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Reference
Endpoint:
adsorption / desorption: screening
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
2016-08-17 to 2016-11-21
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 106 (Adsorption - Desorption Using a Batch Equilibrium Method)
Version / remarks:
Deviations from the Guideline
Since the test item is poorly extractable from soil, the indirect method was used for evaluations even if the mass balance was < 90%. Test item stability was verified by control samples. Samples were centrifuged < 3000 g because glass vessels had to be used. Higher centrifugation forces would have been destroyed these vials. For adsorption isotherm, no concentration range in the order of two magnitudes was feasible. With regard to the limit of quantification on the one hand and the solubility of the test item in the stock solution and therefore the maximal amount of solvent used for spiking on the other hand, the test concentrations were chosen. For the highest test item concentration, more than 0.1 vol-% organic solvent was used for spiking.

These deviations had no negative impact on the integrity and quality of the obtained data.
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
see above at "Version / remarks"
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: Council Regulation (EC) No. 440/2008, Method C.18 (2008)
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. certificate)
Type of method:
batch equilibrium method
Media:
soil
Radiolabelling:
no
Test temperature:
Nominal: 20 ± 2 °C
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
CaCl2-solution Deionised water was used to prepare the CaCl2-solution (0.01 M).

Soil / Solution ratio Tier 1: 1:50 and 1:100
Tier 2 and Tier 3: 1:100

Agitation By overhead shaker or horizontal shaker. Frequency was adjusted to avoid sedimentation of soil particles during treatment.

Test Procedure

Test vessels 120 mL disposable glass bottles with aluminium tops with PTFE seals

Concentration for Tier 1: 3.0 mg/L, 6.0 mg/L, 10 mg/L
adsorption / desorption experiments Tier 2: 6.0 mg/L
Tier 3: 2.67 mg/L – 4.00 mg/L – 9.00 mg/L – 13.5 mg/L

Stock solutions Stock solutions of 3 g/L and 10 g/L of TETRAMEEN 2HT in 50 mL 2-propanol were prepared after homogenization of the test item at 40 °C and with ultrasound. For additional test concentrations, solutions of 2.67 g/L, 4 g/L, 6 g/L and 9 g/L were prepared from stock solutions. At the most 0.1 volume-% (0.1 mL) of these stock solutions, related to the volume of the aqueous phase in the soil suspensions, were used for spiking except for the highest concentration. For the concentration 13.5 mg/L, 0.135 volume-% (0.135 mL) was used.

Dispersion treatment Agitation


Preparation

Soil samples(conditioning) The soils were weighed into the test vessels and an appropriate volume of 0.01 M CaCl2-solution was added. After agitation overnight (12 h minimum), the samples were used for adsorption experiments.

Samples for adsorption experiments The soil samples were conditioned as described above. At the most 0.1 volume-% (0.1 mL) of the stock solutions, related to the volume of the aqueous phase in the soil suspensions was added in order to adjust the test concentrations except for the highest concentration. For the concentration 13.5 mg/L, 0.135 volume-% (0.135 mL) was used. Afterwards, the samples were agitated.

Samples for desorption experiments Samples were prepared as described above and were agitated until adsorption is completed. Afterwards, the test vessels were centrifuged, weighed (to quantify the remaining porewater) and the supernatant was replaced by fresh 0.01 M CaCl2-solution. Then the test vessels were agitated again to investigate the desorption behavior of the test item.

Samples for analysis The soil suspensions were centrifuged after agitation at 3000 rpm (2508g) to separate the phases, followed by analysing the concentration of TETRAMEEN 2HT in aqueous phase by LC-MS/MS. For analysis of the soil, the aqueous phase was decanted and the soil was extracted. Extracts were also analysed by LC-MS/MS. During Tier 2 and Tier 3, Test vessels were extracted / rinsed with organic solvent to determine test vessel adsorption. Extracts were also analysed by LC-MS/MS.

Replicates All samples were prepared in duplicate.

Controls, Blanks

CONTROLS CaCl2-solution was conditioned as described above, followed by separation of the aqueous phase by centrifugation. Then the aqueous phase was fortified acc. to the concentrations used for the test item samples and agitated as long as the test item sample with the longest agitation period.

Replicates Duplicates


BLANK Blank samples were prepared for all soils as described for the test item samples but without fortification with the test item. The samples were agitated as long as the samples with the longest agitation period.

Replicates Duplicates (Tier 1), single (Tier 2 and Tier 3)

Sample Preparation

Dilution media 1. Acetonitrile / 0.01 M CaCl2 (50:50) + 1% formic acid
2. 2-Propanol / 0.01 M CaCl2 (50:50) + 1% formic acid

Standards Stock solutions of 3 g/L and 10 g/L of TETRAMEEN 2HT in 50 mL 2-propanol were prepared after homogenization of the test item at 40 °C. The solutions were homogenized in an ultrasonic bath and were diluted to calibration standards.

Tier 1: 7 calibration standards in the range of 5 to 50 µg/L were prepared using dilution medium 1.

Tier 2 and Tier 3: 7 calibration standards in the range of 5 to 50 µg/L were prepared using dilution medium 2.

Aqueous phase
Tier 1: Suspensions (test item replicates and blanks) were centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 5 min. An aliquot of each aqueous sample was stabilized by dilution with acetonitrile containing 2% formic acid (factor 2). Samples were diluted to calibration range with dilution medium 1.

Tier 2 and Tier 3: Suspensions (test item replicates and blanks) were centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 5 min. An aliquot of each aqueous sample was stabilized by dilution with 2-propanol containing 2% formic acid (factor 2). Samples were diluted to calibration range with dilution medium 2.

Test vessel adsorption
Tier 1: After sampling of the aqueous phase, the test vessels were emptied and rinsed with 0.01 M CaCl2. Organic solvent (Acetonitrile containing 2% formic acid or 2-propanol containing 1% formic acid) was used for extraction of the test item from the test vessel. Therefore, the vessel was shaken by hand for 1 min, ultrasound was used for 5 min and the vessel was shaken 20 min on a shaker. Samples were diluted with 0.01 M CaCl2 (factor 2) and further diluted with dilution medium 1 to calibration range, if necessary.

Tier 2 and 3: After sampling of the aqueous phase, the test vessels were emptied and rinsed with 0.01 M CaCl2. Organic solvent (2-propanol containing 2% formic acid) was used for extraction of the test item from the test vessel. Therefore, the vessel was shaken by hand for 1 min, ultrasound was used for 5 min and the vessel was shaken 20 min on a shaker. 0.01 M CaCl2 was used if dilution factor 2 was needed, dilution medium 2 for further dilutions to calibration range.

Soil extraction (Tier1)
After decantation of the aqueous phase, the soil was used for extraction. The test item was poorly extractable from soil. Different methods of extraction were investigated. Since the best extraction was achieved using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), only the ASE method is reported.

After removal of the aqueous phase, the soil was dried in a drying cabinet to be removable from the test vessels. The soil was weighed into a solvent extractor cell. To each sample, 2 g magnesium chloride hexahydrate and 4 g silica gel were added and homogenised carefully with the soil. Glass beads were used as spacing material in the extractor cells. Then, the samples were extracted with methanol : 2-propanol (50 : 50). For parameters of the extraction method see below. Extracts were transferred quantitatively in a 100 mL measuring flask and filled up with methanol : 2-propanol (50 : 50). 0.01 M CaCl2 was used if dilution factor 2 was needed, dilution medium 2 for further dilutions to calibration range.

Parameters of the extraction method
Preheat: 5 min
Heat: 6 min
Static: 5 min
Flush: 50 % (v/v)
Purge: 90 sec
Cycles: 3
Pressure: 100 bar
Temperature:125 °C
Solvent: methanol : 2-propanol (50 : 50)

Samples for method validation
Samples were prepared as described above. The aqueous phases were decanted and spiked with test item at 1 x LOQ level and 10 x LOQ level. Blank samples were prepared accordingly but without spiking with test item. Samples of 1 x LOQ level and blank samples were diluted with 2-propanol containing 2% formic acid (factor 2), samples of 10 x LOQ were diluted with 2-propanol containing 2% formic acid by factor 2 and further diluted with dilution medium 2.
Matrix no.:
#1
Matrix type:
other: Dystric Cambisoil
% Clay:
16.5
% Silt:
33
% Sand:
50.5
% Org. carbon:
3.56
pH:
5.7
CEC:
8.2 meq/100 g soil d.w.
Matrix no.:
#2
Matrix type:
other: Silty sand
% Clay:
4.8
% Silt:
13.3
% Sand:
81.9
% Org. carbon:
0.741
pH:
5.9
CEC:
2 meq/100 g soil d.w.
Matrix no.:
#3
Matrix type:
loamy sand
% Clay:
7.7
% Silt:
12.7
% Sand:
79.6
% Org. carbon:
1.93
pH:
6.3
CEC:
7.2 meq/100 g soil d.w.
Matrix no.:
#4
Matrix type:
other: Silty sand
% Clay:
9.8
% Silt:
29.3
% Sand:
61
% Org. carbon:
0.617
pH:
6.4
CEC:
5.4 meq/100 g soil d.w.
Matrix no.:
#5
Matrix type:
clay loam
% Clay:
27.6
% Silt:
43.3
% Sand:
29.1
% Org. carbon:
2.07
pH:
7.5
CEC:
24 meq/100 g soil d.w.
Details on matrix:
Relevant Characteristics of Test Matrices
Soils Eurosoil 3 LUFA 2.1 LUFA 2.2 LUFA 2.3 LUFA 2.4
FAO soil unit (Eurosoils) 1)/
Soil Type (LUFA Soils) 2) Dystric Cambisol Silty sand Loamy sand Silty sand Clayey loam
pH (0.01 M CaCl2) 4) 5.7 5.9 6.3 6.4 7.5
Organic Carbon [%] 3) 3.56 0.741 1.93 0.617 2.07
Clay (<0.002 mm) [%] 3) 16.5 4.8 7.7 9.8 27.6
Silt (0.002-0.063 mm) [%] 3) 33.0 13.3 12.7 29.3 43.3
Sand (0.063-2 mm) [%] 3) 50.5 81.9 79.6 61.0 29.1
Cation Exchange Capacity [mval/100g] 3) 8.2 2.0 7.2 5.4 24
1) source: Eurosoils II- Laboratory Reference for Soil-related Studies by B. M. Gawlik and H. Muntau
2) according to German DIN
3) determined at AGROLAB AGRAR UND UMWELT GMBH (non-GLP) for soils used during Tier 2 and Tier 3
4) data determined during the course of the study


Origin of soils European Commission, Joint Research Centre,
INSTITUTE FOR REFERENCE MATERIALS AND MEASUREMENTS IRMM
Retieseweg, B-2440 Geel, Belgium

LANDWIRTSCHAFTLICHE UNTERSUCHUNGS- UND FORSCHUNGSANSTALT LUFA SPEYER,
Obere Langgasse 40, 67346 Speyer, Germany

Storage at test facility Eurosoils: Room temperature, in brown glass bottles
LUFA soils: Room temperature, in closed containers

Expiry date Eurosoil 3 (batch: IRMM-443-3 No.: 0119): 2021-10-06
LUFA 2.1 (batch: Sp2.1 2016): 2021-05-30
LUFA 2.2 (batch: F2.2 2116): 2021-06-13
LUFA 2.3 (batch: F2.3 1916): 2021-05-19
LUFA 2.4 (batch: F2.4 1016): 2021-03-21
Key result
Sample No.:
#6
Type:
Kd
Remarks:
Mean Kd value for 5 different soils
Value:
3 986 L/kg
Temp.:
20 °C
Matrix:
Mean Kd value for 5 different soils
% Org. carbon:
0
Remarks on result:
other: Cationic surfactant sorption is governed by ionic interaction. Sorption should not be normalized to OC content!
Sample No.:
#1
Type:
Kd
Remarks:
Mean value from three main constituents of test item
Value:
2 590 L/kg
pH:
5.7
Temp.:
20 °C
Matrix:
Eurosoil 3: Dystric Cambisol
% Org. carbon:
3.56
Remarks on result:
other: Cationic surfactant sorption is governed by ionic interaction. Sorption should not be normalized to OC content!
Sample No.:
#2
Type:
Kd
Remarks:
Mean value from three main constituents of test item
Value:
372 L/kg
pH:
5.863
Temp.:
20 °C
Matrix:
LUFA 2.1: Silty sand
% Org. carbon:
0.741
Remarks on result:
other: Cationic surfactant sorption is governed by ionic interaction. Sorption should not be normalized to OC content!
Sample No.:
#3
Type:
Kd
Remarks:
Mean value from three main constituents of test item
Value:
371 L/kg
pH:
6.322
Temp.:
20 °C
Matrix:
LUFA 2.2: Loamy sand
% Org. carbon:
1.93
Remarks on result:
other: Cationic surfactant sorption is governed by ionic interaction. Sorption should not be normalized to OC content!
Sample No.:
#4
Type:
Kd
Remarks:
Mean value from three main constituents of test item
Value:
3 026 L/kg
pH:
6.395
Temp.:
20 °C
Matrix:
LUFA 2.3: Silty sand
% Org. carbon:
0.617
Remarks on result:
other: Cationic surfactant sorption is governed by ionic interaction. Sorption should not be normalized to OC content!
Sample No.:
#5
Type:
Kd
Remarks:
Mean value from three main constituents of test item
Value:
13 572 L/kg
pH:
7.527
Temp.:
20 °C
Matrix:
LUFA 2.4: Clay loam
% Org. carbon:
2.07
Remarks on result:
other: Cationic surfactant sorption is governed by ionic interaction. Sorption should not be normalized to OC content!

Temperature

The temperature was in the range of 20 ± 2 °C during the course of the study.

Soil Dry Weights

The soil dry weight of each soil type used was determined.

 

Soil Dry Weights

Mean values (n = 3)

 

Soil

Eurosoil 3

LUFA 2.1

LUFA 2.2

LUFA 2.3

LUFA 2.4

soil dry weight [%]

97.4

99.6

97.1

97.5

96.2

pH Values

The pH values of the aqueous media of the test systems were measured before and after equilibration with the corresponding soils, after addition of the test item and after desorption in the highest test item concentration. Results are shown in the following table.

pH Values of the Aqueous Medium

Soil / Solution Ratio 1:100

 

Soils

Eurosoil 3

LUFA 2.1

LUFA 2.2

LUFA 2.3

LUFA 2.4

0.01 M CaCl2

6.789

6.299

7.703

6.557

6.468

after soil contact

5.700

5.863

6.322

6.395

7.527

after addition of the test item

6.162

6.594

6.552

6.612

7.860

after desorption

6.123

6.115

6.464

6.511

7.231

 


Tier 1–Adsorption / Desorption

LUFA 2.2 and LUFA 2.4 were used for preliminary investigations on the adsorption behavior of the test item with soil / solution ratios of 1:50 and 1:100 at a concentration of 3.0 mg/L. An adsorption of > 98% was obtained after an agitation phase of 24 h. For LUFA 2.4, measured concentrations were below the lowest calibration level (5 µg test item/L). Therefore, for this soil additional experiments have been performed with a soil / solution ratio 1:100 and test item concentrations of 6 mg/L and 10 mg/L.

Strong adsorption was determined for both soils. The equilibrium of the adsorption was reached after 4 h. Test item control samples (samples without soil) showed good recoveries but showed that test vessel adsorption had to be taken into account for all calculations during Tier 2 and Tier 3. Concentrations and sampling points forTier 2 have been assigned based on results in the following tables. Detailed data are shown in part12 of the attached full study report.

Tier 1:LUFA 2.4 – Soil / Solution Ratios 1:100 and 1:50

Soil / Solution Ratio

Applied concentration, test item [mg/L]

Sampling point [h]

Adsorption
C18C18 Compound [%]

Adsorption
C18C16 Compound [%]

Adsorption
C16C16 Compound [%]

1:100

3.0

24

1001)

1001)

1001)

1:50

3.0

24

1001)

1001)

1001)

1:100

6.0

1

99

99

99

4

99

99

99

24

99

99

99

1:100

10

1

98

98

98

4

98

98

98

24

98

98

98

1)                     = measured value for aqueous phase below lowest calibration level

Tier 1:LUFA 2.2 – Soil / Solution Ratios 1:100 and 1:50

Soil / Solution Ratio

Applied concentration, test item [mg/L]

Sampling point [h]

Adsorption
C18C18 Compound [%]

Adsorption
C18C16 Compound [%]

Adsorption
C16C16 Compound [%]

1:100

3.0

1

99

99

99

4

100

99

99

24

99

99

98

1:50

3.0

1

100

100

100

4

100

100

99

24

99

99

99


 

Tier 1– Test Vessel Adsorption

The test item adsorption to the test vessel was determined in Tier 1 samples for test item replicates and controls with the longest agitation period. Results for test item replicates are shown in the first two tables below. Results for control samples are shown in the 3rd and 4th table below. Since significant adsorption was determined, test vessels had to be extracted during Tier 2 and Tier 3 for all adsorption samples and the determined test vessel adsorption had to be taken into account for the respective calculations. Details of the measurements are shown in part12 of the attached full study report.

Tier 1:LUFA 2.4 – Test Vessel Adsorption

Soil / Solution Ratio

Applied concentration, test item [mg/L]

Sampling point [h]

Adsorption
C18C18 Compound [%]

Adsorption
C18C16 Compound [%]

Adsorption
C16C16 Compound [%]

1:100

3.0

24

0.3

0.4

1.1

1:50

3.0

24

0

0

0

1:100

6.0

24

0.5

0.5

1.1

1:100

10

24

0.9

0.9

0.7

 

Tier 1:LUFA 2.2 – Test Vessel Adsorption

Soil / Solution Ratio

Applied concentration, test item [mg/L]

Sampling point [h]

Adsorption
C18C18 Compound [%]

Adsorption
C18C16 Compound [%]

Adsorption
C16C16 Compound [%]

1:100

3.0

24

0.3

0.4

0.7

1:50

3.0

24

1.3

0.4

1.4

 

Tier 1:LUFA 2.4 – Test Vessel Adsorption – Control Samples

                        0.01 M CaCl2solution was conditioned with LUFA 2.4

Soil / Solution Ratio

Applied concentration, test item [mg/L]

Sampling point [h]

Adsorption
C18C18 Compound [%]

Adsorption
C18C16 Compound [%]

Adsorption
C16C16 Compound [%]

1:100

3.0

24

5

6

9

1:50

3.0

24

3

3

7

1:100

6.0

24

12

14

15

1:100

10

24

5

5

5

 


 

Tier 1:LUFA 2.2 – Test Vessel Adsorption – Control Samples

0.01 M CaCl2solution was conditioned with LUFA 2.2

Soil / Solution Ratio

Applied concentration, test item [mg/L]

Sampling point [h]

Adsorption
C18C18 Compound [%]

Adsorption
C18C16 Compound [%]

Adsorption
C16C16 Compound [%]

1:100

3.0

24

16

18

23

1:50

3.0

24

12

12

21

Tier 1– Extraction from Soil / Mass Balance

Different solvents have been tested for soil extraction, e.g. 2-propanol containing 1 % formic acid and acetonitrile containing formic acid. The best result was obtained by using accelerated solvent extractor.. Recovery rates of 9% to 21% of the nominal concentration for the analytes from LUFA 2.2 and 5% to 23% from LUFA 2.4 were obtained. Since the test item is poorly extractable from soil, the mass balance was < 90%. Test item stability was verified by control samples, which showed good recoveries throughout the adsorption experiments.


 

Tier 2 – Adsorption Kinetics

The determination for adsorption kinetics was performed with a nominal test item concentration of 6.0 mg/L. A soil / solution ratio of 1:100 was used and concentrations of the test item were measured in aqueous phase and in extracts of the test vessels at defined sampling points. The following tables show the percentage of adsorption at equilibrium, the time needed to reach the adsorption equilibrium as well as the obtained distribution coefficients Kd and their corresponding organic carbon normalized distribution coefficients KOC. The test item shows high adsorption within a few hours to all tested soils. Results are shown in the tables below. Details of the measurements are shown in part12 of the attached full study report. Measured values were partly below LOQ for LUFA 2.4, but since the values were above the lowest calibration standard, quantification was possible.

 

Equilibrium Time, Measured Amounts in Aqueous Phase and Soil Extracts, Percent of Adsorption and Distribution CoefficientsKd,KOCfor
N‘-{3-[(3-aminopropyl)amino]propyl}-N,N- di-C18 alkylpropane-1,3-diamine

Applied concentration, test item:          6.0 mg/L

Applied amount, test item:                     600 µg

Applied amount, a.i.:172 µg

n = 2; soil / solution ratio: 1:100

Vaq= 100 mL

Soil Type

teq[h]

msoil[g]

madsaq(eq) [µg]

madss(eq) [µg]

Kd[mL/g]

%OC

KOC[mL/g]

Adsorption [%]

Eurosoil 3

2

0.974

5.61

166

3039

3.56

85362

96.7

LUFA 2.1

2

0.996

33.0

139

421

0.741

56827

80.7

LUFA 2.2

2

0.971

33.0

139

433

1.93

22413

80.8

LUFA 2.3

2

0.975

4.84

167

3535

0.617

572935

97.2

LUFA 2.4

2

0.962

1.20

170

14798

2.07

714857

99.3

Vaq            =used volume of aqueous phase

teq              =time to reach equilibrium

msoil          =used amount of soil (dry weight)

madsaq        =amount of a.i. in the aqueous phase at equilibrium

madss          =amount of a.i. in the soil at equilibrium

%OC         =percentage of organic carbon content in the soil

 


 

Equilibrium Time, Measured Amounts in Aqueous Phase and Soil Extracts, Percent of Adsorption and Distribution CoefficientsKd,KOCfor
N‘-{3-[(3-aminopropyl)amino]propyl}-N,N- C16, C18 alkylpropane-1,3-diamine

Applied concentration, test item:          6.0 mg/L

Applied amount, test item:                     600 µg

Applied amount, a.i.:145 µg

n = 2; soil / solution ratio: 1:100

Vaq= 100 mL

Soil Type

teq[h]

msoil[g]

madsaq(eq) [µg]

madss(eq) [µg]

Kd[mL/g]

%OC

KOC[mL/g]

Adsorption [%]

Eurosoil 3

2

0.974

4.94

140

2901

3.56

81489

96.6

LUFA 2.1

2

0.996

29.6

115

391

0.741

52730

79.6

LUFA 2.2

2

0.971

28.4

116

421

1.93

21792

80.3

LUFA 2.3

2

0.975

4.08

141

3534

0.617

572766

97.2

LUFA 2.4

2

0.962

1.01

144

14755

2.07

712792

99.3

Vaq            =used volume of aqueous phase

teq              =time to reach equilibrium

msoil          =used amount of soil (dry weight)

madsaq        =amount of a.i. in the aqueous phase at equilibrium

madss          =amount of a.i. in the soil at equilibrium

%OC         =percentage of organic carbon content in the soil


 

 

Equilibrium Time, Measured Amounts in Aqueous Phase and Soil Extracts, Percent of Adsorption and Distribution CoefficientsKd,KOCfor
N‘-{3-[(3-aminopropyl)amino]propyl}-N,N- di-C16 alkylpropane-1,3-diamine

Applied concentration, test item:          6.0 mg/L

Applied amount, test item:                     600 µg

Applied amount, a.i.:40.8 µg

n = 2; soil / solution ratio: 1:100

Vaq= 100 mL

Soil Type

teq[h]

msoil[g]

madsaq(eq) [µg]

madss(eq) [µg]

Kd[mL/g]

%OC

KOC[mL/g]

Adsorption [%]

Eurosoil 3

2

0.974

2.17

38.6

1831

3.56

51441

94.7

LUFA 2.1

2

0.996

10.1

30.7

303

0.741

40927

75.1

LUFA 2.2

2

0.971

11.6

29.2

261

1.93

13508

71.7

LUFA 2.3

2

0.975

1.98

38.8

2010

0.617

325843

95.1

LUFA 2.4

2

0.962

0.376

40.4

11162

2.07

539238

99.1

Vaq            =used volume of aqueous phase

teq              =time to reach equilibrium

msoil          =used amount of soil (dry weight)

madsaq        =amount of a.i. in the aqueous phase at equilibrium

madss          =amount of a.i. in the soil at equilibrium

%OC         =percentage of organic carbon content in the soil

 

 

Tier 3– Desorption Kinetics

The desorption behavior of the test item was determined over a period of 24 h after 2 h adsorption with the desorption equilibrium after 24 h. The following tables show the desorption coefficient Kdes. Since the desorption coefficient is higher than the adsorption coefficient Kd, the test item adsorption is assumed to be not completely reversible. Nevertheless, it is noteworthy that by measuring the concentrations of the analytes in the aqueous phase, desorption from soil and desorption from the test vessel are not distinguishable.Details of the measurements are shown in part12 of the attached full study report. Measured values were partly below LOQ for LUFA 2.3 and LUFA 2.4, but since the values were above the lowest calibration standard, quantification was possible.

 

Percent of Desorption and Desorption CoefficientKdes for
N‘-{3-[(3-aminopropyl)amino]propyl}-N,N- di-C18 alkylpropane-1,3-diamine

Applied concentration, test item:          6.0 mg/L

Applied amount, test item:                     600 µg

Applied amount, a.i.:172 µg

n = 2; soil / solution ratio: 1:100

Vaq= 100 mL

Soil Type

teq[h]

msoil[g]

mdesaq(eq) [µg]

madss(eq) [µg]

Kdes[mL/g]

Desorption [%]

Eurosoil 3

24

0.974

5.29

170

3192

3.1

LUFA 2.1

24

0.996

9.93

154

1458

6.4

LUFA 2.2

24

0.971

18.7

160

778

11.7

LUFA 2.3

24

0.975

2.33

171

7420

1.4

LUFA 2.4

24

0.962

1.04

171

17009

0.6

Vaq            =used volume of aqueous phase

teq              =time to reach equilibrium

msoil          =used amount of soil (dry weight)

mdesaq        =amount a.i. measured in the aqueous phase after desorption step

(entrained water taken into account)

madss          =amount of a.i. to soil at equilibrium


 

Percent of Desorption and Desorption CoefficientKdes for
N‘-{3-[(3-aminopropyl)amino]propyl}-N,N- C16, C18 alkylpropane-1,3-diamine

Applied concentration, test item:          6.0 mg/L

Applied amount, test item:                     600 µg

Applied amount, a.i.:145 µg

n = 2; soil / solution ratio: 1:100

Vaq= 100 mL

Soil Type

teq[h]

msoil[g]

mdesaq(eq) [µg]

madss(eq) [µg]

Kdes[mL/g]

Desorption [%]

Eurosoil 3

24

0.974

4.41

143

3227

3.1

LUFA 2.1

24

0.996

8.55

129

1418

6.6

LUFA 2.2

24

0.971

16.5

134

732

12.3

LUFA 2.3

24

0.975

1.86

144

7803

1.3

LUFA 2.4

24

0.962

0.859

144

17342

0.6

 

Percent of Desorption and Desorption CoefficientKdes for
N‘-{3-[(3-aminopropyl)amino]propyl}-N,N- di-C16 alkylpropane-1,3-diamine

Applied concentration, test item:          6.0 mg/L

Applied amount, test item:                     600 µg

Applied amount, a.i.:40.8 µg

n = 2; soil / solution ratio: 1:100

Vaq= 100 mL

Soil Type

teq[h]

msoil[g]

mdesaq(eq) [µg]

madss(eq) [µg]

Kdes[mL/g]

Desorption [%]

Eurosoil 3

24

0.974

1.37

40.3

2930

3.4

LUFA 2.1

24

0.996

2.66

36.1

1265

7.4

LUFA 2.2

24

0.971

5.58

37.6

592

14.8

LUFA 2.3

24

0.975

0.530

40.5

7724

1.3

LUFA 2.4

24

0.962

0.272

40.6

15445

0.7

Vaq            =used volume of aqueous phase

teq              =time to reach equilibrium

msoil          =used amount of soil (dry weight)

mdesaq        =amount a.i. measured in the aqueous phase after desorption step

(entrained water taken into account)

madss          =amount of a.i. to soil at equilibrium

 

Tier 3 – Adsorption Isotherms

The adsorption isotherm was determined with additional concentrations of 2.67 mg/L, 4.00 mg/L, 9.00 mg/L and 13.5 mg/L after adsorption for 2 h. With regard to the limit of quantification on the one hand and the solubility of the test item in the stock solution and therefore the maximal amount of solvent used for spiking on the other hand, the test concentrations were chosen. Although it was not feasible to set the concentration range over two orders of magnitude, it is obvious that adsorption and concentration do not show a linear correlation. This was also investigated for comparable substances (surfactants) in earlier studies (info provided by the sponsor). For the C16C16 compound 1/n) > 1 (regression constant was determined. A 1/n > 1 relates to an S-type of Freundlich relation which can be explained by double layers of surfactants on sorbent.The tables below show the Freundlich adsorption coefficient Kd and the organic carbon normalized Freundlich adsorption coefficient KOCF.Detailed data are shown in part12 of the attached full study report.

Measured values were partly below LOQ and even below lowest calibration level for Eurosoil 3 and LUFA 2.4, but since the values were detectable, measured values were taken into account as measured.

 

Freundlich Adsorption for
N‘-{3-[(3-aminopropyl)amino]propyl}-N,N- di-C18 alkylpropane-1,3-diamine

Applied concentrations, test item [mg/L]:         2.67, 4.00, 6.00, 9.00, 13.5

Applied amount, test item [µg]:                          267, 400, 600, 900, 1350

Applied amount, a.i. [µg]:                                    76.4, 114, 172, 257, 386

Soil Type

msoil[g]

R2

1/n

%OC

KadsF

KOCF

Eurosoil 3

0.974

0.9325

0.4393

3.56

623

17500

LUFA 2.1

0.996

0.9548

0.651

0.741

315

42499

LUFA 2.2

0.971

0.7274

0.8462

1.93

533

27640

LUFA 2.3

0.975

0.9954

0.491

0.617

664

107650

LUFA 2.4

0.962

0.9543

0.825

2.07

7667

370365

msoil    =      used amount of soil (dry weight) [g]

n         =      regression constant

%OC   =      percentage of organic carbon content in the soil

KadsF    =      Freundlich adsorption coefficient [µg1-1/n(mL)1/ng-1]

KOCF     =      Freundlich adsorption coefficient normalized to content of organic carbon [µg1-1/n(mL)1/ng-1]


 

 

Freundlich Adsorption for
N‘-{3-[(3-aminopropyl)amino]propyl}-N,N- C16, C18 alkylpropane-1,3-diamine

Applied concentrations, test item [mg/L]:     2.67, 4.00, 6.00, 9.00, 13.5

Applied amount, test item [µg]:                       267, 400, 600, 900, 1350

Applied amount, a.i. [µg]:                                 64.3, 96.4, 145 217, 325

Soil Type

msoil[g]

R2

1/n

%OC

KadsF

KOCF

Eurosoil 3

0.974

0.9289

0.4257

3.56

533

14964

LUFA 2.1

0.996

0.9420

0.6601

0.741

292

39426

LUFA 2.2

0.971

0.7377

0.9271

1.93

556

29312

LUFA 2.3

0.975

0.9798

0.4729

0.617

589

95503

LUFA 2.4

0.962

0.9512

0.8065

2.07

6794

328193

 

Freundlich Adsorption for
N‘-{3-[(3-aminopropyl)amino]propyl}-N,N- di-C16 alkylpropane-1,3-diamine

Applied concentrations, test item [mg/L]:     2.67, 4.00, 6.00, 9.00, 13.5

Applied amount, test item [µg]:                       267, 400, 600, 900, 1350

Applied amount, a.i. [µg]:                                 18.2, 27.2, 40.8, 61.2, 91.8

Soil Type

msoil[g]

R2

1/n

%OC

KadsF

KOCF

Eurosoil 3

0.974

0.9571

0.4075

3.56

206

5783

LUFA 2.1

0.996

0.938

0.6946

0.741

174

23420

LUFA 2.2

0.971

0.778

1.2495

1.93

684

35428

LUFA 2.3

0.975

0.9947

0.4649

0.617

229

37061

LUFA 2.4

0.962

0.9681

0.8005

2.07

4229

204282

msoil    =      used amount of soil (dry weight) [g]

n         =      regression constant

%OC   =      percentage of organic carbon content in the soil

KadsF    =      Freundlich adsorption coefficient [µg1-1/n(mL)1/ng-1]

KOCF     =      Freundlich adsorption coefficient normalized to content of organic carbon [µg1-1/n(mL)1/ng-1]


 

Tier 3– Desorption Isotherms

The desorption isotherm was determined with additional concentrations of 2.67 mg/L, 4.00 mg/L, 9.00 mg/L and 13.5 mg/L after adsorption for 2 h and desorption for 24 h. The desorption and the concentration of the test item do not show a linear correlation. This is presumably attributed to the fact that desorption from soil and desorption from test vessel are not distinguishable. The following tables summarize the obtained data.Detailed data are shown in part12 of the attached full study report.

Measured values were partly below LOQ and even below lowest calibration level for LUFA 2.3 and LUFA 2.4, but since the values were detectable, measured values were taken into account as measured.

 

Freundlich Desorption for
N‘-{3-[(3-aminopropyl)amino]propyl}-N,N- di-C18 alkylpropane-1,3-diamine

Applied concentrations, test item [mg/L]:         2.67, 4.00, 6.00, 9.00, 13.5

Applied amount, test item [µg]:                          267, 400, 600, 900, 1350

Applied amount, a.i. [µg]:                                    76.4, 114, 172, 257, 386

Soil Type

msoil[g]

R2

1/n

KdesF

Eurosoil 3

0.974

0.7831

1.1614

8279

LUFA 2.1

0.996

0.7138

1.0517

1577

LUFA 2.2

0.971

0.8799

0.8238

778

LUFA 2.3

0.975

0.7771

0.9441

9940

LUFA 2.4

0.962

0.9842

1.0322

19311

msoil    =      used amount of soil (dry weight) [g]

n         =      regression constant

KdesF    =      Freundlich desorption coefficient [µg1-1/n(mL)1/ng-1]


 

 

Freundlich Desorption for
N‘-{3-[(3-aminopropyl)amino]propyl}-N,N- C16, C18 alkylpropane-1,3-diamine

Applied concentrations, test item [mg/L]:     2.67, 4.00, 6.00, 9.00, 13.5

Applied amount, test item [µg]:                       267, 400, 600, 900, 1350

Applied amount, a.i. [µg]:                                 64.3, 96.4, 145 217, 325

Soil Type

msoil[g]

R2

1/n

KdesF

Eurosoil 3

0.974

0.8679

1.2932

12025

LUFA 2.1

0.996

0.674

1.0546

1547

LUFA 2.2

0.971

0.8750

0.8603

743

LUFA 2.3

0.975

0.8376

0.9463

9732

LUFA 2.4

0.962

0.9879

1.0095

17865

 

Freundlich Desorption for
N‘-{3-[(3-aminopropyl)amino]propyl}-N,N- di-C16 alkylpropane-1,3-diamine

Applied concentrations, test item [mg/L]:     2.67, 4.00, 6.00, 9.00, 13.5

Applied amount, test item [µg]:                       267, 400, 600, 900, 1350

Applied amount, a.i. [µg]:                                 18.2, 27.2, 40.8, 61.2, 91.8

Soil Type

msoil[g]

R2

1/n

KdesF

Eurosoil 3

0.974

0.8835

2.1051

440961

LUFA 2.1

0.996

0.5923

1.0847

1560

LUFA 2.2

0.971

0.8622

1.1895

1363

LUFA 2.3

0.975

0.8635

0.8839

6183

LUFA 2.4

0.962

0.9715

1.026

15805

msoil    =      used amount of soil (dry weight) [g]

n         =      regression constant

KdesF    =      Freundlich desorption coefficient [µg1-1/n(mL)1/ng-1]


 

Control Samples

The test item stability was confirmed by measurement of two control replicates during each adsorption experiment. The table below shows the recovery rate for control samples. The recovery is related to the nominal applied concentration and the adsorption to the test vessel is taken into account for control samples at the end of the experiment (2 h and 4 h). Therefore, amounts measured in the aqueous phase and amounts measured in test vessel extracts have been totalized.

 

Recovery Rates [%] of the Control Samples

Concentration Tier 2 – Adsorption kinetics: 6.00 mg test item/L

Concentration Tier 3 – Adsorption isotherm: 2.67 mg test item/L

 

Eurosoil 3

LUFA 2.1

LUFA 2.2

LUFA 2.3

LUFA 2.4

C18C18 Compound

Tier 20h

104

108

95

103

81

Tier 24h

96

91

80

851)

70

Tier 32h

111

88

91

88

80

C18C16 Compound

Tier 20h

105

110

95

101

79

Tier 24h

95

90

83

871)

68

Tier 32h

105

89

96

84

87

C16C16 Compound

Tier 20h

108

115

100

104

90

Tier 24h

98

92

84

881)

76

Tier 32h

111

90

123

91

82

1)    = test vessel adsorption was not taken into account, since measured value was not plausible

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
The test item TETRAMEEN 2HT adsorbs strongly to all tested soils. The strongest adsorption was determined for LUFA 2.4 which is also the soil with the highest cation exchange capacity. The desorption was determined to be not completely reversible. The adsorption does not show a linear correlation to the applied concentration (Freundlich adsorption). Therefore, the data obtained during the adsorption kinetics should be used for the assessment of the adsorption properties of the test item.
Executive summary:

The adsorption / desorption behavior of the test item TETRAMEEN 2HT (batch no.890000394200) was investigatedin five different soils accordingto OECD guideline 106 and EC C.18 from 2016-08-17 to 2016-11-21 at Noack Laboratorien GmbH, 31157 Sarstedt, Germany. Distribution coefficients Kdand organic carbon normalized distribution coefficients KOC were determined with a single concentration. The desorption behavior / reversibility of the adsorption from the soils and the degree of adsorption and desorption (Freundlich adsorption and desorption isotherms) as a function of the test item loading level in the aqueous phase were investigated.

 

Relevant Characteristics of Test Matrices

 

Soils

 

Eurosoil 3

LUFA 2.1

LUFA 2.2

LUFA 2.3

LUFA 2.4

FAO soil unit (Eurosoils)1)

Soil Type (LUFA Soils)2)

Dystric Cambisol

Silty sand

Loamy sand

Silty sand

Clayey loam

pH (0.01 M CaCl2)4)

5.7

5.9

6.3

6.4

7.5

Organic Carbon [%]3)

3.56

0.741

1.93

0.617

2.07

Clay (<0.002 mm) [%]3)

16.5

4.8

7.7

9.8

27.6

Silt (0.002-0.063 mm) [%]3)

33.0

13.3

12.7

29.3

43.3

Sand (0.063-2 mm) [%]3)

50.5

81.9

79.6

61.0

29.1

Cation Exchange Capacity3)[mval/100g]

8.2

2.0

7.2

5.4

24

1)source: Eurosoils II- Laboratory Reference for Soil-related Studies by B. M. Gawlik and H. Muntau

2)according to German DIN

3)determined atAgrolab Agrar und Umwelt GmbH(non-GLP) for soils used duringTier 2andTier 3

4) data determined during the course of the study

 

Based on results of preliminary investigations during Tier 1, a soil / solution ratio of 1:100 was used for adsorption experiments. Experiments for adsorption and desorption kinetics were conducted with a nominal test item concentration of 6.00 mg/L. The adsorption equilibrium was reached after 2 hours. For investigations concerning the Freundlich adsorption and desorption isotherm, additional concentrations of 2.67 mg/L, 4.00 mg/L, 10.0 mg/L and 13.5 mg/L have been applied. The three main components N‘-{3-[(3-aminopropyl)amino]propyl}-N,N- C16, C18 alkylpropane-1,3-diamine, N‘-{3-[(3-aminopropyl)amino]propyl}-N,N- di-C16 alkylpropane-1,3-diamine and N‘-{3-[(3-aminopropyl)amino]propyl}-N,N- di-C18 alkylpropane-1,3-diamine of TETRAMEEN 2HT have been analysed by LC-MS/MS. Data are given for each analyte in the attached full study report and results have been used to calculate the study endpoints for the test item. Detailed analytical results are shown in part12 of the attached full study report.

The table below shows obtained distribution coefficients Kdand their correspondingorganic carbon normalized distribution coefficients KOC. Furthermore, the mobility of the test item in the investigated matrices was classified according to McCall et al (1980). Additionally, the desorption coefficient Kdes, the organic carbon normalized Freundlich adsorption coefficient KOCF as well asthe Freundlich desorption coefficient KdesF are presented in the summarizing table.

Summarized Endpoints for the Active Ingredients of TETRAMEEN 2HT

Mobility according to McCall et al. (1980):KOC0 – 50 very high,KOC50 – 150 high,KOC150 – 500 medium,KOC500 – 2000 low,KOC2000 – 5000 slight,KOC> 5000 immobile; based on results of Tier 2
Kdand Kocwere determined during Tier 2

Kdes, KOCF and KdesF were determined during Tier 3

 

Kd[mL/g]

KOC[mL/g]

Kdes [mL/g]

KOCF
 
[µg1-1/n(mL)1/ng-1]

KdesF
 
[µg1-1/n(mL)1/ng-1]

Mobility according to McCall et al.

Soil/Solution Ratio

1:100

N‘-{3-[(3-aminopropyl)amino]propyl}-N,N- di-C18 alkylpropane-1,3-diamine

Eurosoil 3

3039

85362

3192

17500

8279

immobile

LUFA 2.1

421

56827

1458

42499

1577

immobile

LUFA 2.2

433

22413

778

27640

778

immobile

LUFA 2.3

3535

572935

7420

107650

9940

immobile

LUFA 2.4

14798

714857

17009

370365

19311

immobile

N‘-{3-[(3-aminopropyl)amino]propyl}-N,N- C16, C18 alkylpropane-1,3-diamine

Eurosoil 3

2901

81489

3227

14964

12025

immobile

LUFA 2.1

391

52730

1418

39426

1547

immobile

LUFA 2.2

421

21792

732

29312

743

immobile

LUFA 2.3

3534

572766

7803

95503

9732

immobile

LUFA 2.4

14755

712792

17342

328193

17865

immobile

N‘-{3-[(3-aminopropyl)amino]propyl}-N,N- di-C16 alkylpropane-1,3-diamine

Eurosoil 3

1831

51441

2930

5783

440961

immobile

LUFA 2.1

303

40927

1265

23420

1560

immobile

LUFA 2.2

261

13508

592

35428

1363

immobile

LUFA 2.3

2010

325843

7724

37061

6183

immobile

LUFA 2.4

11162

539238

15445

204282

15805

immobile

TETRAMEEN 2HT

Eurosoil 3

2590

72764

3116

12749

153755

immobile

LUFA 2.1

372

50161

1380

35115

1561

immobile

LUFA 2.2

371

19237

701

30793

962

immobile

LUFA 2.3

3026

490515

7649

80071

8618

immobile

LUFA 2.4

13572

655629

16598

300947

17660

immobile

 

Description of key information

Di-C16 -18 Tetramines is protonated under ambient conditions. This means it they will sorb strongly to negatively charged substances like glassware, soil and sediment constituents. For five different soils Kd values were observed for diC16 -18 tetramines ranging from: 371 to 13572 L/kg with a mean Kd of 3986 L/kg. Sorption of alkyl polyamines is mainly driven by ionic interaction and to a lesser extend by the hydrophobic interaction of the hydrophobic tail(s). The observed Kd values should therefore not be normalized to the organic carbon this will otherwise lead to erroneous extrapolations.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Other adsorption coefficients

Type:
log Kp (solids-water in soil)
Value in L/kg:
3.6
at the temperature of:
20 °C

Other adsorption coefficients

Type:
log Kp (solids-water in suspended matter)
Value in L/kg:
3.902
at the temperature of:
20 °C

Other adsorption coefficients

Type:
log Kp (solids-water in sediment)
Value in L/kg:
3.6
at the temperature of:
20 °C

Additional information

Due to the cationic surface-active properties Di-C16 -18 Tetramine will adsorb strongly onto the solid phase of soil and sediments. The substance can adsorb both onto the organic fraction and, dependent on the chemical composition, onto the surface of the mineral phase.Research (K. U. Goss, S. Droge, Y. Chen & J. Hermens) has shown that cationic surfactants partitioning to soil and sediment is mainly based on cation exchange. The clay, silt and organic matter fraction are the main fractions in soil and sediment contributing to the cation exchange capacity. Correlating partitioning of cationic surfactants to the organic carbon content alone will therefore not allow a reliable prediction of the partitioning in the environment. The non-normalized adsorption coefficients are therefore used for risk assessment.

The adsorption / desorption behavior of the test item di-C16 -18 Tetramine (batch no.890000394200) was investigated in five different soils according to OECD guideline 106. Distribution coefficients Kd and organic carbon normalized distribution coefficients KOC were determined with a single concentration. The desorption behavior / reversibility of the adsorption from the soils and the degree of adsorption and desorption (Freundlich adsorption and desorption isotherms) as a function of the test item loading level in the aqueous phase were investigated.

 

Relevant Characteristics of Test Matrices used

 

Soils

 

Eurosoil 3

LUFA 2.1

LUFA 2.2

LUFA 2.3

LUFA 2.4

FAO soil unit (Eurosoils)1)

Soil Type (LUFA Soils)2)

Dystric Cambisol

Silty sand

Loamy sand

Silty sand

Clayey loam

pH (0.01 M CaCl2)4)

5.7

5.9

6.3

6.4

7.5

Organic Carbon [%]3)

3.56

0.741

1.93

0.617

2.07

Clay (<0.002 mm) [%]3)

16.5

4.8

7.7

9.8

27.6

Silt (0.002-0.063 mm) [%]3)

33.0

13.3

12.7

29.3

43.3

Sand (0.063-2 mm) [%]3)

50.5

81.9

79.6

61.0

29.1

Cation Exchange Capacity3)[mval/100g]

8.2

2.0

7.2

5.4

24

1)source: Eurosoils II- Laboratory Reference for Soil-related Studies by B. M. Gawlik and H. Muntau

2) according to German DIN

3) determined at Agrolab Agrar und Umwelt GmbH (non-GLP) for soils used duringTier 2andTier 3

4) data determined during the course of the study

 

Based on results of preliminary investigations during Tier 1, a soil / solution ratio of 1:100 was used for adsorption experiments. Experiments for adsorption and desorption kinetics were conducted with a nominal test item concentration of 6.00 mg/L. The adsorption equilibrium was reached after 2 hours. For investigations concerning the Freundlich adsorption and desorption isotherm, additional concentrations of 2.67 mg/L, 4.00 mg/L, 10.0 mg/L and 13.5 mg/L have been applied. The three main components N‘-{3-[(3-aminopropyl)amino]propyl}-N,N- C16, C18 alkylpropane-1,3-diamine, N‘-{3-[(3-aminopropyl)amino]propyl}-N,N- di-C16 alkylpropane-1,3-diamine and N‘-{3-[(3-aminopropyl)amino]propyl}-N,N- di-C18 alkylpropane-1,3-diamine of di-C16 -18Tetramine have been analysed by LC-MS/MS. Data are given for each analyte in the attached full study report and results have been used to calculate the study endpoints for the test item.

The table below shows obtained distribution coefficients Kd and their corresponding organic carbon normalized distribution coefficients KOC. Furthermore, the mobility of the test item in the investigated matrices was classified according to McCall et al (1980). Additionally, the desorption coefficient Kdes, the organic carbon normalized Freundlich adsorption coefficient KOCF as well asthe Freundlich desorption coefficient KdesF are presented in the summarizing table.


Summarized Endpoints for the Active Ingredients of di-C16 -18 Tetramine

Mobility according to McCall et al. (1980): KOC 0 – 50 very high, KOC 50 – 150 high, KOC 150 – 500 medium, KOC 500 – 2000 low, KOC 2000 – 5000 slight, KOC > 5000 immobile; based on results of Tier 2
Kd and Kocwere determined during Tier 2

Kdes, KOCF and KdesF were determined duringTier 3

 

Kd [mL/g]

KOC [mL/g]

Kdes [mL/g]

KOCF
 
[µg1-1/n(mL)1/ng-1]

KdesF
 
[µg1-1/n(mL)1/ng-1]

Mobility according to McCall et al.

Soil/Solution Ratio

1:100

N‘-{3-[(3-aminopropyl)amino]propyl}-N,N- di-C18 alkylpropane-1,3-diamine

Eurosoil 3

3039

85362

3192

17500

8279

immobile

LUFA 2.1

421

56827

1458

42499

1577

immobile

LUFA 2.2

433

22413

778

27640

778

immobile

LUFA 2.3

3535

572935

7420

107650

9940

immobile

LUFA 2.4

14798

714857

17009

370365

19311

immobile

N‘-{3-[(3-aminopropyl)amino]propyl}-N,N- C16, C18 alkylpropane-1,3-diamine

Eurosoil 3

2901

81489

3227

14964

12025

immobile

LUFA 2.1

391

52730

1418

39426

1547

immobile

LUFA 2.2

421

21792

732

29312

743

immobile

LUFA 2.3

3534

572766

7803

95503

9732

immobile

LUFA 2.4

14755

712792

17342

328193

17865

immobile

N‘-{3-[(3-aminopropyl)amino]propyl}-N,N- di-C16 alkylpropane-1,3-diamine

Eurosoil 3

1831

51441

2930

5783

440961

immobile

LUFA 2.1

303

40927

1265

23420

1560

immobile

LUFA 2.2

261

13508

592

35428

1363

immobile

LUFA 2.3

2010

325843

7724

37061

6183

immobile

LUFA 2.4

11162

539238

15445

204282

15805

immobile

Di-C16 -18 Tetramine

Eurosoil 3

2590

72764

3116

12749

153755

immobile

LUFA 2.1

372

50161

1380

35115

1561

immobile

LUFA 2.2

371

19237

701

30793

962

immobile

LUFA 2.3

3026

490515

7649

80071

8618

immobile

LUFA 2.4

13572

655629

16598

300947

17660

immobile

 

Because there is no principal difference between soil and sediments considering the sorption properties and because for cationic surfactants the degree of sorption is not only related to the organic carbon content, the value for soil will also be used for sediment and suspended particles. Suspended sediment contains more smaller particles and the Kd (=Kp) for suspended sediment is therefore for precautionary reasons doubled. For sludge which consists mainly of organic matter the sorption data as observed for soil is not considered to be representative. This is however not a serious problem because the removal by sorption in a waste water treatment plant will be close to what is observed for C-16 -18 Tetramine in the waste water treatment simulation test i.e. about 15% removal.

 

In table ???, the distribution constants used in this assessment is summarized:

Tab. ???:Distribution constants for di-C16 -18 Tetramine

Kpsoil

3986 L/kg

Ksoil-water

5979 m3/m-3

Kpsusp

7972 L/kg

Ksusp-water

1993 m3.m-3

Kpsed

3986 L/kg

Ksed-water

1993 m3.m-3

 

With a Kpsuspof 7972 L/kg and a concentration of 15 mg/L suspended matter in surface waters, the adsorbed fraction is calculated as 11%.