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Ecotoxicological information

Endpoint summary

Administrative data

Description of key information

Short-term toxicity to fish:

Based on the EPI Suite ECOSAR version 1.10, the 96 hours LC50 was estimated to be 119.856 mg/L on fish for substance with mortality effects. Thus based on this value it can be concluded that the substance cannot be classified as toxic for aquatic environment as per the criteria of CLP regulation.

Toxicity to aquatic invertebrates:

Aim of this study was to assess the short term toxicity of 2 Phenylpropionaldehyde (93 -53 -8) to aquatic invertebrates daphnia magna. Study was performed according to the OECD guideline in a static system for the total exposure period of 48 hrs. The stock solution 100 mg/l was prepared by dissolving colourless liquid in acetone. Test solutions of required concentration as were prepared by mixing the stock solution of the test sample with reconstituted test water. 0, 0, 3.1, 6.2, 12, 25, 50, 100 mg/l nominal concentration were used in the study. Effects on immobilisation were observed for 48 hours. With the test substance one positive control Potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) was also run simultaneously. After the exposure of chemical, effect concentration EC50 was calculated using nonlinear regression by the software Prism 4.0. The median effective concentration (EC50) for the test substance, 2 Phenylpropionaldehyde, in Daphnia magna was determined to be 24.8 mg/L on the basis of mobility inhibition effects in a 48 hour study. Based on the EC50 value, indicates that the substance is likely to be hazardous to aquatic invertebrates and can be classified as aquatic chronic 3 per the CLP criteria. But the chemical 2 Phenylpropionaldehyde was readily biodegrable in water and it degrade faster. Based on that criteria chemical was consider as nontoxic and not classified as per the CLP classification criteria.

Toxicity to aquatic algae and cyanobacteria:

Freshwater algal growth inhibition test was carried out on Desmodesmus subspicatus with the substance 2 Phenylpropionaldehyde (hydratropaldehyde) according to OECD Guideline 201. The stock solution 100 g/l was prepared by dissolving colourless liquid in acetone. Test solutions of required concentration were prepared by mixing the stock solution of the test sample with OECD growth medium and inoculum culture. Effects on the growth rate of the organism were studied by using the 0, 0, 25, 45, 49, 69, 100 mg/l nominal concentrations. The median effective concentration (EC50) for the test substance 2 Phenylpropionaldehyde (hydratropaldehyde), in Desmodesmus subspicatus was determined to be 82 mg/L on the basis of effects on growth rate in a 72 hour study. This value indicates that the substance is likely to be hazardous to aquatic algae and can be classified as aquatic chronic 3 as per the CLP criteria. But by the data available for the biodegradation in water which says that the chemical was readily biodegradable thus chemical consider as nontoxic and can be consider to be not classified as per the CLP classification criteria.

Additional information

Summarized result of toxicity of 2 Phenylpropionaldehyde (93 -53 -8) on the growth and other activity of aquatic invertebrates, algae and cyanobacteria by considering the data for target as well as RA chemical which was selected on the basis of structure similarity are as follows:

 

Short-term toxicity to fish:

Based on the EPI Suite ECOSAR version 1.10, the 96 hours LC50 was estimated to be 119.856 mg/L on fish for substance with mortality effects. Thus based on this value it can be concluded that the substance cannot be classified as toxic for aquatic environment as per the criteria of CLP regulation.

 

Toxicity to aquatic invertebrates:

Various studies for the target 2 Phenylpropionaldehyde along with its predicted data and read across substance were reviewed to summarize the following information:

In the first key study for chemical 2 Phenylpropionaldehyde (93 -53 -8) from ABITEC report study was carried out. Aim of this study was to assess the short term toxicity of 2 Phenylpropionaldehyde (93 -53 -8) to aquatic invertebrates daphnia magna. Study was performed according to the OECD guideline in a static system for the total exposure period of 48 hrs. The stock solution 100 mg/l was prepared by dissolving colourless liquid in acetone. Test solutions of required concentration as were prepared by mixing the stock solution of the test sample with reconstituted test water. 0, 0, 3.1, 6.2, 12, 25, 50, 100 mg/l nominal concentration were used in the study. Effects on immobilisation were observed for 48 hours. With the test substance one positive control Potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) was also run simultaneously. After the exposure of chemical, effect concentration EC50 was calculated using nonlinear regression by the software Prism 4.0. The median effective concentration (EC50) for the test substance, 2 Phenylpropionaldehyde, in Daphnia magna was determined to be 24.8 mg/L on the basis of mobility inhibition effects in a 48 hour study. Based on the EC50 value, indicates that the substance is likely to be hazardous to aquatic invertebrates and can be classified as aquatic chronic 3 per the CLP criteria. But the chemical 2 Phenylpropionaldehyde was readily biodegrable in water and it degrade faster. Based on that criteria chemical was consider as nontoxic and not classified as per the CLP classification criteria.

 

First study was supported by the second study for the read across chemical (98-82-8) from (ECOTOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY, 1988). Acute immobilization test was performed in Daphnia magna according to the OECD guideline 202. Closed bottle of 150 ml was used for the experiment and observed for 24 hrs. So, after experiment it was observed that the IC 50 value for Daphnia magna for Isopropylbenzene (98-82-8) was determined to be 1.4 mg/l concentration based on acute immobilization test. Thus based on this value it can be concluded that the substance can be classified as toxic as per criteria of CLP regulation. But as the chemical is readily biodegradable so the substance will not contribute to the classification.

 

Similarly in the third supporting study for the read across chemical (98-82-8) from Chemosphere 1983, study was carried out. Short term toxicity test was performed in Daphnia magna for 48 hrs. Daphnia of similar size (approximately 1.5 m in length, 4-6 days old) were selected visually from the stock cultures for the bioassays. Mortality was observed as immobility, i.e., lying on the bottom and no visible movement of the antennae, thoracic appendages or postabdomen, after tapping or rotating of the vial. After 48 hrs it was observed that the LD 50 value for Daphnia magna for cumene (98-82-8) was determined as 600.97 mg/l (5mmol/m3. ) According to CLP regulation, based on value and biodegradation result the substance was not classified.

 

Thus based on above all sources toxicity on 2 Phenylpropionaldehyde (93 -53 -8) from ABITEC experimental report and for the read across chemical, it can be concluded that the chemical was consider as nontoxic and not classified as per the CLP classification criteria.

 

 

 

Toxicity to aquatic algae and cyanobacteria:

Based on the various experimental data for the target chemical study have been reviewed to determine the toxic nature of 2 Phenylpropionaldehyde (93 -53 -8) on the growth of algae and cyanobacteria. The studies are as mentioned below: 

In the first experimental study for the target chemical (93 -53 -8) from ABITEC report study was carried out. Freshwater algal growth inhibition test was carried out on Desmodesmus subspicatus with the substance 2 Phenylpropionaldehyde; hydratropaldehyde according to OECD Guideline 201. The stock solution 100 g/l was prepared by dissolving colourless liquid in acetone. Test solutions of required concentration were prepared by mixing the stock solution of the test sample with OECD growth medium and inoculum culture. Effects on the growth rate of the organism were studied by using the 0, 0, 25, 45, 49, 69, 100 mg/l nominal concentrations. The median effective concentration (EC50) for the test substance 2 Phenylpropionaldehyde (hydratropaldehyde), in Desmodesmus subspicatus was determined to be 82 mg/L on the basis of effects on growth rate in a 72 hour study. This value indicates that the substance is likely to be hazardous to aquatic algae and can be classified as aquatic chronic 3 as per the CLP criteria. But by the data available for the biodegradation in water which says that the chemical was readily biodegradable thus chemical consider as nontoxic and can be consider to be not classified as per the CLP classification criteria.

 

In the second experimental supporting study for the RA chemical (98-85-1) UERL report 2014, the effect of test substance 1-phenylethanol, CAS No. 98-85-1 was studied on the growth of fresh water green alga Chlorella vulgaris. The study was conducted following OECD guideline 201- Alga growth inhibition test. The test concentration chosen for the study were 6.25 mg/l, 12.5 mg/l, 25 mg/l, 50 mg/l, 100 mg/l and 200 mg/l were prepared using stock solution of the test substance using de-ionized water. The green alga was exposed to the test concentration for a period of 72 hours to observe average specific growth rate and % growth inhibition under the effect of test substance. EC50 calculated from probit analysis was observed to be > 200 mg/L and EC35 graphically was observed to be 200 mg/L. According to the CLP regulation the substance was not classified.

 

Similarly in the third experimental supporting study for the RA chemical (98-82-8) from peer reviewed journal Ecotoxicology and environmental safety Growth inhibition test was performed in Selenastrum capricornutum and algal growth was evaluated by a coulter counter apparatus. From the experiment it was observed that the EC50 value for Selenastrum capricornutum for Isopropylbenzene (98-82-8) was determined to be 2.6 mg/l concentration by using growth inhibition test. Based on this value the substances was classified in chronic category 2 , since the substance was biodegradable so the chemical was not classified according to the CLP regulations.

 

The above studies was supported by the fourth experimental study for the read across chemical (98-82-8) from peer reviewed journal 1980. Inhibition of 50% photosynthesis was observed for algae Chlamydomonas angulosa. Three-to-four day exponential phase cells were used and14C02uptake was used as an indication of photosynthesis in a standard method. The algal cultures were grown in Bold's Basal medium (BBM) and dilutions were prepared with BBM to provide 0, 20, 50 and 100 percent of the original saturation level of hydrocarbon. The isotope was added at time zero and glass stoppered flasks incubated under the described conditions for three hours. After experiment it was observed that the EC50value was observed for algae Chlamydomonas angulosa for isopropylbenzene (98-82-8) were determined as 73 mmol/m3 (8774.162 mg/l) in 3 hrs. As per CLP regulation the chemical was not classified.

 

Thus based on above all sources toxicity on 2 Phenylpropionaldehyde (93 -53 -8) from ABITEC experimental report and for the read across chemical from UERL and peer reviewed journal, it can be concluded that the chemical was consider as nontoxic and not classified as per the CLP classification criteria.