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Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Reference
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
data from handbook or collection of data
Justification for type of information:
Data is from database of Japan Ministry of the Environment
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test)
GLP compliance:
not specified
Specific details on test material used for the study:
- Name of test material: 2,2,2-Trichloroethane-1,1-diol (Chloral hydrate)
- Molecular formula: C2-H3-Cl3-O2
- Molecular weight: 165.4026g/mol
- Smiles notation: C(C(O)O)(Cl)(Cl)Cl
- InChl: RNFNDJAIBTYOQL-UHFFFAOYSA-N
- Substance type: Organic
- Physical state: Solid
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Vehicle:
no
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Water flea
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Hardness:
No data
Test temperature:
20± 1 deg.C
pH:
No data
Dissolved oxygen:
No data
Salinity:
No data
Nominal and measured concentrations:
100 mg/l
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- No. of organisms per vessel: 5 Daphnia magna in each container
OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: Room light, 16-h light / 8 hours dark (bright; AM6: 00 ~ PMIO: 00)
- Light intensity: (Photon flux density of test near the container: 9-15 to the mol / m2 / s)

Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 98 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Details on results:
- Behavioural abnormalities: Immobilization

Tests conducted before FY 2002 needs confirmation of test results, because some of these tests were conducted using a dispersant.

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Conclusions:
The effect concentration (EC50) value was determined to be >98 mg/L for Daphnia magna based on immobilization effect when they were exposed to Chloral hydrate for 48h under static condition. Therefore the EC50 may be considered greater than 100 mg/L for Chloral hydrate. Also this chemical has a harmonized classification that does not indicate the chemical to cause aquatic toxicity.
Executive summary:

The effect concentration (EC50) value was determined to be >98 mg/L for Daphnia magna based on immobilization effect when they were exposed to Chloral hydrate for 48h under static condition. Therefore the EC50 may be considered greater than 100 mg/L for Chloral hydrate. Also this chemical has a harmonized classification that does not indicate the chemical to cause aquatic toxicity.

Thus the substance2,2,2-trichloroethane-1,1-diol (Chloral hydrate) is concluded to be not toxic to aquatic invertebrate and considered as Not classified as per CLP classification criteria.

Description of key information

The effect concentration (EC50) value was determined to be >98 mg/L for Daphnia magna based on immobilization effect when they were exposed to Chloral hydrate for 48h under static condition. Therefore the EC50 may be considered greater than 100 mg/L for Chloral hydrate. Also this chemical has a harmonized classification that does not indicate the chemical to cause aquatic toxicity.

Thus the substance 2,2,2-trichloroethane-1,1-diol (Chloral hydrate) is concluded to be not toxic to aquatic invertebrate and considered as Not classified as per CLP classification criteria.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

EC50/LC50 for freshwater invertebrates:
100 mg/L

Additional information

Experimental and predicted values for short term toxicity to aquatic invertebrate of the target substance 2,2,2-trichloroethane-1,1-diol (Chloral hydrate; CAS No. 302 -17 -0) along with the data for its read across substance 2,2,2-trichloroethanol (Cas No.115-20-8) were reviwewd and same are presented below as weight of evidence approach:

In experimental study, the effect concentration (EC50) value was determined to be >98 mg/L for Daphnia magna based on immobilization effect when they were exposed to Chloral hydrate for 48h under static condition. Therefore the EC50 may be considered greater than 100 mg/L for Chloral hydrate. Also this chemical has a harmonized classification that does not indicate the chemical to cause aquatic toxicity.

In supporting weight of evidence data from Gestis database, 48 hrs short term toxicity of the substance chloral hydarate was determined for Crustaceans. 50% effective concentration (EC50) value of the test substance chloral hydrate was determined to be 500mg/L for crustaceans after 48 hrs of exposure.

While based on the prediction done by EPI suite, ECOSAR version 1.1, on the basis of similarity of structure to chemicals for which the aquatic toxicity has been previously measured by structure-activity relationships (SARs) program, the LC50 value for short term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates was predicted to be 557.918 mg/l 2,2,2-trichloroethane-1,1-diol (Chloral hydrate) in 48 hrs.

Further data obtained from ECOTOX database, short term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates was performed in Ceriodaphnia reticulata (Water Flea) for 48 hrs with <24 hrs age at Larva(e) stage (1ST INSTAR) Test in fresh water media for read across substance 2,2,2-trichloroethanol (Cas No.115-20-8). After the experiment, the EC 50 value for 2,2,2-trichloroethanol (Cas no.115-20-8) was determined to be 190 mg/l on the basis of intoxication.

Thus considering harmonized classification and applying weight of evidence approach, the substance 2,2,2-trichloroethane-1,1-diol (Chloral hydrate) is concluded to be not toxic to aquatic invertebrate and considered as Not classified as per CLP classification criteria.