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Toxicological information

Repeated dose toxicity: oral

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
short-term repeated dose toxicity: oral
Type of information:
migrated information: read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
2 April 2012 to 25 June 2012 (end of in-life phase)
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: GLP study with no significant deficiencies
Cross-reference
Reason / purpose:
reference to other study

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
study report
Title:
Unnamed
Year:
2013
Report Date:
2013

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 422 (Combined Repeated Dose Toxicity Study with the Reproduction / Developmental Toxicity Screening Test)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. certificate)
Limit test:
no

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Test material form:
liquid: viscous
Details on test material:
UVCB substance
Description: Brown highly viscous liquid
Batch: 966018

Test animals

Species:
rat
Strain:
Wistar
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
Source F0: Charles River Deutschland, Sulzfeld, Germany.
Age at start F0-treatment: Approximately 11 weeks.
Number of F0-animals: 40 females and 40 males.
Acclimatization F0: At least 5 days prior to start of treatment.
Health inspection F0: Upon receipt of the animals.
Identification F0: Earmark and tattoo.

Environmental controls for the animal room were set to maintain 18 to 24°C, a relative humidity of 40 to 70%, approximately 15 room air changes/hour, and a 12-hour light/12-hour dark cycle. Any variations to these conditions were maintained in the raw data and had no effect on the outcome of the study.

Administration / exposure

Route of administration:
oral: gavage
Vehicle:
propylene glycol
Details on oral exposure:
Method: Oral gavage, using a plastic feeding tube. Formulations were placed on a magnetic stirrer during dosing.
Dose volume: 5 mL/kg body weight. Actual dose volumes were calculated according to the latest body weight.
Frequency: Once daily for 7 days per week, approximately the same time each day with a maximum of 6 hours difference between the earliest and latest dose. Animals were dosed up to the day prior to scheduled necropsy.
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
yes
Details on analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
Analyses were conducted according to a validated method (Project 498817). These analyses were conducted after the in-life phase as no suitable analytical method was available at an earlier stage. Samples of formulations were analyzed for homogeneity (highest and lowest concentration) and accuracy of preparation (all concentrations). Stability in vehicle over 6 hours at room temperature was also determined (highest and lowest concentration).

The accuracy of preparation was considered acceptable if the mean measured concentrations were 85-115% of the target concentration. Homogeneity was demonstrated if the coefficient of variation was ≤ 10%. Formulations were considered stable if the relative difference before and after storage was maximally 10%.
Duration of treatment / exposure:
Males were exposed for 31 days, i.e. 2 weeks prior to mating, during mating, and up to the day prior to scheduled necropsy. Females were exposed for 41-52 days, i.e. during 2 weeks prior to mating, during mating, during post-coitum, and during at least 4 days of lactation (up to the day prior to scheduled necropsy). Female nos. 44 (Group 1), 65, (Group 3) and 77 (Group 4) were not dosed during littering.
Frequency of treatment:
Once daily
Doses / concentrations
Remarks:
Doses / Concentrations:
Oral gavage in propylene glycol
Basis:
actual ingested
No. of animals per sex per dose:
10
Details on study design:

After acclimatization, four groups of ten male and ten female Wistar Han rats were exposed by oral gavage to the test substance at 0, 80, 250 and 750 mg/kg/day. Males were exposed for 31 days, i.e. 2 weeks prior to mating, during mating, and up to termination. Females were exposed for 41-52 days, i.e. during 2 weeks prior to mating, during mating, during post-coitum, and during at least 4 days of lactation.

Positive control:
No

Examinations

Observations and examinations performed and frequency:
The following observations and examinations were evaluated: mortality / viability, clinical signs (daily), functional observations and locomotor activity (Week 4 (males); end of lactation (females)), body weight and food consumption (at least at weekly intervals), clinical pathology (Week 4 (males); end of lactation (females)), macroscopy at termination, organ weights and histopathology on a selection of tissues, and reproduction/developmental parameters, consisting of mating, fertility and conception indices, precoital time, number of corpora lutea and implantation sites, gestation index and duration, parturition, maternal care, sex ratio and early postnatal pup development (mortality, clinical signs, body weights and macroscopy). Formulations were analyzed once during the study to assess accuracy, homogeneity and stability.
Sacrifice and pathology:
All males and the selected 5 females/group (see Allocation) were deprived of food overnight (with a maximum of approximately 24.5 hours) prior to planned necropsy, but water was provided. Non-selected females were not deprived of food.
Animals surviving to scheduled necropsy and all moribund animals were deeply anaesthetized using isoflurane (Abbott B.V., Hoofddorp, The Netherlands) and subsequently exsanguinated.

All animals were subjected to macroscopic examination of the cranial, thoracic and abdominal tissues and organs, with special attention being paid to the reproductive organs. Descriptions of all macroscopic abnormalities were recorded.

Results and discussion

Results of examinations

Clinical signs:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
At 893 mg/kg, four males were sacrificed in extremis during the first week of treatment, and one female was sacrificed in extremis on Day 23 of the post-coitum phase. At 250 mg/kg, one female was sacrificed in extremis on Day 27 of the post-coitum phase. This single death at 298 mg/kg was considered to be related to treatment considering the mortality incidence at 893 mg/kg.
Mortality:
mortality observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence):
At 893 mg/kg, four males were sacrificed in extremis during the first week of treatment, and one female was sacrificed in extremis on Day 23 of the post-coitum phase. At 250 mg/kg, one female was sacrificed in extremis on Day 27 of the post-coitum phase. This single death at 298 mg/kg was considered to be related to treatment considering the mortality incidence at 893 mg/kg.
Body weight and weight changes:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
At 893 mg/kg, males showed lower mean body weights and body weight gain throughout the mating period. At 95 mg/kg, body weight and body weight gain was similar to control animals.
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Animals sacrificed in extremis showed weight loss, and food intake was reduced among these sacrificed animals. Food intake of surviving animals was similar to control levels.
Food efficiency:
not examined
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
not examined
Ophthalmological findings:
not examined
Haematological findings:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
At 893 mg/kg, males showed a statistically significant higher mean white blood cell count (due to high counts for animal nos. 36 and 37). Other differences were considered to be of no toxicological relevance.
Clinical biochemistry findings:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Changes in clinical biochemistry were higher ALT activity, higher AST activity, higher APT activity at 893 mg/kg, higher albumin and bilirubin level (females), and higher urea levels (males). At 298 mg/kg, changes were higher ALP and lower cholesterol.
Urinalysis findings:
not examined
Behaviour (functional findings):
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
No behaviour or locomotor effects. See attached data table.
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Effects at 893 mg/kg in males in heart and thymus. Effects in females at 893 mg/kg in thymus.
Gross pathological findings:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
Scattered effects but not apparent dose trend. See attached data tables.
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Effects at 893 mg/kg/day. See details section.
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
no effects observed
Details on results:

Histopathology Findings: Treatment-related microscopic findings in surviving animals at 893 mg/kg (correlating to necropsy findings) were noted in the gastro-intestinal tract, and included hyperkeratosis of the forestomach epithelium, mucosal hyperplasia and increased severity of lymphogranulocytic inflammation in the caecum and increased amounts of mucus in the large intestines. Other microscopic findings at this dose included lymphoid atrophy of the thymus, decreased severity of hemopoietic foci in the spleen, increased severity of alveolar foamy macrophages in the lungs and scattered hepatocellular vacuolation in the liver. Reduced contents in the prostate gland, seminal vesicles and preputial gland among some males at 893 mg/kg were considered to have occurred secondary to lower body weights. Microscopic findings observed in early sacrifices were generally similar in nature and severity as those recorded for surviving animals. The female at 893 mg/kg additionally showed mucosal hyperplasia of the small intestines, reduced red pulpa of the spleen and cortical necrosis in the adrenals.

Effect levels

Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
> 95 - < 298 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: At 298 mg/kg, changes in clinical biochemistry were confined to a higher alkaline phosphatase activity in females, and lower cholesterol level in males.

Target system / organ toxicity

Critical effects observed:
not specified

Any other information on results incl. tables

 Analysis of dose preparations

The concentrations analysed in the formulations of Group 2 (95mg/kg), Group 3 (298mg/kg) and Group 4 (893mg/kg) were in agreement with target concentrations (i.e. mean accuracies between 85% and 115%). 

No test substance was detected in the Group 1 (control) formulation. 

The formulations of Group 2 and Group 4 were homogeneous (i.e. coefficient of variation≤ 10%). 

Formulations at the entire range were stable when stored at room temperature under normal laboratory light conditions for at least 6 hours.

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
In conclusion, treatment with di C8-C10, branched, C9 rich, alkylnaphthalene sulphonic acid (DNNSA) by oral gavage in male and female Wistar Han rats at dose levels of 95, 298 and 893 mg/kg body weight/day revealed parental toxicity at298 and 893 mg/kg body weight/day. Based on these results, the No Observed Adverse Effect Levels (NOAEL) for repeat dose exposure to adult parental animals was 95 mg/kg/day.
Executive summary:

A Combined 28-day repeated dose toxicity study with the reproduction/developmental toxicity screening test ofdi C8-C10, branched, C9 rich, alkylnaphthalene sulphonic acid (DNNSA) was conducted in rats by oral gavage (OECD 422).

 

Based on the results of a 10-day dose range finding study, the dose levels for this combined 28-day oral gavage study with reproduction/developmental toxicity screening test were selected to be 95, 298 and 893 mg/kg.

 

Study outline

After acclimatization, four groups of ten male and ten female Wistar Han rats were exposed by oral gavage to the test substance at 0, 95, 298, and 893 mg/kg/day. Males were exposed for 31 days, i.e. 2 weeks prior to mating, during mating, and up to termination. Females were exposed for 41-52 days, i.e. during 2 weeks prior to mating, during mating, duringpost-coitum, and during at least 4 days of lactation.

 

Evaluated parameters

The following observations and examinations were evaluated: mortality / viability, clinical signs (daily), functional observations and locomotor activity (Week 4 (males); end of lactation (females)),  body weight and food consumption (at least at weekly intervals), clinical pathology (Week 4 (males); end of lactation (females)), macroscopy at termination, organ weights and histopathology on a selection of tissues, and reproduction/developmental parameters, consisting of mating, fertility and conception indices, precoital time, number of corpora lutea and implantation sites, gestation index and duration, parturition, maternal care, sex ratio and early postnatal pup development (mortality, clinical signs, body weights and macroscopy).Formulations were analyzed once during the study to assess accuracy, homogeneity and stability.

Results/discussion

Accuracy, homogeneity and stability of formulations were demonstrated by analyses.

 

At 893 mg/kg, four males were sacrificed in extremis during the first week of treatment, and one female was sacrificed in extremis on Day 23 of the post-coitum phase. At 298 mg/kg, one female was sacrificed in extremis on Day 27 of the post-coitum phase. This single death at 298 mg/kg was considered to be related to treatment considering the mortality incidence at 893 mg/kg.

 

Animals sacrificed in extremis showed clinical signs including lethargy, hunched posture, piloerection, diarrhoea and/or a lean appearance. All these animals showed weight loss, and food intake was reduced among these sacrificed animals. Food intake of surviving animals was similar to control levels. Some of these clinical signs noted for sacrificed animals were also noted among surviving animals at 298 and 893 mg/kg, albeit at much lower incidence.

 

At 893 mg/kg, surviving males showed a lower mean body weight (gain) throughout the mating period, with occasional weight loss among two surviving animals towards the end of their scheduled treatment period. Changes in clinical biochemistry parameters consisted of higher alanine aminotransferase activity in males and females, higher aspartate aminotransferase activity in males, higher alkaline phosphataseactivity in males and females at 893 mg/kg, higher albumin and total bilirubin level in females, higher urea level in males, lower cholesterol level in males and females, and higher calcium level in females.

 

At 298 mg/kg, changes in clinical biochemistry were confined to a higher alkaline phosphatase activity in females, and lower cholesterol level in males.

 

Treatment-related microscopic findings in surviving animals at 893 mg/kg (correlating to necropsy findings) were noted in the gastro-intestinal tract, and included hyperkeratosis of the forestomach epithelium, mucosal hyperplasia and increased severity of lymphogranulocytic inflammation in the caecum and increased amounts of mucus in the large intestines. Other microscopic findings at this dose included lymphoid atrophy of the thymus, decreased severity of hemopoietic foci in the spleen, increased severity of alveolar foamy macrophages in the lungs and scattered hepatocellular vacuolation in the liver. Reduced contents in the prostate gland, seminal vesicles and preputial gland among some males at 893 mg/kg were considered to have occurred secondary to lower body weights. Microscopic findings observed in early sacrifices were generally similar in nature and severity as those recorded for surviving animals. The female at 893 mg/kg additionally showed mucosal hyperplasia of the small intestines, reduced red pulpa of the spleen and cortical necrosis in the adrenals.

 

The increased severity of myeloid hyperplasia with increased granulopoiesis in the sternal bone marrow at 893 mg/kg (all sacrificed males and one surviving male) was in line with the higher neutrophil count (and resulting higher white blood cell count) for males at this dose level.

 

At 95 mg/kg, no toxicologically relevant effects were noted in any of the parameters examined.

 

In conclusion, treatment with di C8-C10, branched, C9 rich, alkylnaphthalene sulphonic acid (DNNSA) by oral gavage in male and female Wistar Han rats at dose levels of 95, 298, and 893 mg/kg body weight/day revealed parental toxicity at 298 and 893 mg/kg body weight/day. Based on these results, the No Observed Adverse Effect Levels (NOAEL) for repeat dose exposure to adult parental animals was 95 mg/kg/day.