model and its applicability, see "Any other information on materials and methods incl. tables" and attached model background information in "Overall remarks, attachments".
Details on estimation of bioconcentration:
BASIS FOR CALCULATION OF BCF
- Estimation software: BCFBAF v3.01
- Result based on calculated log Pow of: 5.63 (estimated, KOWWIN v.1.68)
Type:
BCF
Value:
34.81 L/kg
Basis:
whole body w.w.
Remarks on result:
other: Arnot-Gobas including biotransformation, upper trophic
Type:
BAF
Value:
34.81 L/kg
Basis:
whole body w.w.
Remarks on result:
other: Arnot-Gobas including biotransformation, upper trophic
Details on results:
For detailed description on the model and its applicability, see "Any other information on materials and methods incl. tables".

BCFBAF Program (v3.01) Results:

==============================

SMILES : OCC(O)COC(=O)CCCCCCCCCCCCCCC

CHEM  :

MOL FOR: C19 H38 O4

MOL WT : 330.51

--------------------------------- BCFBAF v3.01 --------------------------------

Summary Results:

 Log BCF (regression-based estimate): 2.01 (BCF = 102 L/kg wet-wt)

 Biotransformation Half-Life (days) : 0.0868 (normalized to 10 g fish)

 Log BAF (Arnot-Gobas upper trophic): 1.54 (BAF = 34.8 L/kg wet-wt)

 

Log Kow (experimental): not available from database

Log Kow used by BCF estimates: 5.63

 

Equation Used to Make BCF estimate:

  Log BCF = 0.6598 log Kow - 0.333 + Correction

 

     Correction(s):                   Value

      Alkyl chains (8+ -CH2- groups) -1.374

 

  Estimated Log BCF = 2.010 (BCF = 102.3 L/kg wet-wt)

 

===========================================================

Whole Body Primary Biotransformation Rate Estimate for Fish:

===========================================================

------+-----+--------------------------------------------+---------+---------

 TYPE | NUM | LOG BIOTRANSFORMATION FRAGMENT DESCRIPTION | COEFF | VALUE 

------+-----+--------------------------------------------+---------+---------

 Frag | 1 | Linear C4 terminal chain [CCC-CH3]      | 0.0341 | 0.0341

 Frag | 2 | Aliphatic alcohol [-OH]                 | -0.0616 | -0.1231

 Frag | 1 | Ester  [-C(=O)-O-C]                     | -0.7605 | -0.7605

 Frag | 1 | Methyl [-CH3]                           | 0.2451 | 0.2451

 Frag | 16 | -CH2- [linear]                          | 0.0242 | 0.3870

 Frag | 1 | -CH-  [linear]                          | -0.1912 | -0.1912

 L Kow| * | Log Kow =  5.63 (KowWin estimate)       | 0.3073 | 1.7316

 MolWt| * | Molecular Weight Parameter               |        | -0.8475

 Const| * | Equation Constant                        |        | -1.5371

============+============================================+=========+=========

  RESULT  |       LOG Bio Half-Life (days)           |        | -1.0617

  RESULT  |           Bio Half-Life (days)           |        | 0.08676

  NOTE    | Bio Half-Life Normalized to 10 g fish at 15 deg C  |

============+============================================+=========+=========

 

Biotransformation Rate Constant:

 kM (Rate Constant): 7.99 /day (10 gram fish)

 kM (Rate Constant): 4.493 /day (100 gram fish)

 kM (Rate Constant): 2.527 /day (1 kg fish)

 kM (Rate Constant): 1.421 /day (10 kg fish)

 

Arnot-Gobas BCF & BAF Methods (including biotransformation rate estimates):

  Estimated Log BCF (upper trophic) = 1.542 (BCF = 34.81 L/kg wet-wt)

  Estimated Log BAF (upper trophic) = 1.542 (BAF = 34.81 L/kg wet-wt)

  Estimated Log BCF (mid trophic)  = 1.677 (BCF = 47.5 L/kg wet-wt)

  Estimated Log BAF (mid trophic)  = 1.687 (BAF = 48.67 L/kg wet-wt)

  Estimated Log BCF (lower trophic) = 1.718 (BCF = 52.26 L/kg wet-wt)

  Estimated Log BAF (lower trophic) = 1.852 (BAF = 71.17 L/kg wet-wt)

 

Arnot-Gobas BCF & BAF Methods (assuming a biotransformation rate of zero):

  Estimated Log BCF (upper trophic) = 4.244 (BCF = 1.752e+004 L/kg wet-wt)

  Estimated Log BAF (upper trophic) = 5.985 (BAF = 9.659e+005 L/kg wet-wt)

Endpoint:
bioaccumulation in aquatic species: fish
Type of information:
(Q)SAR
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
results derived from a valid (Q)SAR model, but not (completely) falling into its applicability domain, with adequate and reliable documentation / justification
Remarks:
Validated QSAR model. However, the component is outside of the domain of the training set (log Kow of the training set: 0.31-8.70; log Kow of the substance: 11.80). Nevertheless, the value of the prediction will be used for risk assessment purposes, since a) there is currently no universally accepted definition of model domain, and b) since further measurements/testing would not result in additional knowledge for this substance.
Justification for type of information:
QSAR prediction: migrated from IUCLID 5.6
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Calculation based on BCFBAF v3.01, Estimation Programs Interface Suite™ for Microsoft® Windows v 4.11. US EPA, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, USA.
GLP compliance:
no
Test organisms (species):
other: Fish
Route of exposure:
other: aqueous and dietary
Test type:
other: calculation
Water / sediment media type:
natural water: freshwater
Details on test conditions:
For further detailed description on the model and its applicability, see "Any other information on materials and methods incl. tables" and attached model background information in "Overall remarks, attachments".
Details on estimation of bioconcentration:
BASIS FOR CALCULATION OF BCF
- Estimation software: BCFBAF v3.01
- Result based on calculated log Pow of: 11.80 (estimated, KOWWIN v.1.68)
Type:
BCF
Value:
0.893 L/kg
Basis:
whole body w.w.
Remarks on result:
other: Arnot-Gobas including biotransformation, upper trophic
Type:
BAF
Value:
0.893 L/kg
Basis:
whole body w.w.
Remarks on result:
other: Arnot-Gobas including biotransformation, upper trophic
Details on results:
For detailed description on the model and its applicability, see "Any other information on materials and methods incl. tables".

BCFBAF Program (v3.01) Results:

==============================

SMILES : CCCCCC=CCC=CCCCCCCCC(=O)OCC(O)COC(=O)CC(O)(CC(=O)O)C(=O)OCC(O)COC(=O)CCCCCCCC=CCC=CCCCCC

CHEM  :

MOL FOR: C48 H80 O13

MOL WT : 865.17

--------------------------------- BCFBAF v3.01 --------------------------------

Summary Results:

 Log BCF (regression-based estimate): 0.50 (BCF = 3.16 L/kg wet-wt)

 Biotransformation Half-Life (days) : 0.0303 (normalized to 10 g fish)

 Log BAF (Arnot-Gobas upper trophic): -0.05 (BAF = 0.893 L/kg wet-wt)

 

Log Kow (experimental): not available from database

Log Kow used by BCF estimates: 11.80

 

Equation Used to Make BCF estimate:

  Log BCF = 0.50 (Ionic; Log Kow dependent)

 

 

  Estimated Log BCF = 0.500 (BCF = 3.162 L/kg wet-wt)

 

===========================================================

Whole Body Primary Biotransformation Rate Estimate for Fish:

===========================================================

------+-----+--------------------------------------------+---------+---------

 TYPE | NUM | LOG BIOTRANSFORMATION FRAGMENT DESCRIPTION | COEFF | VALUE 

------+-----+--------------------------------------------+---------+---------

 Frag | 2 | Linear C4 terminal chain [CCC-CH3]      | 0.0341 | 0.0682

 Frag | 2 | Aliphatic alcohol [-OH]                 | -0.0616 | -0.1231

 Frag | 1 | Aliphatic acid  [-C(=O)-OH]             | 0.3803 | 0.3803

 Frag | 4 | Ester  [-C(=O)-O-C]                     | -0.7605 | -3.0421

 Frag | 1 | Carbon with 4 single bonds & no hydrogens | -0.2984 | -0.2984

 Frag | 2 | Methyl [-CH3]                           | 0.2451 | 0.4902

 Frag | 30 | -CH2- [linear]                          | 0.0242 | 0.7256

 Frag | 2 | -CH-  [linear]                          | -0.1912 | -0.3825

 Frag | 8 | -C=CH [alkenyl hydrogen]                | 0.0988 | 0.7908

 Frag | 8 | -C=CH [alkenyl hydrogen]                | 0.0000 | 0.0000

 L Kow| * | Log Kow = 11.80 (KowWin estimate)       | 0.3073 | 3.6281

 MolWt| * | Molecular Weight Parameter               |        | -2.2186

 Const| * | Equation Constant                        |        | -1.5371

============+============================================+=========+=========

  RESULT  |       LOG Bio Half-Life (days)           |        | -1.5185

  RESULT  |           Bio Half-Life (days)           |        | 0.03031

  NOTE    | Bio Half-Life Normalized to 10 g fish at 15 deg C  |

============+============================================+=========+=========

 

Biotransformation Rate Constant:

 kM (Rate Constant): 22.87 /day (10 gram fish)

 kM (Rate Constant): 12.86 /day (100 gram fish)

 kM (Rate Constant): 7.233 /day (1 kg fish)

 kM (Rate Constant): 4.067 /day (10 kg fish)

 

Arnot-Gobas BCF & BAF Methods (including biotransformation rate estimates):

  Estimated Log BCF (upper trophic) = -0.049 (BCF = 0.8931 L/kg wet-wt)

  Estimated Log BAF (upper trophic) = -0.049 (BAF = 0.8931 L/kg wet-wt)

  Estimated Log BCF (mid trophic)  = -0.031 (BCF = 0.9316 L/kg wet-wt)

  Estimated Log BAF (mid trophic)  = -0.031 (BAF = 0.9317 L/kg wet-wt)

  Estimated Log BCF (lower trophic) = -0.027 (BCF = 0.9403 L/kg wet-wt)

  Estimated Log BAF (lower trophic) = -0.025 (BAF = 0.9433 L/kg wet-wt)

 

Arnot-Gobas BCF & BAF Methods (assuming a biotransformation rate of zero):

  Estimated Log BCF (upper trophic) = 0.348 (BCF = 2.226 L/kg wet-wt)

  Estimated Log BAF (upper trophic) = 3.831 (BAF = 6778 L/kg wet-wt)

Endpoint:
bioaccumulation in aquatic species: fish
Type of information:
(Q)SAR
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
results derived from a valid (Q)SAR model, but not (completely) falling into its applicability domain, with adequate and reliable documentation / justification
Remarks:
Validated QSAR model. However, the component is outside of the domain of the training set (log Kow of the training set: 0.31-8.70; log Kow of the substance: 18.50). Nevertheless, the value of the prediction will be used for risk assessment purposes, since a) there is currently no universally accepted definition of model domain, and b) since further measurements/testing would not result in additional knowledge for this substance.
Justification for type of information:
QSAR prediction: migrated from IUCLID 5.6
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Calculation based on BCFBAF v3.01, Estimation Programs Interface Suite™ for Microsoft® Windows v 4.11. US EPA, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, USA.
GLP compliance:
no
Test organisms (species):
other: Fish
Route of exposure:
other: aqueous and dietary
Test type:
other: calculation
Water / sediment media type:
natural water: freshwater
Details on test conditions:
For further detailed description on the model and its applicability, see "Any other information on materials and methods incl. tables" and attached model background information in "Overall remarks, attachments".
Details on estimation of bioconcentration:
BASIS FOR CALCULATION OF BCF
- Estimation software: BCFBAF v3.01
- Result based on calculated log Pow of: 18.50 (estimated, KOWWIN v.1.68)
Type:
BCF
Value:
0.893 L/kg
Basis:
whole body w.w.
Remarks on result:
other: Arnot-Gobas including biotransformation, upper trophic
Type:
BAF
Value:
0.893 L/kg
Basis:
whole body w.w.
Remarks on result:
other: Arnot-Gobas including biotransformation, upper trophic
Details on results:
For detailed description on the model and its applicability, see "Any other information on materials and methods incl. tables".

BCFBAF Program (v3.01) Results:

==============================

SMILES : CCCCCC=CCC=CCCCCCCCC(=O)OCC(O)COC(=O)CC(O)(CC(=O)OCC(O)COC(=O)CCCCCCCC=CCC=CCCCCC)C(=O)OCC(O)COC(=O)CCCCCCCC=CCC=CCCCCC

CHEM  :

MOL FOR: C69 H116 O16

MOL WT : 1201.68

--------------------------------- BCFBAF v3.01 --------------------------------

Summary Results:

 Log BCF (regression-based estimate): 0.50 (BCF = 3.16 L/kg wet-wt)

 Biotransformation Half-Life (days) : 0.0344 (normalized to 10 g fish)

 Log BAF (Arnot-Gobas upper trophic): -0.05 (BAF = 0.893 L/kg wet-wt)

 

Log Kow (experimental): not available from database

Log Kow used by BCF estimates: 18.50

 

Equation Used to Make BCF estimate:

  Log BCF = -0.49 log Kow + 7.554 + Correction

 

     Correction(s):                   Value

      No Applicable Correction Factors

      Minimum Log BCF of 0.50 applied when Log Kow > 7

 

  Estimated Log BCF = 0.500 (BCF = 3.162 L/kg wet-wt)

 

===========================================================

Whole Body Primary Biotransformation Rate Estimate for Fish:

===========================================================

------+-----+--------------------------------------------+---------+---------

 TYPE | NUM | LOG BIOTRANSFORMATION FRAGMENT DESCRIPTION | COEFF | VALUE 

------+-----+--------------------------------------------+---------+---------

 Frag | 3 | Linear C4 terminal chain [CCC-CH3]      | 0.0341 | 0.1024

 Frag | 3 | Aliphatic alcohol [-OH]                 | -0.0616 | -0.1847

 Frag | 6 | Ester  [-C(=O)-O-C]                     | -0.7605 | -4.5632

 Frag | 1 | Carbon with 4 single bonds & no hydrogens | -0.2984 | -0.2984

 Frag | 3 | Methyl [-CH3]                           | 0.2451 | 0.7353

 Frag | 44 | -CH2- [linear]                          | 0.0242 | 1.0642

 Frag | 3 | -CH-  [linear]                          | -0.1912 | -0.5737

 Frag | 12 | -C=CH [alkenyl hydrogen]                | 0.0988 | 1.1862

 Frag | 12 | -C=CH [alkenyl hydrogen]                | 0.0000 | 0.0000

 L Kow| * | Log Kow = 18.50 (KowWin estimate)       | 0.3073 | 5.6868

 MolWt| * | Molecular Weight Parameter               |        | -3.0815

 Const| * | Equation Constant                        |        | -1.5371

============+============================================+=========+=========

  RESULT  |       LOG Bio Half-Life (days)           |        | -1.4636

  RESULT  |           Bio Half-Life (days)           |        | 0.03439

  NOTE    | Bio Half-Life Normalized to 10 g fish at 15 deg C  |

============+============================================+=========+=========

 

Biotransformation Rate Constant:

 kM (Rate Constant): 20.16 /day (10 gram fish)

 kM (Rate Constant): 11.34 /day (100 gram fish)

 kM (Rate Constant): 6.375 /day (1 kg fish)

 kM (Rate Constant): 3.585 /day (10 kg fish)

 

Arnot-Gobas BCF & BAF Methods (including biotransformation rate estimates):

  Estimated Log BCF (upper trophic) = -0.049 (BCF = 0.893 L/kg wet-wt)

  Estimated Log BAF (upper trophic) = -0.049 (BAF = 0.893 L/kg wet-wt)

  Estimated Log BCF (mid trophic)  = -0.031 (BCF = 0.9315 L/kg wet-wt)

  Estimated Log BAF (mid trophic)  = -0.031 (BAF = 0.9315 L/kg wet-wt)

  Estimated Log BCF (lower trophic) = -0.027 (BCF = 0.9402 L/kg wet-wt)

  Estimated Log BAF (lower trophic) = -0.027 (BAF = 0.9402 L/kg wet-wt)

 

Arnot-Gobas BCF & BAF Methods (assuming a biotransformation rate of zero):

  Estimated Log BCF (upper trophic) = -0.049 (BCF = 0.893 L/kg wet-wt)

  Estimated Log BAF (upper trophic) = -0.048 (BAF = 0.8944 L/kg wet-wt)

Description of key information

Experimental bioaccumulation data are not available for Glycerides, C16-18 and C18-unsatd. mono- and di-, citrates (CAS 91052-16-3). The high log Kow (5.36 - 36.44), as an intrinsic chemical property of the substance, indicates a potential for bioaccumulation. However, the information gathered on environmental behaviour and metabolism, in combination with QSAR-estimated values, provide enough evidence (in accordance to the Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006, Annex XI General rules for adaptation of the standard testing regime set out in Annexes VII to X, 1.2), to cover the data requirements of Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006, Annex IX and to state that the substance is likely to show negligible bioaccumulation potential.

Environmental behaviour

Due to ready biodegradability and high potential of adsorption, the substance can be effectively removed in conventional sewage treatment plants (STPs) by biodegradation and by sorption to biomass. The low water solubility (1.86E-37 to 1.2721 mg/L based on QSAR) and high estimated log Kow indicate that the substance is highly lipophilic. If released into the aquatic environment, the substance undergoes extensive biodegradation and sorption to organic matter. Thus, the bioavailability in the water column is reduced rapidly. The relevant route of uptake of the substance in aquatic organisms is considered predominantly by ingestion of particle bound substance.

Metabolism of aliphatic esters

Should the substance be taken up by fish during the process of digestion and absorption in the intestinal tissue it will be metabolised. Aliphatic esters are expected to be initially metabolized via enzymatic hydrolysis to the corresponding free fatty acids and the free fatty alcohols. The hydrolysis is catalyzed by classes of enzymes known as carboxylesterases or esterases (Heymann, 1980). The most important of these are the B-esterases in the hepatocytes of mammals (Heymann, 1980; Anders, 1989). Carboxylesterase activity has been noted in a wide variety of tissues in invertebrates as well as in fish (Leinweber, 1987; Soldano et al., 1992; Barron et al., 1999, Wheelock et al., 2008). The catalytic activity of this enzyme family leads to a rapid biotransformation/metabolism of xenobiotics which reduces the bioaccumulation or bioconcentration potential (Lech & Bend, 1980). It is known for esters that they are readily susceptible to metabolism in fish (Barron et al., 1999) and literature data have clearly shown that esters do not readily bioaccumulate in fish (Rodger & Stalling, 1972; Murphy & Lutenske, 1990; Barron et al., 1990). In fish species, this might be caused by the wide distribution of carboxylesterase, high tissue content, rapid substrate turnover and limited substrate specificity (Lech & Melancon, 1980; Heymann, 1980). Following hydrolysis free glycerol, free fatty acids, citric acid and (in the case of di- and triglycerides) 2-monoacylglycerols will be the result of enzymatic hydrolysis. Please also refer to the toxicokinetic statement in IUCLID section 7.1. The metabolism of the enzymatic hydrolysis products is presented in the following chapter.

 

Metabolism of enzymatic hydrolysis products

Glycerol

Glycerides, especially triglycerides, are the predominant lipid class in the diet of both marine and freshwater fish. Glycerol is naturally present in animal and vegetable fats, rarely found in free state (mostly combined with fatty acids forming triglycerides) (e.d. Knothe, van Gerpen and Krahl, 2005). If freely available in aquatic organisms, it will not bioaccumulate in view of its log Pow value of -1.76 (OECD SIDS, 2002). Moreover, Glycerol can be metabolised to dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, which can then be incorporated in the standard metabolic pathways of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis.

Especially in periods in which the energy demand is high (reproduction, migration, etc.), glycerides are mobilized from the storage sites as source of fatty acids. Fatty acid catabolism is the most important energy source in many species of fish, resulting in the release of acetyl CoA and NADH (through β-oxidation) and eventually, via the tricarboxylic cycle, the production of metabolic energy in the form of ATP. This fatty acid-catabolism pathway is the predominant source of energy related to growth, reproduction and development from egg to adult fish. A similar metabolic pathway is observed in mammals (see IUCLID section 7.1 Basic toxicokinetics).

Fatty acids

The metabolism of fatty acids in mammals is well known and has been investigated intensively in the past (Stryer, 1994). The free fatty acids can either be stored as triglycerides or oxidized via mitochondrial ß-oxidation removing C2-units to provide energy in the form of ATP (Masoro, 1977). Acetyl-CoA, the product of the ß-oxidation, can further be oxidized in the tricarboxylic acid cycle to produce energy in the form of ATP. As fatty acids are naturally stored as trigylcerides in fat tissue and re-mobilized for energy production it can be concluded that even if they bioaccumulate, bioaccumulation will not pose a risk to living organisms. Fatty acids (typically C14 to C24 chain lengths) are also a major component of biological membranes as part of the phospholipid bilayer and therefore part of an essential biological component for the integrity of cells in every living organism (Stryer, 1994). Saturated fatty acids (SFA; C12 - C24) as well as mono-unsaturated (MUFA; C14 - C24) and poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA; C18 - C22) were naturally found in muscle tissue of the rainbow trout (Danabas, 2011) and in the liver (SFA: C14 - C20; MUFA: C16 - C20; PUFA: C18 - C22) of the rainbow trout (Dernekbasi, 2012).

Citric acid is not expected to be bioaccumulative based on the low log Pow (-1.64, KOWWIN v1.68, experimental database).

Data from QSAR calculation

Additional information on bioaccumulation can be taken from BCF/BAF calculations using BCFBAF v3.01. When including biotransformation, BCF and BAF values of 0.893 - 34.81 L/kg were obtained (Arnot-Gobas estimate, including biotransformation, upper trophic). It has to be taken into account that only one component of the UVCB substance is within the applicability domain of the model resulting in a BCF/BAF value of 34.81 L/kg. However, even though the other components of the substance are outside of the applicability domain of the model the (Q)SAR calculations can be used as supporting indication that the potential of bioaccumulation is low. These results support the tendency that substances with high log Kow values have a lower potential for bioconcentration as summarized in the ECHA Guidance R.11 and they are not expected to meet the B/vB criterion (ECHA, 2014).

Conclusion

The biochemical process metabolizing aliphatic esters is ubiquitous in the animal kingdom. Based on the enzymatic hydrolysis of aliphatic esters and the subsequent metabolism of the corresponding carboxylic acid and alcohol, it can be concluded that the high log Pow, which indicates a potential for bioaccumulation, overestimates the true bioaccumulation potential of Glycerides, C16-18 and C18-unsatd. mono- and di-, citrates since it does not reflect the metabolism of substances in living organisms. BCF/BAF values estimated with the BCFBAF v3.01 program also indicate that Glycerides, C16-18 and C18-unsatd. mono- and di-, citrates will not be bioaccumulative (all well below 2000 L/kg). Taking all these information into account, it can be concluded that the bioaccumulation potential of Glycerides, C16-18 and C18-unsatd. mono- and di-, citrates is low.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information