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Key value for chemical safety assessment

Genetic toxicity in vitro

Description of key information
The test compound 2- Phenylpropianaldehyde is not mutagenic in vitro and in vivo.
Link to relevant study records
Reference
Endpoint:
in vitro gene mutation study in bacteria
Remarks:
Type of genotoxicity: gene mutation
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: as mentioned below principle
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Toxicity of 2 Phenylpropionaldehyde was study using Salmonella/mammalian microsome test (Ames test).
GLP compliance:
not specified
Type of assay:
bacterial gene mutation assay
Target gene:
No data available
Species / strain / cell type:
other: Salmonella typhimurium TA 1535, TA 100, TA 1537,TA1538 and TA98
Details on mammalian cell type (if applicable):
No data available
Additional strain / cell type characteristics:
not specified
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Metabolic activation system:
Aroclor-pretreated rats
Test concentrations with justification for top dose:
up to 3.6 mg/plate(Five doses were taken)
Vehicle / solvent:
DMSO
Untreated negative controls:
not specified
Negative solvent / vehicle controls:
not specified
True negative controls:
not specified
Positive controls:
yes
Positive control substance:
sodium azide
benzo(a)pyrene
Remarks:
No other data available
Details on test system and experimental conditions:
Details on test system and conditions
METHOD OF APPLICATION: plate incorporation method using Vogel Bonnet Medium
DURATION
- Preincubation period: No data available
- Exposure duration: 48 hrs
- Expression time (cells in growth medium): No data available
- Selection time (if incubation with a selection agent): No data available
- Fixation time (start of exposure up to fixation or harvest of cells): No data available

SELECTION AGENT (mutation assays): No data available
SPINDLE INHIBITOR (cytogenetic assays): No data available
STAIN (for cytogenetic assays): No data available

NUMBER OF REPLICATIONS:
No data available
NUMBER OF CELLS EVALUATED: No data available
DETERMINATION OF CYTOTOXICITY
- Method: mitotic index; cloning efficiency; relative total growth; other: No data available

OTHER EXAMINATIONS:
- Determination of polyploidy: No data available
- Determination of endoreplication: No data available
- Other:

OTHER:
Evaluation criteria:
numbers of revertants/plate were calculated
Species / strain:
other: Salmonella typhimurium TA 1535, TA 100, TA 1537,TA1538 and TA98
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
not specified
Vehicle controls validity:
not specified
Untreated negative controls validity:
not specified
Positive controls validity:
not specified
Remarks on result:
other: all strains/cell types tested
Remarks:
Migrated from field 'Test system'.
Conclusions:
Interpretation of results (migrated information):
other: Negative (with and without)

After experiment, end point for genetic toxicity for 2 Phenylpropionaldehyde(93-53-8) was determined to be negative with and without activation.
Executive summary:

2 Phenylpropionaldehyde artificial flavouring substance in food products was studied for mutagenic properties by the use of the Salmonella/mammalian microsome test (Ames test).

 

The test was performed by plate incorporation method at 5 different dosesupto 3600 µg/plate and the plates were incubated for 48hrs.

 

2 Phenylpropionaldehyde is non mutagenic when Salmonella/microsome AMES test is performed.

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed (negative)

Additional information

Additional information from genetic toxicity in vitro:

Gene mutation in vitro:

Data from peer reviwed publications for the target cas no and its read across and prediction model based estimation for the target compound have been used to determine the mutagenic nature of the test compound. The summaries are as below:

2 Phenylpropionaldehyde (CAS no 93 -53 -8) artificial flavouring substance in food products was studied for mutagenic properties by the use of the Salmonella/ mammalian microsome test (Ames test). The test was performed by plate incorporation method at 5 different doses upto 3600 µg/plate and the plates were incubated for 48hrs. 2 Phenylpropionaldehyde is non mutagenic when Salmonella/microsome AMES test is performed.

The test compound Hydratropaldehyde (93-53-8) is negative for gene mutation in vitro with S9 metabolic activation system using S. typhimurium TA100 (SSS QSAR, 2016).

The test compound Hydratropaldehyde (93-53-8) is negative for gene mutation in vitro without S9 metabolic activation system using S. typhimurium TA102 (SSS QSAR, 2016).

Based on the QSAR prediction done using the Danish (Q)SAR Database, the genetic toxicity was estimated to be negative on S. typhimurium TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98 and TA 100 for hydratropaldehyde (CAS no 93 -53 -8) in an Ames test. Thus it can be concluded that the substance hydratropaldehyde has negative genetic toxicity effects and based on the CLP criteria for classification it can be classified as not genotoxic.

Based on the QSAR prediction done using the Danish (Q)SAR Database, the genetic toxicity was estimated to be negative on Chinese Hamster Lung (CHL) Cells for hydratropaldehyde (CAS no 93 -53 -8) in a chromosome aberration test. Thus it can be concluded that the substance hydratropaldehyde has negative genetic toxicity effects and based on the CLP criteria for classification it can be classified as not genotoxic.

An in vitro mammalian cell gene mutation study (Sustainability Support Services, 2015) was designed and conducted to determine the genotoxicity profile of 1-phenylethanol (RA CAS No. 98-85-1) when administered to Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells.In the genotoxicity test, 1-phenylethanol was administered to CHO cells for 3 hrs at the dose levels of 0.5, 1.0, 2.5 or 5.0 mM and in the absence or presence of exogenous metabolic activation. CHO cells representing the negative controls were exposed to the vehicle. Positive controls, such asN-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) experiments without metabolic activation and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a) anthracene in experiments with metabolic activation, were also included in each test. pH and osmolality was not determined in the gene mutation test. Only the positive control ENU gave a clear indication of gene mutations occurring while no other treatment gave rise to gene toxicity. One very diffuse colony were seen in one well out of four at 5 mM and in the presence with 4% S9 liver microsomal fraction. This diffuse colony is not regarded to be relevant since the single spot was only mildly colored by crystal violet, thus indicating that it was a small cluster of apoptotic cells taking their last breath instead of cells surviving the TG-selection. This is further supported by the overall results of the tested concentrations of 1-phenylethanol, i.e. the test chemical did not show any evidence of diffuse or clear colonies present. When the mutation frequency was determined, a frequency of 4.53 x 10-4was shown after a 3 hour exposure of ENU as the positive control and in the absence of S9 liver microsomal fraction. Since no other tested concentration of 1-phenylethanol and in the absence or presence of S9 liver microsomal fraction resulted in colonies, we conclude that 1-phenylethanol does not give rise to gene mutations when CHO cells are exposedin vitroto the test chemical at 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5 or 5.0 mM for 3 hrs. Based on the results of the current study, we conclude that 1-phenylethanol does not give rise to gene mutations when CHO cells are exposed to the test chemicalin vitroat 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5 or 5.0 mM for 3 hrs, in the presence or abscence of metabolic activation.

Gene mutation in vivo:

In the standard protocol (preincubation) for conducting the Ames assay (Zeiger, 1987; Dieter, 1990), a test tube containing a suspension of one strain of Salmonella typhimurium (or E. coli) plus S9 mix or plain buffer without S9, is incubated for 20 minutes at 37º C with the test chemical (RA CAS no 98 -85 -1). Control cultures, with all the same ingredients except the test chemical, are also incubated. In addition, positive control cultures are prepared; these contain the particular bacterial tester strain under investigation, the various culture ingredients, and a known potent mutagen*. After 20 minutes, agar is added to the cultures and the contents of the tubes are thoroughly mixed and poured onto the surface of Petri dishes containing standard bacterial culture medium. The plates are incubated, and bacterial colonies that do not require an excess of supplemental histidine appear and grow. These colonies are comprised of bacteria that have undergone reverse mutation to restore function of the histidine-manufacturing gene. The number of colonies is usually counted after 2 days. 1-phenylethanol was not mutagenic in S. typhimurium strains TA98, TA100, TA1535, or TA1537 when tested at concentrations up to 6666 µg/plate with a preincubation protocol in the presence or absence of 10% Aroclor 1254-induced male Sprague Dawley rat or Syrian hamster liver S9 mix.

In the SCE test without S9 (Dieter, 1990), CHO cells were incubated for 26 hours with the study chemical in McCoy's 5A medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, L-glutamine (2 mM), and antibiotics. BrdU was added 2 hours after culture initiation. After 26 hours, the medium containing the study chemical (RA CAS no 98 -85 -1) was removed and replaced with fresh medium plus BrdU and colcemid, and incubation was continued for 2 more hours. Cells were then harvested by mitotic shake-off, fixed, and stained with Hoechst 33258 and Giemsa. In the SCE test with S9, cells were incubated with the chemical, serum free medium, and S9 for 2 hours. The medium was then removed and replaced with medium containing BrdU and no study chemical; incubation proceeded for an additional 26 hours, with colcemid present for the final 2 hours. Harvesting and staining were the same as for cells treated without S9. For the SCE test, if significant chemical-induced cell cycle delay was seen, incubation time was lengthened to ensure a sufficient number of scorable cells. In cytogenetic tests with CHO cells, 1-phenylethanol did not induce sister chromatid exchange or cell cycle delay when tested over a concentration range of 33-1000 µg/ml with or without Aroclor 1254-induced male Sprague Dawley rat liver S9.

By using a bacterial testing method (Fluck, 1976), differential growth inhibition of twoE. colicultures (DNA polymerase deficient strain P3478 and parent strain P3110) was utilized as a rapid screening technique for evaluating the mutagenic nature of 1-phenylethanol (RA CAS no 98 -85 -1). During the experiment, 1-phenylethanolwas applied at a dosage of10, 25 or 50 µL/plateto two plates containing the pol A+organism and two plates containing the pol A-organism. The plates were then incubated for 16 hours and the zones of inhibition were measured. As seen by the results,1-phenylethanol did not cause growth inhibition due to DNA damage in either of the two strains ofEscherichia coliwhich were exposed to 50 µL/plate without S9 metabolic activation. Thus, 1-phenylethanol was considered to be negative and is unable to cause genotoxicity in vitro at a dosage of 50 µL/plate.

A reversion mutation assay was performed to evaluate the test chemicalα-Methylbenzyl alcohol (RA CAS no 98 -85 -1) by utilizing the bacteriumEscherichia coliIstrainSd-4-73. The results from the study showed that α-Methylbenzyl alcohol was not mutagenic in the assay for evaluating the reversion from streptomycin dependence to streptomycin independence inEscherichia colistrain Sd-4-73. .

As per the CLP classification, the test material does not classify as a mutagen in vitro.

Gene mutation in vivo:

The Basc test on Drosophila was performed (Wild et al, 1983) to study the gene mutation ability of 2 Phenylpropionaldehyde (CAS no 93 -53 -8). Solutions or emulsions of test substances to be fed to the flies were prepared in 5% saccharose, with the addition of 2% ethanol and 2% Tween 80 for compounds that were poorly soluble in water. The given test material2 Phenylpropionaldehydedoes not induce gene mutation in vivo in Drosophila melanogaster.

The micronucleus test on mouse bone marrow was performed (Wild et al, 1983) to determine the mutagenic nature of the test compound 2 Phenylpropionaldehyde (CAS no 93 -53 -8). The test compound was studied at dose levels of 0, 134, 402 or 670 mg/Kg. The given test material 2 Phenylpropionaldehydefailed to produce genetic effects in themicronucleus test on mouse bone marrow cells and is negative for gene mutation in vivo.


Justification for selection of genetic toxicity endpoint
The end point for genetic toxicity for 2 Phenylpropionaldehyde(93-53-8) was determined to be negative with and without

Justification for classification or non-classification

As per the CLP classification, the test material is not likely to classify as a mutagen in vitro and in vivo.