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Environmental fate & pathways

Biodegradation in water: screening tests

Administrative data

Endpoint:
biodegradation in water: ready biodegradability
Type of information:
migrated information: read-across based on grouping of substances (category approach)
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: see 'Remark'
Remarks:
Lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus) oil is a Natural Complex Substance (NCS). With 97.2 % of the constituents of Lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus) oil known, this NCS can be considered as a well defined NCS. The main constituent is citral. The remaining constituents are monoterpenes and terpenoid alcohols, aldehydes and their esters, as well as cyclic monoterpenes and alcohols. If the constituents of the NCS are readily biodegradable, the NCS itself is readily biodegradable as well.

Data source

Referenceopen allclose all

Reference Type:
other: data from several RIFM member companies
Title:
Unnamed
Year:
2010
Reference Type:
other: MITI database
Title:
Unnamed
Year:
2010
Reference Type:
other: estimation method
Title:
BIOWIN v4.10
Author:
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Year:
2008
Bibliographic source:
US EPA. [2008]. Estimation Programs Interface Suite™ for Microsoft® Windows, v 4.00. United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, USA
Reference Type:
other: Estimation program
Title:
EAWAG Biocatalysis/Biodegradation Database
Author:
EAWAG-BBD
Year:
2014
Bibliographic source:
http://eawag-bbd.ethz.ch/predict/
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Aerobic biodegradation of selected monoterpenes
Author:
Misra, G.; Pavlostathis, S.G.; Perdue, E.M.; Araujo, R.
Year:
1996
Bibliographic source:
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology (1996), 45(6), 831-838
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Persistency assessment and aerobic biodegradation of selected cyclic sesquiterpenes present in essential oils
Author:
Jenner KJ, Kreutzer G, Racine P
Year:
2011
Bibliographic source:
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Vol. 30, No. 5, pp. 1096–1108, 2011
Reference Type:
secondary source
Title:
Unnamed
Year:
2007
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
The application of inorganic carbon measurements to the study of aerobic biodegradability
Author:
Birch & Fletcher
Year:
1991
Bibliographic source:
Chemosphere 23(4): 507-524
Reference Type:
other: ECHA database
Title:
Unnamed
Year:
2014

Materials and methods

Principles of method if other than guideline:
Assessment of the Ready biodegradability of the known constituents; In the constituent approach (See Statement NCS protocol) for this purpose the NCS is considered as a mixture. For classification and labelling of the NCS, a summation approach is applied as described for mixtures in CLP (i.e. aquatic chronic classification if the sum of the percentages of constituents that are not rapidly degraded is ≥ 25%). From there it may be concluded, vice versa, that if ≥ 75% of sum of the percentage of the constituents is readily biodegradable, the NCS as a whole may be classified as readily biodegradable.
GLP compliance:
no

Test material

Constituent 1
Reference substance name:
Cymbopogon flexuosus, ext.
IUPAC Name:
Cymbopogon flexuosus, ext.
Constituent 2
Reference substance name:
Lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus) oil
IUPAC Name:
Lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus) oil

Results and discussion

Details on results:
Details for all constituents are summarised in window "Any other information on results" and in attached document

Any other information on results incl. tables

Assessment of the biodegradability of Lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus) oil:

A total of 93.9% of the typical composition is considered to be readily biodegradable. The remaining constituents are also biodegradable within a relatively short time. Thus the Natural Complex substance is considered to be a readily biodegradable substance, see underlying data in table below.

Constituent

Results of biodegradation assessment

Citral (Neral + Geranial)

CAS# 5392-40-5

READILY BIODEGRADABLE:

- Modified 301B

- MITI (I) / OECD 301C

Direct analysis

Geranial

CAS# 96680 -15-8

READILY BIODEGRADABLE:

(isomer of Citral)

Citral is READILY BIODEGRADABLE:

- Modified 301B

- MITI (I) / OECD 301C

- Direct analysis

Nerol

CAS# 106-25-2

READILY BIODEGRADABLE:

- OECD 301F

- OECD 301B

Citronellol

CAS# 106-22-9

C10H20O

READILY BIODEGRADABLE:

- OECD 301C
- DOC (Method F from Blue book series 1991)

Citronellal

CAS#106-23-0

READILY BIODEGRADABLE:

- OECD 301F

Citronellyl acetate

CAS# 150-84-5

Expected to be READILY BIODEGRADABLE

 

Acetylated myrcene

(CAS 68412-04-4)

Analogue to support ready biodegradability of Citronellyl acetate
READILY BIODEGRADABLE:
-OECD 301B

Geraniol

CAS# 106-24-1

C10H18O

READILY BIODEGRADABLE:

- Modified OECD 301B

- OECD 301F

- OECD 301F

- OECD 301F

- OECD 301F

- OECD 301D 

http://esis.jrc.ec.europa.eu/doc/IUCLID /data_sheets/106241.pdf

Geranyl acetate

CAS# 105-87-3

READILY BIODEGRABLE:

- OECD 301D

- OECD 301D

- Modified OECD 301B

- OECD 301F

Nonanone

CAS# 4485-09-0

C9H18O

Expected to be READILY BIODEGRADABLE

 

 

Isogeranial

CAS#72203-98-6

Expected to be READILY BIODEGRADABLE

Linalool

CAS# 78-70-6

C10H18O

 

READILY BIODEGRADABLE:

- OECD 301C

- OECD Modified 301B

- MITI (I) / OECD 301C

Direct analysis: TOC & GC

Methyl Heptenone

CAS# 110-93-0

READILY BIODEGRADABLE:
- OECD 301F

 

b-Myrcene

CAS#123-35-3

READILY BIODEGRADABLE:
- OECD 310
- MITI (I) / OECD 301C

Direct analysis: TOC & GC

Ocimene (cis & trans)

CAS# 3338-55-4

Expected to be READILY BIODEGRADABLE:

 

Limonene (D and L)

CAS# 138-86-3

READILY BIODEGRADABLE:
- Headspace CO2

- MITI (I) / OECD 301C
Direct analysis: TOC & GC

Terpinolene

CAS# 586-62-9

READILY BIODEGRADABLE:
- OECD 301B

- OECD 301F
- OECD 302C

Terpineol (alpha&beta&gamma)

CAS# 8000-41-7

READILY BIODEGRADABLE:

- OECD 310

Eugenol

CAS#97-53-0

READILY BIODEGRADABLE:

EU-C.4-E

OECD 301B

OECD 301F

d-Cadinene

CAS# 483-76-1

C15H24

Biodegradable in prolonged test but

Not readily biodegradable

d-Cadinene:

OECD 301F

a-Pinene

CAS#80-56-8

READILY BIODEGRADABLE:

- OECD301B
- MITI (I) / OECD 301C

Camphene

CAS# 79-92-5

Inherently biodegradable

- OECD 302C

Borneol

CAS# 507-70-0

READILY BIODEGGRADABLE

- OECD 301F
- OECD 301F

b-Caryophyllene

CAS#87-44-5

C15H24

READILY BIODEGRADABLE:

- OECD 301F

b-Caryophyllene oxide CAS# 1139-30-6

C15H24O

Expected to be READILY BIODEGRADABLE

 

Bergamottene

CAS# 6895-56-3

C15H24

Expected to be INHERENTLY BIODEGRADABLE

Total 97.2%

 

The complete assessment document is added attached to this study record.

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Interpretation of results:
readily biodegradable
Conclusions:
Lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus) oil is considered as readily biodegradable.
Executive summary:

Lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus) oil is a Natural Complex Substance (NCS) for which 97.2% of the constituents is identified. The constituents are mainly citral, monoterpenes and terpenoid alcohols, aldehydes and their esters, as well as cyclic monoterpenes and alcohols. As no valid empirical results from a test for the ready biodegradation of this NCS are available, the assessment is based on its constituents (maximum in composition at or above 0.1%). The assumption is that if the constituents of the NCS are readily biodegradable, the NCS itself is readily biodegradable as well.

Three out of the 24 identified constituents, comprising 3.31% of the typical composition, are not readily biodegradable, but they are inherently and/or primary biodegradable within a relatively short time. The remaining 21 constituents, representing 93.9% of the typical composition, are considered to be readily biodegradable. Therefore, Lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus) oil is considered to be readily biodegradable

 

 

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