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Toxicological information

Developmental toxicity / teratogenicity

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
developmental toxicity
Type of information:
read-across based on grouping of substances (category approach)
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
19th June 2013 to 17 the December 2013
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Justification for type of information:
Read across to CAS 25307-17-9, 2,2’-(Octadecylimino)bisethanol, is seen as a worst case as this is predominantly C18 unsaturated compared to CAS no 10213-78-2 Octadecyl bis(2-hydroxyethyl)amine which is predominantly C18 saturated. The unsaturated C18 is more reactive and therefore expected to be more toxic than the equivalent C18 saturated structure.

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
study report
Title:
Unnamed
Year:
2014
Report Date:
2014

Materials and methods

Test guidelineopen allclose all
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 414 (Prenatal Developmental Toxicity Study)
Version / remarks:
OECD Guidelines for Testing of Chemicals No. 422 “Combined Repeated Dose Toxicity Study with the Reproduction/ Developmental Toxicity Screening Test”
Deviations:
no
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
EPA OPPTS 870.3700 (Prenatal Developmental Toxicity Study)
Deviations:
no
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: Japanese Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Testing guidelines for Toxicology Studies, 12 NohSan No 8147 (24 November 2000)
Deviations:
no
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
EU Method B.31 (Prenatal Developmental Toxicity Study)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. certificate)
Limit test:
no

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Test material form:
other: liquid
Details on test material:
Sponsor's identification 2,2’-(octadec-9-enylimino)bisethanol CAS No 25307-17-9
Description : pale brown liquid
Chemical name 2,2’-(octadec-9-enylimino) bisethanol
Purity : >97%
Batch number : S-001018
CAS Number : 25307-17-9
REACH Registration Number 01-2119510876-35-0000
Date received : 21 December 2012
Storage conditions ambient temperature, under nitrogen, (used/ formulated in light) in the dark
Expiry date : 05 June 2016

Test animals

Species:
rat
Strain:
Sprague-Dawley
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
A total of ninety-six time-mated female Sprague-Dawley Crl:CD (SD) IGS BR strain rats were obtained from Charles River (UK) Limited, Margate, Kent. Animals were delivered in two batches containing females prior to Day 3 of gestation. The day that positive evidence of mating was observed was designated Day 0 of gestation. On arrival the females weighed 190g to 269g.

The animals were housed individually in solid-floor polypropylene cages with stainless steel lids furnished with softwood flakes (Datesand Ltd., Cheshire, UK). The animals were allowed free access to food and water. A pelleted diet (Rodent 2018C Teklad Global Certified Diet, Harlan UK, Oxon, UK) was used. Certificates of analysis of the batches of diet used are given in Appendix 14. Mains drinking water was supplied from polycarbonate bottles attached to the cage. Environmental enrichment was provided in the form of wooden chew blocks and cardboard fun tunnels (Datesand Ltd., Cheshire, UK). The diet, drinking water, bedding and environmental enrichment was considered not to contain any contaminant at a level that might have affected the purpose or integrity of the study.

The animals were housed in a single air-conditioned room within the Harlan Laboratories Ltd., Shardlow, UK Barrier Maintained Rodent Facility. The rate of air exchange was at least fifteen air changes per hour and the low intensity fluorescent lighting was controlled to give twelve hours continuous light and twelve hours darkness. Environmental conditions were continuously monitored by a computerized system, and print-outs of hourly mean temperatures and humidity were included in the study records. The Study Plan target ranges for temperature and relative humidity were 22 ± 3 ºC and 50 ± 20% respectively; there were no deviations from these targets.

The animals were randomly allocated to treatment groups using a randomization procedure based on stratified body weight to ensure similarity between the treatment groups. The animals were uniquely identified within the study by an ear punching system routinely used in these laboratories.

Administration / exposure

Route of administration:
oral: gavage
Vehicle:
arachis oil
Details on exposure:
As Arachis Oil was successfully used on both the twenty-eight day and ninety toxicity studies, the same vehicle and dosage (4 mL/kg body weight) was employed in this study. The stability and homogeneity of the test item formulations were previously determined by Harlan Laboratories Ltd., Shardlow, UK Analytical Services and showed the formulations to be stable for at least twenty one days at 4 °C. Formulations were therefore prepared in two separate bulk formulations (covering up to 9 days) and divided into daily aliquots and stored at approximately +4 °C in the dark.

Samples were taken of each test item formulation and were analyzed for concentration of 2,2'-(octadec-9-enylimino)bisethanol CAS No 25307-17-9 at Harlan Analytical Laboratory, Shardlow. The results indicate that the prepared formulations were within 94% to 104% of the nominal concentration and within acceptable limits of the nominal concentration.
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
yes
Details on analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
The test item concentration in the test samples was determined by gas chromatography (GC) using an external standard technique. The test item gave a chromatographic profile consisting of a single peak.

Test Item
The test item described in the main part of this study was also used as the analytical standard.

Preparation of standard solutions
Stock solutins of test item in methanol were prepared for external standard calibration. An aliquot, 100 mg of test item was exactly weighed into a 100 mL volumetric flask and brought to volume with methanol to yield a solution with a concentration of 1 mg/mL. Aliquots of this stock standard solutins were used to prepare working standard solutions in methanol with a concentration of 0.1 mg/mL.

Analysis of samples
The formulations recieved were extracted with methanol. An aliquot of test item formulation was accurately weighed into a volumetric flask and brought to volume with methanol. This was then ultra-sonicated for 15 minutes and centrifuged to 4500 rpm for 10 minutes. Where necessary, sample solutions were further diluted with methanol to achieve the working concentration.

Preparation of accuracy samples
Samples of Arachis Oil BP were accurately fortified with known amounts of test item equivalent to the lowest and highest anticipated dose concentrations. These sample were then prepared for analysis.

Instrumental Setip

HC system: Agilent Technologues 5890, incorporating autosampler and workstation
Column: DB-1 (15 m x 0.53 mm id x 1.5 micro-m film)
Oven temperature program: Oven: 200°C for 0 minute, with 10°C/minute to 300°C, for 12 minutes
Injection temperature: 300°C
Flame ionisation detector temperature: 300°C
Injection volume: 1 micro-litre
Retention time: ~ 4.5 mins


Details on mating procedure:
Not described in the study
Duration of treatment / exposure:
Between Days 5 and 19 of gestation, inclusive.
Frequency of treatment:
Daily
Duration of test:
20 days
Doses / concentrationsopen allclose all
Dose / conc.:
0 mg/kg bw/day
Remarks:
Vehicle control
Dose / conc.:
15 mg/kg bw/day
Dose / conc.:
50 mg/kg bw/day
Dose / conc.:
150 mg/kg bw/day
No. of animals per sex per dose:
24 females
Control animals:
yes, concurrent vehicle
Details on study design:
The animals were randomly allocated to treatment groups using a randomization procedure based on stratified body weight to ensure similarity between the treatment groups. The animals were uniquely identified within the study by an ear punching system routinely used in these laboratories.

Justification
The rat was selected for this study as it is a readily available rodent species historically used in safety evaluation studies and is acceptable to appropriate regulatory authorities.

Examinations

Maternal examinations:
Following arrival, all animals were examined for overt signs of toxicity, ill-health or behavioral changes once daily during the gestation period. Additionally, during the dosing period, observations were recorded immediately before and soon after dosing and one hour post dosing. An additional observation was also performed five hours after dosing during the normal working week. All observations were recorded.

Body Weight
Individual body weights were recorded on Day 3 (before the start of treatment) and on Days 5, 6, 7, 8, 11, 14 and 17 of gestation. Body weights were also recorded for animals at terminal kill (Day 20).

Food Consumption
Food consumption was recorded for each individual animal at Day 3, 5, 8, 11, 14, 17 and 20 of gestation.

Water Consumption
Water intake was observed daily by visual inspection of the water bottles for any overt changes.
Ovaries and uterine content:
Post Mortem
All animals were killed by carbon dioxide asphyxiation followed by cervical dislocation on Day 20 of gestation. All animals were subjected to a full external and internal examination and any macroscopic abnormalities were recorded. The ovaries and uteri of pregnant females were removed, examined and the following data recorded:

i) Number of corpora lutea
ii) Number, position and type of intrauterine implantation
iii) Fetal sex
iv) External fetal appearance
v) Fetal weight
vi) Placental weight
vii) Gravid uterus weight

Implantation types were divided into:

Early Death: No visible distinction between placental/decidual tissue and embryonic tissue

Late Death: Separate embryonic/fetal and placental tissue visible

Dead Fetus: A fetus that had died shortly before necropsy. These were included as late deaths for reporting purposes

All implantations and viable fetuses were numbered according to their intrauterine position as follows (as an example):


Left Horn Cervix Right Horn

L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 L6 L7 L8 R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8
V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 V7 V8 V9 V10 V11 V12 V13 V14 V15 V16

V = viable fetus
Fetal examinations:
The fetuses were killed by subcutaneous injection of sodium pentobarbitone. Fetuses from each litter were divided into two groups and examined for skeletal alterations and soft tissue alterations. Alternate fetuses were identified using an indelible marker and placed in Bouin’s fixative. Fetuses were subsequently transferred to distilled water and examined for visceral anomalies under a low power binocular microscope and then stored in 10% Buffered Formalin. The remaining fetuses were identified using cardboard tags marked with chinagraph pencil and placed 70% IMS in distilled water. The fetuses were subsequently eviscerated, processed and the skeletons stained with alizarin red S before being transferred to 50% glycerol for examination of skeletal development and anomalies and storage.
Statistics:
The following parameters were analyzed statistically, where appropriate, using the test methods outlined below:

Body weight and body weight change (including adjustment for the contribution of the gravid uterus), food consumption, gravid uterus weight, litter data and fetal litter and placental weights: Bartlett’s test for homogeneity of variance. Where the data were shown to be homogeneous one way analysis of variance and, if significant, Dunnett’s multiple comparison test was employed, where the data were found to non homogeneous Kruskal-Wallis and, if significant, pairwise analysis of control values against treated values using the Mann-Whitney ‘U’ test was employed. Fetal evaluation parameters, including skeletal or visceral findings were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and, if significant, Mann-Whitney ‘U’ test.

Probability values (p) are presented as follows:

p<0.01 **
p<0.05 *
p≥0.05 (not significant)

Results and discussion

Results: maternal animals

General toxicity (maternal animals)

Clinical signs:
no effects observed
Mortality:
no mortality observed
Body weight and weight changes:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
There was no effect of treatment on body weight or body weight gain, including when adjusted for the contribution of the gravid uterus, throughout the treatment period at 15, 50 or 150 mg/kg bw/day.
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
no effects observed
Food efficiency:
no effects observed
Ophthalmological findings:
not examined
Haematological findings:
not examined
Clinical biochemistry findings:
not examined
Urinalysis findings:
not examined
Behaviour (functional findings):
not examined
Immunological findings:
not examined
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
not examined
Gross pathological findings:
no effects observed
Neuropathological findings:
not examined
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
not examined
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
not examined

Maternal developmental toxicity

Number of abortions:
no effects observed
Pre- and post-implantation loss:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
At 150 mg/kg bw/day, mean pre-implantation loss was lower than control with differences attaining statistical significance. As animals were not dosed until implantation had occurred, these differences were incidental and unrelated to treatment.
Total litter losses by resorption:
no effects observed
Early or late resorptions:
no effects observed
Dead fetuses:
no effects observed
Changes in pregnancy duration:
not examined
Description (incidence and severity):
Migrated Data from removed field(s)
Field "Effects on pregnancy duration" (Path: ENDPOINT_STUDY_RECORD.DevelopmentalToxicityTeratogenicity.ResultsAndDiscussion.ResultsMaternalAnimals.MaternalDevelopmentalToxicity.EffectsOnPregnancyDuration): no effects observed
Changes in number of pregnant:
no effects observed
Details on maternal toxic effects:
Maternal toxic effects:no effects

Details on maternal toxic effects:
No effects of any toxicological significance

Effect levels (maternal animals)

open allclose all
Key result
Dose descriptor:
NOEL
Effect level:
150 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect level:
other: maternal toxicity
Key result
Dose descriptor:
NOEL
Effect level:
150 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect level:
other: developmental toxicity

Results (fetuses)

Fetal body weight changes:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
Migrated Data from removed field(s)
Field "Fetal/pup body weight changes" (Path: ENDPOINT_STUDY_RECORD.DevelopmentalToxicityTeratogenicity.ResultsAndDiscussion.ResultsFetuses.FetalPupBodyWeightChanges): not examined
Reduction in number of live offspring:
no effects observed
Changes in sex ratio:
no effects observed
Changes in litter size and weights:
no effects observed
Changes in postnatal survival:
not examined
External malformations:
no effects observed
Skeletal malformations:
no effects observed
Visceral malformations:
no effects observed
Details on embryotoxic / teratogenic effects:
Embryotoxic / teratogenic effects:no effects

Details on embryotoxic / teratogenic effects:
Litter Responses
Litter Data and Litter Placental and Fetal Weights
There was no obvious effect of maternal treatment on the number of implantations, subsequent embryofetal survival and litter size, sex ratio and mean fetal, litter and placental weights on Day 20 of gestation at 15, 50 or 150 mg/kg bw/day.

At 150 mg/kg bw/day, mean pre-implantation loss was lower than control with differences attaining statistical significance. As animals were not dosed until implantation had occurred, these differences were incidental and unrelated to treatment.

At 15 and 50 mg/kg bw/day, higher mean female fetal weight and mean fetal weight attained statistical significance compared to control. In the absence of any similar increase in fetal weight at 150 mg/kg bw/day, this finding was considered to reflect normal biological variation and was unrelated to treatment.

Fetal Examination
Neither the type, incidence or distribution of findings observed externally at necropsy examination and subsequently during detailed visceral and skeletal assessment of the fetuses indicated any effect of treatment on fetal development.

Effect levels (fetuses)

Key result
Dose descriptor:
NOEL
Effect level:
>= 150 mg/kg bw/day
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Remarks on result:
not determinable due to absence of adverse toxic effects

Fetal abnormalities

Key result
Abnormalities:
no effects observed

Overall developmental toxicity

Developmental effects observed:
not specified

Any other information on results incl. tables

Mortality There were no unscheduled deaths during the study. Clinical Observations The low incidence of clinical sign observed during the study did not indicate any effect of treatment at 15, 50 or 150 mg/kg bw/day. Body Weight There was no effect of treatment on body weight or body weight gain, including when adjusted for the contribution of the gravid uterus, throughout the treatment period at 15, 50 or 150 mg/kg bw/day. Food Consumption There was no effect of treatment on food consumption throughout the treatment period at 15, 50 or 150 mg/kg bw/day. Water Consumption Daily visual inspection of water bottles did not reveal any overt intergroup differences. Post Mortem Studies No macroscopic abnormalities were detected for parental females at scheduled termination on Day 20 of gestation. Litter Responses Litter Data and Litter Placental and Fetal Weights There was no obvious effect of maternal treatment on the number of implantations, subsequent embryofetal survival and litter size, sex ratio and mean fetal, litter and placental weights on Day 20 of gestation at 15, 50 or 150 mg/kg bw/day. At 150 mg/kg bw/day, mean pre-implantation loss was lower than control with differences attaining statistical significance. As animals were not dosed until implantation had occurred, these differences were incidental and unrelated to treatment. At 15 and 50 mg/kg bw/day, higher mean female fetal weight and mean fetal weight attained statistical significance compared to control. In the absence of any similar increase in fetal weight at 150 mg/kg bw/day, this finding was considered to reflect normal biological variation and was unrelated to treatment. Fetal Examination Neither the type, incidence or distribution of findings observed externally at necropsy examination and subsequently during detailed visceral and skeletal assessment of the fetuses indicated any effect of treatment on fetal development.

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
The No Observed Effect Level (NOEL) for the pregnant females and the survival, growth and embryofetal development of the offspring was considered to be 150 mg/kg bw/day.
Executive summary:

Introduction

The study was designed to investigate the effects of the test item on embryonic and fetal development following repeated administration by gavage to the pregnant female during gestation including the period of organogenesis.

 

The study was designed to comply with the following guidelines:

 

·        US EPA Health Effects Test Guideline OPPTS 870.3700, ‘Prenatal Developmental Toxicity Study’ (August 1998)

·        Japanese Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Testing guidelines for Toxicology studies, 12 NohSan No 8147, (24 November 2000)

·        OECD Guidelines for Testing of Chemicals, No 414, ‘Prenatal Developmental Toxicity Study’ (adopted 22 January 2001)

·        Commission Regulation (EC) No 440/2008 of 30 May 2008 test methods pursuant to Regulations (EC) No 1907/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council on the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH)

  

Methods….

The test item was administered by gavage to three groups each of twenty-four time mated Sprague-Dawley Crl:CD®(SD) IGS BR strain rats, between Days 5 and 19 of gestation inclusive at dose levels 15, 50, and 150 mg/kg bw/day. A further group of twenty-four time mated females was exposed to the vehicle only (Arachis oil) over the same treatment period to serve as a control.

Clinical signs, body weight change, food and water consumptions were monitored during the study. 

 

All females were terminated on Day 20 of gestation and subjected to gross necropsy including examination of the uterine contents. The number of corpora lutea, number, position and type of implantation, placental weights, fetal weight, sex and external and internal macroscopic appearance were recorded. Half of each litter were examined for detailed skeletal development and the remaining half were subjected to detailed visceral examination.

 

Results….

Adult Responses

Mortality

There were no unscheduled deaths during the study.

 

 Clinical Observations

Clinical sign did not indicate any effect of treatment at 15, 50 or 150 mg/kg bw/day.

  

Body Weight

Body weight and body weight gain, including adjustment for the contribution of the gravid uterus, was unaffected by treatment at 15, 50 or 150 mg/kg bw/day.

 

 Food Consumption

Food consumption was unaffected by treatment at 15, 50 or 150 mg/kg bw/day.

 

 Water Consumption

Daily visual inspection of water bottles did not reveal any overt intergroup differences.

 

 Post Mortem Studies

No macroscopic abnormalities were detected for parental females at 15, 50 or 150 mg/kg bw/day.

 

 Litter Responses

Litter Data and Litter Placental and Fetal Weights

The number of implantations, subsequent embryofetal survival and litter size, sex ratio and mean fetal, litter and placental weights on Day 20 of gestation were unaffected by maternal treatment at 15, 50 or 150 mg/kg bw/day.

 

 Fetal Examination

There was no effect of maternal treatment on morphological development of the fetuses at 15, 50 or 150 mg/kg bw/day.

 

 Conclusion

The No Observed Effect Level (NOEL) for the pregnant females and the survival, growth and embryofetal development of the offspring was considered to be 150 mg/kg bw/day.